Port is the chief entry for the any state. Because big figure of stock in trade and stuffs imports and exports activities take topographic point through the ports. World states globally connect with different sorts of activities. Port service is the 1 of chief manner linking with universe. Not even in to twenty-four hours from ancient clip this nexus has started in the universe. Even before the Christian epoch the island has formed critical connexion in the nautical commercialism of the ancient universe. Because of Sri Lanka locate in Indian ocean it occupied a strategic place relation to the grating trade paths that linked land in the West Asia and far East Asia.
Sea-born commercialism in antediluvian and mediaeval times was carried on by mercantile groups who extended their activities over a no of ports along the Countries lying at the sea mobs. Because of Sri Lanka centrally place in the Indian Ocean along maritime merchandise path and its legion bays and anchorages supplying equal installations for ships and the island was a centre of theodolite trade from really early yearss. Its natural merchandises such as Gems, pearls Ivory and spices made the island an of import Centre for the exports. The island was connected by sea path with ports in the southern, western, and north eastern parts of the Indian Sub-continental besides with port of Arab universe every bit good as south East Asian lands and China. The ancient ports like Mantota and kayts were centres for the merchandisers and seamans.
This paper discuss the history of port services and how it develop in Sri Lanka with the strategic place related to the grated trade paths in East to West, what are the port related services provided by the Sri Lankan port services, how port services help to develop economic system of the state and what are the possibilities to better port services to develop the state.
Sri Lanka entered in twentieth centaury with close entire dependance on tea gum elastic and coconut merchandises as it major exports. But this system has changed now. A vigorous export publicity driven by the authorities has resulted in more and more non-traditional exports like jammed tea, spices, sea nutrient, coil-fiber merchandises, fresh fruits, veggies, cut flower, leaf works, treasures, every bit good as furniture, are some of them which international markets universe broad. Sri Lanka already won a name for itself as a major exporter of ready-made garments.
Today Sri Lanka with its far-reaching economic alterations and policies has improved infrastructural installations, revenue enhancement inducement, chances for investing of capital for new industries, and above all the warrant of the safety of capital invested and presents a favourable environment for foreign investing capital. This transmutation of the economic system has resulted of the increased industrial and trading activities in Sri Lanka. So this present trade development has influence the demand of development in the port and transportation sector in the state.
Aim of this service paper is to analyze manner of bettering the port service to make nautical logistics Centre of the Asian regain and increase our net income by supplying first-class service as the major subscribers to the economic system of Sri Lanka.
HISTROY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PORT SERVICE IN SRILANKA
History of the port in Sri Lanka goes to 2000 old ages back to the universe history. The Roman, Chinese Arabs, bargainers used Sri Lankan ports to heighten their trade to a grate extend. That was the chief ground to occupy and govern Sri Lanka buy three swayers of Lusitanian Dutch and British.
Colombo is the most of import port of the island today. Sri Lankan foreign trade and the international sea borne commercialism in the Indian Ocean under went many alterations with the reaching of the Europeans power in the Indian Ocean the Portuguese in the sixteenth centaury and later the Dutch. The Gallic and the British dominated commercial activity in the Indian Ocean.
In order to acquire inordinate control of the export trade in Sri Lanka the Portuguese and the Dutch attempted the invasion of the Island. In 1815th the British were succeeded to derive laterality over the whole state. Under their regulation plantation agribusiness was given precedence as a consequence of which tea, gum elastic and coconut become the chief export of the island. Sri Lanka became the dependence of the West and turned out to be a market for western merchandises. Since so even after independency same system was continue by doing Colombo metropolis as the capital. The ports soon exist in Sri Lanka are ;
The Colombo port.
The Gall port.
The point Pedro port.
The port of port.
The Trincomalee port.
The Kankasanturai port.
The Oluvil port.
HISROTY OF PORTS
The port of Colombo.
Colombo derived its classical name from the beginning “ KolonThota ” port on the river Kalani. Colombo port became one of the chief port in government due to strategic location on the East-West sea trade routers. So Colombo became chief metropolis of state due to the place of being Sri Lanka ‘s ancient port metropolis. With such an sole potion Colombo witnessed the regulation of three regulations – Lusitanian Dutch and British. The first encroachers of the port metropolis were the Lusitanian They set their pess on the dirt of Sri Lanka in 1505 and take this state chiefly for the benefit of their spice trade. The Dutch were the following reachings in 1658 harmonizing to the history of Colombo and served as the capital of the marry clip states put under the rigorous control of Dutch East India company. The stayed boulder clay 1796. The British were the last to occupy the port metropolis in 1796. However, the port metropolis gained the provinces of being the capital in 1815 after become full state under British. However Colombo witnesses much of its development after all the three conquerings have their part to developed today modern port and Colombo metropolis. The influence is seeable in the life manner, manner, architecture, nutrient wonts even in the names and rubric used.
The Gall seaport.
The port of Gall is a natural seaport situated South West of Sri Lanka. It had been a outstanding sea port since 1411 in pre-Christian clip among Iranian, Arabs, Roman, Malays, Indians and Chinese. The modern history of saddle sore stated with the by force entrance of Lusitanian Lourence de Almeda due to ramp during 1505. Then Dutch acquire the regulation in 1640 and construct the present port in 1663 and was the most of import port in the state. In 1796 British took over the state from the Dutch and retain distinction until construct the unreal seaport in Colombo. Due to submerse stones and reefs port was non developed as international seaport.
The point Pedro Harbor.
Point Pedro is the north most town of island of Sri Lanka.
The name of the town in Tamil is ‘Paruthithurai ‘ and has been translates to ‘Cotton Harbor ‘ the beginnings of this name came because of ancient pattern of exporting cotton to assorted South Indian metropoliss. The Western name, point Pedro, was given by Dutch during the colonial epoch. A Dutch crewman, Pedro When going along the cost of the state found this metropolis to be the Northern-most point and gave the name point Pedro. During pre-colonial and even the colonial times, point Pedro was a chief hub port of export import activities. Major English development came here with set uping missional schools like Hartley Collage and Methodist Girls High School by the Wesleyan missionaries. During the Dutch Portuguese and British regulation this countries subjected to societal modifiers. It has a little seaport which is presently controlled by the Sri Lankan ground forces.
The port of Hambantota.
During Kingdom of Ruhuna it received many travellers and bargainers from the Far East, Siam, China, and Indonesian and sought anchorage in the seaport of Godawaya. The ships or big boats bargainers traveled in were called “ Sampans ” and their anchorage came to be known as “ Sampanthota ” After some clip the country become to be called “ Hambanthota ” Around the old ages of 1801 and 1803, the British built a Martello tower on the tip of the bouldery promontory alongside the beacon over looking the sea At Hambanthota. The builder was a Captain Groper.
c. The Trincomalee seaport.
Trincomalee port is situated on Eastern Province, Sri Lanka and prevarications and the east seashore of the island about 113 stat mis south of Jaffna metropolis. It is built on a peninsula which divides the inner and outer seaport. It is referred to as Gokanna in Pali or Sanskrit. The name Thikunamalai from enchantress its anglicized name is derived and it has been a sea port that has played a major function in the maritime and international trading history of Sri Lanka. The bay of Trincomalee ‘s seaport is distinguished for its natural big size and security. Unlike every other seaport in the Indian Ocean it is accessible to all types of ships in all conditionss. It is now place to Sri Lankan naval bases and a Sri Lankan Air force base. It is a natural deep- H2O seaport that has attracted sea farers and sea bargainers from China and West Asia since antediluvian times.
The Kankasanturai port.
Jambocolapattana which can be identified by with the modern Kankasanturai was non a chief maritime port but largely used as a landing port.
The hereafter development undertakings of port service.
a. The development of new port at Hambantota
The port of Hambantota is planned as a Service and Industrial port ab initio, and later developed as a container transshipment port. So it will be an of import for major economic development for the country. Since port country possesses extended land for enlargement and port – related activities and the natural deepness along the coastline in Hambantota is ideally suited for a big ships reaching to port. The undertaking is planed to finish by April 2011.
B. Development of Galle port.
The development of Gall port as pleasance Yachts Ports is one of the hereafter program. Because it is a heritage port consist with corral reef with attractive coastal belt. It is a wide walk for development of touristry.
c. Development of Oluvil port.
The undertaking consists of building of two rubble hill groins as the Northern groin of length 475m and the south groin of length 740m, which enclose entire H2O country around 16ha. Around 10ha of the H2O country would be used for commercial seaport activities and balance would be used for fisheries activities. The basin of commercial seaport would be dredged to-8m to provide 5000DWT vass. The entire estimation cost is euro 32 million.
d. Development of Trincomalee port.
Trincomalee seaport is 2nd largest natural seaport in the universe and the available H2O and land country is approximately 10 times every bit much as the port of Colombo. Trincomalee was ab initio identified for development as a commercial deep-water port, but advancement With the Colombo port enlargement and the new Hambantota port has fulfilled the demand to Sri Lanka ‘s port-related installations for the foreseeable hereafter that program has changed. SLPA has now changed their scheme to develop Trincomalee as an Eco-port by sing turning heavy industry may endanger to environmental of the Trincomalee ‘s alone Marine ecology.
Development of Colombo south seaport.
The Colombo south seaport is developing by building interruption H2O 5140 m long, three container terminus long 1200m with 3 position, depth 18 m. The entire cost estimated is US $ 330 million.
f. Jct extension undertaking
With the execution of this undertaking it is possible to berth two 8000 TUE container ships at the same time at JCT lll & A ; lV. The basin behind the extension is to be reclaimed and developed as a container pace to heighten the container storage capacity. This undertaking was implemented with SLPA support
Future end of SLPA
To Consolidate the place of the Colombo Port as an International hub port for container operations and as a logistics centre in the South Asiatic part.
To develop a competitory selling scheme in order to set up the port of Colombo as an International hub-port.
To develop the port of Galle as a regional port every bit good as an alternate commercial lading managing port to the port of Colombo.
To develop Trincomalee port as an ecologically sensitive, leisure and light commercial port.
To develop the port in Kankasanturai, Oluvil and point-pedro as regional commercial ports.
To construct and set up the Hambantota port ab initio as a service supplying industrial port, and in the long term develop it to be a commercial port.
To keep a high degree of productiveness and service excellence by heightening cognition, accomplishments and creativeness and instilling positive attitudes to all port employees, through systematic Human Resource Development coders.
To develop a strategic development program for all sea port of Sri Lanka.
The service provide from the slpa and its part to sri lankan economic system
The SLPA is one of the major subscribers to the economic system of state as a chief income earning and service supplying organisation. Following installations are supplying by SLPA.
Provision of efficient and regular services for stevedoring, transportation and transshipping, set downing and werehousng, quayage, the supply of H2O fuel and electricity to vass, for managing crude oil, crude oil roducts and lubricating oils to and from vass and between sand traps and terminals, for navigation and moorage of vass, for plunging and submerged ship fixs and any other services incidenta thereto ;
Conducting the concern of the port Authotity in such mode and to do in conformity with this Act Such charges for services rendered by the Authority that will procure its gross is sufficint for run intoing the charges which are poper to be Made to the gross of the Authority, to replace assets, make new investing and to set up and keep an equal general modesty ; and
Endeavur to pull off the specified ports and each of them as self-supporting enterises in conformity with the commissariats of the Act
Provision of efficient and regular run and protective services ;
Regulation and contrl of pilotage within the bounds of and the attacks to the ports ;
Care of point installatins and publicity of the usage, betterment and development of the specified ports ;
Co-ordinatin and regular ion of all activies within any specified port excuding the map of the Customs Devpartment ;
Establshment and care on and off the cost of Sri Lanka of such visible radiations and other agencies for the counsel and protection of vesels as are necessary for pilotage in and out of the specified ports ;
Performing such other responsibilities as are imposed on the ports Authority by the Act ;
Hambantota is planned to set about ab initio general lading such as cement, steel, fertiliser, lumber, bunkering services, port related industries, coal, RO-RO installations, away shore services such as ship Channeling, supply of H2O & A ; fuel, crew alterations, ship edifice and ship fix installations etc.
Contract for the building of stage 1 was awarded to a Chinese Joint venture Construction company at the entire cost of US $ 360m and the port will be operational in twelvemonth 2010
The demand of developing larboard service in Sri Lanka has become indispensable because import, export trade activities are increasing quickly.
Tea gum elastic and coconut and other non traditional exports have become addition. How of all time due to many ground income of chief exports of tea gum elastic and coconut and its per centum to economic system decreased. But Sri Lanka has already become the major exporter of ready made garments.
Today Sri Lanka with it present economic aspiration changed their policies and advance the private sectors to put on improve substructure installations, cut down revenue enhancement inducement and safety for the capital investings make favourable environment for the foreign investings.
This transmutation of economic system towards industrials and trading activities has influenced to the development of port and its services in the state. The authorities has identified this demand of developing strategic of import selected ports of Sri Lanka. Developing Hambantota port is the 1 of of import port located in 10 stat mis off from the universe busiest trading transporting lane. Colombo and hambantota ports development undertakings are now go oning. Colombo South habour undertaking increasing their capacities up to depth 18 metres and countries up to 57 hectares per terminus, new three terminuss, and chief H2O brake 5140mtrs long.
Gall port and Trincomalee port proposed to develop as touristry ports. With the enlargement of Colombo port as a commercial hub port of Sri Lanka new Hambantota port fulfill the demands of port-related installations for the hereafter. so Trincomalee is the 2nd largest natural seaport in the universe and planed to develop as an Eco- port aiming touristry. Same clip Gall port program to develop as turism boats set downing haboure.
Sri Lanka port service are use chiefly for the international trade. But the present state of affairs of Sri Lanka port service can be efficaciously usage for the internal trades.
Suggestion for the future enlargement and efficient service of port
Port services are really of import for the state because every state depend on international trade. SriLankan busness related import and exports activities are bettering twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours with the developing undertaking working in state. Sri Lanka as an island have to better installations of ports ant related activities for our trade every bit good as promoting other states to utilize our installations.
2. Developing of Colombo port and its installations are really import because the of the installations available are non carry through the demand of present twenty-four hours. It has to be improves yard capacity every bit good as the length of terminuss.
The demand of addition the deepness of the port is necessities. Because soon ship builders constructing ace panamax ship which can bearer over 10 000 containers. Super panemax ship canot range to the Colombo port due to depth of seaport and can non lade or take containers due to length of terminuss.
4. Sri Lanka Port Authority has more than 100 old ages history. so the bing system are non suited for the present developing universe. It has to be increase the engineering usage for the exportation and the importation procedure. For that following can b vitamin E recommended:
Improvement of new information engineering usage for the services and sweetening of efficiency and productiveness of services.
Enhance the efficiency of work by presenting new technological equipment for the efficient work.
Supplying preparation and educational falsenesss for SLPA personals, all classs of port users, outside personal.
Keeping of information centres uniting all ports as net work.
5. Trincomalee port has historical value and its natural environment much suited for promote touristry. If it is developed as eco port it will more benefited for developing truism. Eco-tourism can be introduce, with the installations of H2O athleticss, educational installations and residential and leisure clip services, which will transport more development while protecting the trincomalee natural value for future coevalss.
6. Sri Lanka to be a nautical hub in the part Identified tactical of import seaports have to be developed with all installations related to port services.relatcd to port service.
7. Gall port has to be developed with the purpose of promote touristry. The ancient port, beautiful beach side, clime with other touristry related installations can be used for better the touristry and it will assist for the development and economic supporter for the Gall country.
8. The development of port emerge chances for other concerns such as conveyance installations, Hotels installations, Shops and indirect and direct occupation chances greatly help for societal and economical development.
7. Sethusamudram transporting canal undertaking will cut down the distance of sea path by 350 n stat mis. If it is completed increase the productiveness of the point Pedro seaport. positively Enlargement of the seaport will convey benefits to Sri Lankan the strategic advantages derive from obtaining a navigable sea path near to the seashore, with a decrease in travel distance of more than ( 350 n stat mi ) , for big ship. The undertaking is expected to supply a encouragement to the economic and industrial development of coastal Tamilnadu. The undertaking will be of