of cd toxicity are It brings about the denaturation of proteins, inhibits
bacterial respiration and proton–solute cotransport, and causes single-stranded
breaks in cellular DNA (Cunningham and Lundie 1993; Jungmann et
al. 1993; Mitra and Bernstein 1978)


Because of the bioaccumulation of
Cd and its long-term toxicity in humans, the study of Cd sequestration by
microorganisms to clean Cd-contaminated environments becomes important.

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Cadmium has different
uses in various industries and in different form including vapour lamps, during
electroplating, storage batteries and in some solders. Overexposure may cause
different effect on health of the individual who come in contact with this
which includes headache, vomiting, fatigue, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and fever.
It can also cause pulmonary edema and dyspnea.(ATSDR).It may cause teeth  yellowing ,unusual rapid heartbeat, iron
deficiency in RBC.


From where does Cd come?

is usually present in ores of zinc and greenockite cadmium mineral (less
percentage). Cadmium is present in effluent produced from textile industries
where it is used due to its ability to produce orange, yellow and red colour.
Cadmium is also present in discard of nuclear reactors where it acts as a
neutron absorber.

How Cd affects mankind

Workers have exposure during
refining of metals, smelting batteries manufacturing, plastics coatings, and
solar panels. The expanding Ni-Cd battery recycling industry is a concern for
cadmium exposure. Electroplating, metal machining, welding and painting are
operations associated with cadmium exposure. Workers involved in landfill
operations, the recycling of electronic parts, or the recycling of plastics may
be exposed to cadmium. Compost workers and waste collectors are also
potentially exposed to dust which may contain cadmium. The incineration of
municipal waste is another source of cadmium exposure.

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