Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. What is the difference between primary and secondary deviation? * Primary is enactment of deviant behavior itself and secondary is deviance that results from previous deviations. What is Drift? * State of limbo between convention and crime. What is naturalization? * Words or phrases that excuse or Justify law-breaking behavior. Know the techniques of naturalization? * Denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemnation of the condemners, appeal of higher loyalties.
How could crime and deviance be considered “functional” for society? * It clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms, it encourages social unity, and it promotes social change. What is anomie? * the breakdown of social order as a result of the loss of standards and values, enormousness How does Marten’s anomie/strain theory explain crime? * Argues that integrated societies maintain a balance between social structure (approved social meaner) and culture (approved goals). Argues that all members of society subscribe to one set of cultural values?that of the middle class.
Know the five different adaptations to strain that Morton describes. Conformity, innovation, ritualism, rebellion, and retreating. What are the three types of strain that Agene describes? * Strain caused by failure to achieve positively valued goals. Stress caused by the removal of positively-valued stimuli from the individual. Strain caused by the presentation of negatively-valued stimuli. How does strain lead to crime? * Strain leads to negative affective state which causes people to cope with their negative state with either criminal or non-criminal coping strategies. How does the conflict perspective explain crime? Enforcement does not serve everyone, but the interests of the powerful Know the evidence regarding powder and crack cocaine sentencing given in class. * To trigger 5 year mandatory minimum sentence. 5 grams of crack cocaine. 500 grams of powder cocaine. Crack is more likely to be used by people in lower SEES groups. Powder cocaine is more likely to be used by people in high SEES groups Also… Although crack users in America were made up of 52% whites and 38% blacks. African Americans accounted for 88% of those sentenced for crack cocaine offenses, while whites accounted for Just 4. %. What is social control? * A group’s formal and informal meaner of enforcing its norms often enforced through sanctions. What is a sanction? Reactions to behavior. What is the difference a positive sanction and a negative sanction? * Positive: reward or positive reaction. Negative: expression tot disapproval What is the difference between informal sanctions and a formal sanction? * Informal: reactions of society not proscribed by law or imposed by a state organization. Formal: reactions that are proscribed by law or imposed by a state or organization.
What has been the general trend in incarceration rates in the U. S. Over the past forty years? * decrease Where does the U. S. Rank among other countries in terms of incarceration rates? * 7 How many people are in prison in the U. S.? * 2. 3 Million What is the incarceration rate in the U. S.? What is the difference between black and white incarceration rates? * Is six times higher in African Americans What is a social class? * A large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige. What is meant by the term social stratification? A system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. What are the three major dimensions of class? What is wealth? * The total value of everything someone owns, minus the debts. What is power? * The ability to get your way, even over the resistance of others. What is prestige? Respect or regard. What is status inconsistency? * Ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class What are the three classes in Mar’s model of social class? * Capitalists or bourgeoisie: those who own the meaner of production. Workers or proletariat: those who sell their labor to the bourn.
Inconsequential other or elementariness: those who don’t participate in the labor market How did Erik Olin Wright update Mar’s model? * Capitalist, petty bourgeoisie, and workers What does it mean to have a contradictory class location? * A person in the class structure that generates contradictory interest. What is social mobility? * The extent to which people move up and down the social ladder. What are the three types of social mobility? * Intergenerational, structural, and exchange. How does the U. S. Compare with other industrialized nations with regard to mobility? * The U.
S. Has low intergenerational mobility. What is poverty? * The state of being extremely poor. How is the poverty threshold determined in the U. S.? * By a poverty line that is calculated to include incomes that is less than three times a low-cost food budget. What are some problems with how the poverty line is drawn? Only focus on the money that is spent on food. Single mothers have to pay for day-care. For which groups are poverty rates the highest? * South/rural areas/ethnic minorities. In what region of the U. S. Are they the highest? * New York What is the “finalization of poverty’? Families headed by both a mother and father are the least likely to be poor, and families headed by only a mother are the most likely to be poor. What is the “culture of poverty’ hypothesis? * The assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people that these factors are largely responsible or their poverty, and that parent’s perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children. About what percentage of people who are poor are below the poverty threshold for one year or less? 60% What is “deferred gratification”? * Doing without something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future. What is the Horopito Myth? * The belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough. What are some problems with it? * It places blame for failure squarely on the individual. What is gender stratification? Males and females unequal access to property, power, and prestige. Differences between sex and gender? * Sex= biological characteristics that distinguish females and males.
Gender= whatever behaviors and attitude a group considers proper for its males and females. What is patriarchy? * Idea that men and masculinity are valued above women and femininity. What is feminism? * The view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted. What are the basic characteristics of three waves of feminism? * First wave= Two Branches: Radical branch wanted to reform all social institution. Conservative branch concentrated only on winning the vote for women. After 1920 and the achievement of suffrage for women, the movement dissolved.
Second wave= as (more) women pursued higher education and (more) women began working outside the home. Focused on wages and working conditions. As awareness of gender inequalities grew, protest and struggle emerged. Goals were wide-ranging. From changing work roles to changing policies on violence against women. Third wave=Emerging wave of feminism, Greater focus on women in the Least Industrialized Nations. Criticism of the values that dominate work and society. Removal of barriers to women’s love, sexual pleasure, and reproductive rights. What is some evidence that show educational gains among women? More females than males are enrolled in colleges. Females earn 56% of all bachelor’s degrees. Women complete bachelor’s degrees faster than men and the proportion of professional degrees earned by women has decreased. What percent of the U. S. College students are women? What is gender tracking? * Males and females are channeled into different fields. Which fields of study have the lowest percentages of men? * Psychology U. S. Women who work full-time average only _% of what men are paid. 68% What is the child penalty? * Women missing out on work experience and opportunities why they care for children.
Of the top 500 corporations, only_ are headed by women. What is the glass ceiling? * The mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work. What are explanations for the glass ceiling? * Women lack mentors and women are not in positions such as marketing, sales and production. What is the glass escalator? * They move up more quickly than female workers. What is sexual harassment? * The abuse of ones position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone. What are the two types of sexual harassment discussed in the lecture? What evidence was given as to why race is a myth? * Human genome project argues that there is no race gene or DNA test that can predict your race. What does it mean to say that race is a social construction? * We have created the social reality of race, even though it doesn’t exist biologically; it is a social phenomenon that has real consequences. How does race differ from ethnicity? * Race= a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group. Ethnicity’= having distinctive cultural characteristics.
What’s the difference between prejudice and discrimination? * Prejudice= an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way. Discrimination= an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group. What is racism? * Prejudice and discrimination on the basis of race. What the differences between individual and institutional discrimination? * Individual= the negative treatment of one person by another. Institutional= negative treatment off minority group that is built into a society’s institution. Bonus Distinguish between groups, societies, aggregates, and categories. Give examples of ACH. Groups- People who interact with one another and who think of themselves as belonging together. Society- People who share a culture and a territory. Aggregate- Consist of individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together. Ex. On an airplane Category- people who have similar characteristics. Ex. Same hair color According to Simmer, as group size increases, group stability Increases, but intimacy of interactions is Less. What is a variable? * A factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary from one ease to another. Owe en deterrence between independent and dependent variables Independent – A factor that causes a change in another variable. Dependent- A factor that is changed by an independent variable. What is a hypothesis? * A statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another What is a social group? * Collections of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics Distinguish between social class, social status, social category, and social role. Give examples. * Social class is large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at Jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige.
Social status is the position a person occupies in a social group. What is a social institution? Know some examples of social institutions. * The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs. Ex. Mass Media, family, military, education, law, & economy Know the Thomas theorem (word for word) and what it meaner. * “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. ” Our behavior depends on our subjective interpretation of the world, not the objective reality of the world.