English lessons consist of four parts. Grammar, listening, speaking and writing are related and help each other. The teacher can teach with more activities. Teacher gives a goal for students.
These are very important. Grammar is one of the important parts but the teacher shouldn’t give a rule. Students should find a rule in his/her own way. The teacher should be careful while s/he is teaching abstract issue.
THE ARTICLE ABOUT MEANINGFUL CONTEXTThe teacher should give the issue in the context. The part of meaningfulness and remember of oral materials are a central issue. (Asual,1963; Johson,1975; Underwood,1960). A learning context is the group of cases that are engaged when someone needs to learn something.( António Dias de Figueiredo,2005). Even if most people wanted to be professionals, they started out as tyro who learned a craft in the context of their masterpiece. ( António Dias de Figueiredo,2005) Thus, learning as occur in context. (António Dias de Figueiredo,2005) This mechanistic vision of education say knowledge, not as something that could be built by learners, themselves, in appropriate contexts, but “content” or subject “matter” some sort of material fluid that could be “transferred” from the minds of the teachers into the minds of the learners.
( António Dias de Figueiredo,2005). One of the significant parts in the future of the educational system is to be found on context, that is to say, on doing study occur with more activity, rich interaction, and culturally rich social surroundings that never existed and that the effective use of technology is making likely, and where exactly varied paradigms apply.( Figueiredo& Afonso, 2005b) As learning context, learning design and management are very important. (António Dias de Figueiredo,2005) In the point of view of ActorNetwork Theory, the design of a learning setting is a transition period. (Monterio, 2000).
The designers start by turning the learning aims into a number of necessity. (António Dias de Figueiredo,2005) The designers carry out the inscription into the learning context of a steam of action that is supposed to be fulfilled by the actors( learners, teachers, protocols, contents). (António Dias de Figueiredo,2005). As Callon proposes such as the four phases of a transformation process; problematization, interessement, enrolment, and mobilization.(António Dias de Figueiredo,2005) Other specific qualities, those that affect student learning. For instance, remedial or horrors classes are very important for student .( David W. Denton,2013) The student population is very different.
These students’ social-economic conditions and backgrounds and ethnicities different from each other. (David W. Denton,2013) The teacher should teach their different social and economic background. ( David W. Denton,2013) A teacher uses this information to catch up the way that teacher plan lessons.
( David W. Denton,2013) Also, the teacher should know students’ level and grade. ( David W. Denton,2013) The teacher should know some particular students in the class, their backgrounds, and particular needs. (David W. Denton,2013) Finally, the teacher should take into account all of these. THE ARTICLE ABOUT GRAMMAR TEACH?NG Grammar teaching is an important part of language teaching.
(Wang,2010) Grammar, as a set of rules for choosing words and putting words together to make sense, plays a significant role in language teaching. (Wang,2010) Without grammar, language does not come into existence. Students do not speak English well without learning English grammar.
(Wang,2010) Grammar often misunderstood in the language teaching. (Zhang,2009) The misunderstanding that grammar is arrangement of arbitrary rules about constant structures in the language. (Zhang,2009) If teacher teaches the structures, the lessons will be boring. (Zhang,2009).
During language teaching is basically the history of the claims and counterclaims for and against the teaching of grammar.(Zhang,2009) In the language acquisition, grammar is not basis and the equilibrium of linguistic research openly disables any view to the contrary. (Zhang,2009) Grammar is essential in the language teaching.
( Zhang, 2009) Grammar rules as the molds of part of machine, without them, workmen can only look on the iron-water. (Zhang, 2009) English language learners who have been lacking in grammar rules instruction can neither use English language accurately to make a complete sentence, nor speak English language fluently on accuracy. (Zhang,2009) Grammar teaching as main and compulsory to root in teachers’ interest in grammar.(Wang,2010) Grammar teaching is same “language paradigm” and “fishing” which are essential and indispensable to be taught to gain the ability of language in teachers’ language teaching.In view of acquisitions of grammar come to the teachers’ beliefs on grammar teaching, some of them go for teaching grammar though present, practice and produce and another thing go for teaching it to hint through meaningful communicative activities.( Alghanming&Shunkri,2016) Although some teachers believe that validity of grammar teaching, they persist on using explicit grammar structure while teaching. ( Alghanming&Shunkri,2016) Grammar is not obtained naturally, but learning, it needs to be informed.
(Zhang,2009) It also in the sentences, such things as number and person agreement between subject and verb is very important and it is sub-topic. (Zhang,2009) For grammar rules, every student learns differently and any student can have a more analytical learning style than others, but ?f one tries to using the English language certainly and fluently, people will need grammar rules. (Zhang,2009) As Morelli (203:33-34) has highlighted, teachers should teach as students’ need for different materials, methodologies and approaches and teacher should make decisions about how to teach grammar. (Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam, 2011) EFL teachers would do well to understand and address their learners’ concerns in planning their lessons and classroom activities and use supplementary materials, if necessary, to help learners cope with the difficulties.
(Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam, 2011) THE ARTICLE ABOUT SPEAKING ACTIVITIES Speaking is a vital part of the language learning. The important aim of teaching speaking skill is communicative. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Vocabulary and grammar can use more important than the skills gain. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) For students improve communicatively, teachers can use activities that combine language input and communicative output. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) One of the major anxiety of most of the language learners in context is how to develop their speaking skills. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Language learner’s teachers always say that students do not talk. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) One way, teachers find the root of the problem and should break barriers.
(Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) The teacher can make a poster and by decorated in walls. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Teacher use target language when he asks for student and encourages students for speaking. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Giving positive feedback and this encourages students who are shy. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) However, students stay silent due to different reasons. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Speaking activity may be boring or difficult for students. In this case, a teacher can find interesting communicative skills and teacher ask students simple yes or no question students encourage.( Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) To help students improve communicative in speaking, teacher or trainer can use activities approach bond language input and communicative output. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Language input comes reading, listening, from teacher talks and the language outside of the class.
(Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Teacher gives materials and student producing language themselves.( Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) On the other hand, an input is very important ways of using the language. The teacher leading to vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar (linguistic competence), suitable vocabularies or structures to say in specific contexts (discourse competence), social part of language use (sociolinguistic competence), the clear instruction to use for clarification and fix miscommunication(strategic competence). (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) In a communicative output, the teacher gives main purpose to students for different tasks. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011) Also, the teacher wants to use what you know. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011)Some communication conditions are related to with a foreseeable set of spoken a script.
(Bashir& Ashiq,2011) The teacher can benefit from cultural or social norms that students familiar with it. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011) the can help students improve speaking ability with different situations the or students predict what they will hear and say something. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011) Students can be different from each other. Teachers are careful in the pair speaking activity because some of the students are shy or some of the students are very outgoing.
So, students can feel bad or disappointed. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011) So, the teacher gives simple and basic instructions and students go on a like this. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011) Teachers are using an interactive technique for teaching-learning like students.
(Bashir& Ashiq,2011) Teachers can use mother language while giving instructions and teachers can help materials for more good teaching. Even, teachers should do. (Bashir& Ashiq,2011) Students have vocabulary and grammar structure but they don’t produce. The teacher should transformation produce from knowledge. It is very important and the main assignment for teachers. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) Teachers try to speak all of the class. But, it is difficult for large classes.
(Bahrani & Soltani, 2012) This problem is not new, and do not solve the problem yet. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2012)