For many old ages now. linguists and research workers have examined the impact of English linguistic communication proficiency on assorted Fieldss like academic success and employability. While early researches suggested that English proficiency does non order high academic evaluation and employment aptitude. groundss are now demoing that proficiency of the English linguistic communication is a up-to-date plus in countries of academic success and employment in a highly-competitive and demanding industries in Medicine and Fitness. Information Technology. and the Business Process Outsourcing. In the Philippines. for illustration. where there is an increasing demand of call centre workers twelvemonth after twelvemonth. eloquence of the English linguistic communication should be a uppermost precedence among schools. It is on this land that the issue of how English linguistic communication proficiency relates to academic accomplishment and employability is clearly relevant to the educational development of bilingual and trilingual pupils.
This issue has been a widely debated subjects non merely in the Philippines. but besides around some parts of the United States and Europe. Underliing these issues. the inquiry of what English proficiency agencies and how it relates to academic accomplishment and employability should be addressed. Central to the apprehension of English linguistic communication proficiency is J. Cummins’s Theory of Language Proficiency. To be proficient in a 2nd linguistic communication ( English. for Filipinos ) . both basic interpersonal communicating accomplishments ( BICS ) and cognitive academic linguistic communication proficiency ( CALP ) need to be developed. The latter is the footing for students’ academic success but may take from 5-7 old ages or longer to get the hang. The former. in contrast. is normally attained within the first two old ages of exposure to the 2nd linguistic communication and is characterized by superficial unwritten linguistic communication accomplishments.
Language proficiency. moreover. develops along these two continuums: from context-embedded to context-reduced communicating. and from cognitively less-demanding to cognitively-demanding undertakings. Then how do we mensurate English linguistic communication proficiency? Canale provided a set of standards he termed communicative competency to measure proficiency in the linguistic communication as follows: grammatical competency which encompasses cognition in lexical points and regulations of morphology. sentence structure. sentence. grammar. semantics. and phonemics ; discourse competency which is the ability to link sentences in stretches of discourse and organize a meaningful whole out of a series of vocalizations ; sociolinguistic competency which involves cognition of socio-cultural regulations of linguistic communication ; and strategic competency which is the verbal and gestural communicating schemes that may be called into action to counterbalance for dislocations in communicating due to public presentation variables or due to deficient competency.
Summarizing it up. English linguistic communication proficiency is competency in basic mechanics. use and ability to utilize words. phrases. and sentences. differentiation of appropriate map of the linguistic communication. and compensation or redress for a deficiency in some linguistic communication countries. These have been the footing for myriad of researches on the relationship of English linguistic communication proficiency to academic accomplishment and employability. At present. researches have turned their attending to the wide cognitive development of linguistic communication among pupils. These researches have found an increasing grounds for positive relation between English linguistic communication proficiency and concluding abilities including “nonverbal problem-solving accomplishments. divergent believing accomplishments. and field dependence” . Research has besides indicated that additive-bilingual pupils who have high proficiency in English outperform their monolingual opposite numbers who have low proficiency in English on undertakings necessitating high degrees of cognitive control.
The positive relation between proficiency in English among pupils and exceeding gestural ability in with-in group analyses has besides been observed. Consequences of these surveies revealed that pupils who are adept in English are superior to their opposite numbers in the country of “general knowledge development” . “academic achievement” . “and “linguistic competence” . The series of surveies by J. Cummins in 1979. 1981. 1989. and 1992. severally. hold shown that proficiency in the acquired linguistic communication must be obtained in order for the students’ cognitive abilities to be decently incited. In short. academic accomplishment is merely attained through literacy and proficiency of English. Additionally. the more adept one is in English. the quicker one is to accumulate cognition. For a pupil to be academically competent in countries like Mathematics. Science. Humanities. Arts. and even Character Education. concentrate on “linguistic constructions. maps. and mechanics”14. should be considered foremost.
Therefore. culturally diverse pupils must do the passage from utilizing merely concrete linguistic communication manner to a more contextualized linguistic communication. Systematically selecting linguistic communication activities along the oral-proficiency continuum and easing the development of the students’ narrative abilities prove to be effectual in advancing academic accomplishment every bit good. Furthermore. Wallach and Miller noted that “the displacement from utterance-based communicating to text-based communicating means that pupils engage in the use of linguistic communication subjects. signifiers. and functions” . which is really important in achieving academic success. Harmonizing to the researches of Wallach and Butler. and of Simon. there is an bing relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic accomplishment. and going academically good involves proficiency in English. Thomas and Collier suggested that sustained direction in English enhances students’ academic success in ulterior old ages. as shown in their research survey on high school pupils.
And with the dining call centre industry in the Philippines. the demand for English eloquence and academic command should be addressed through effectual academic instructions in schools. Every one-fourth. the industry opens more than 1000 seats to college and high school alumnuss likewise. provided that they have the acceptable and standard linguistic communication competency to present their extremely demanding maps in a extremely competitory environment. The quality of our alumnuss in footings of academic and English competency is determined by the passing rate of call centre appliers. For the record. the IT and Business Process Association of the Philippines admitted that merely 9 out of the 100 entry-level appliers are deemed-fit for the call centre occupation. while 20 to 40 appliers would necessitate to undergo skills-based preparation in linguistic communication and engineering. and the remainder failed to acquire the cut.
The Call Center Association of the Philippines pointed out several grounds for the low passing rate. Aside from the deficiency of call centre experience. the appliers do non hold the entry-level accomplishments to be considered for the occupation. Such entry-level accomplishments include verbal conversations. engineering know-how. and decision-making. which can be addressed through effectual academic readying in schools. While most vocational schools offer short-run call centre classs. nil beats a reasoned academic preparation in schools.
As the call centre concern continue to offer an attractive working clime. some sectors express concerns about the overall English and academic competency degree of the possible new hires. Due to the high-ranking linguistic communication proficiency and socio-linguistic accomplishments demand of the occupation. certain call centre companies may hold non filled in the expected seats from the foreign clients. particularly for high-end histories like banking and finance and telecommunications which demand a higher-order thought and analytical accomplishments. In a survey conducted by the John F. Kennedy Center Foundation – Philippines in 2006. it was revealed that the worsening supply of qualified call centre workers could collar the jutting growing of the industry. The JFKCF-P mentioned that one solution is to “adequately fix alumnuss by supplying them choice preparation in English proficiency. ”
The general perceptual experience of a “declining English competence” of our pupils and alumnuss has been invariably talked about by industry insiders. media practicians. and pedagogues. Has at that place been a diminution of English competency that we have a comparatively low go throughing rate in the call centre occupation? If there is. what steps are presently in topographic point to guarantee academic and linguistic communication success in schools? Does proficiency in the English linguistic communication guarantee good academic standing? What other factors contribute to linguistic communication proficiency and academic public presentation in relation to employability? Background of the Study
The academic accomplishment of bilingual and/or trilingual pupils has long been a major educational concern. It has been said that before these pupils are confronted with academically disputing undertakings in any subject. they should be Masterss of the English linguistic communication foremost. But the inquiry here is: how make these scholars get the criterion of English proficiency? There are several factors that affect or inhibit scholars in achieving command of English ; therefore. achieving academic success is near to impossible. Such factors include age and/or degree of adulthood. first linguistic communication proficiency. and attitude and single differences. Age and/or degree of adulthood here refer to the readiness or preparedness of the scholars to get competency in the linguistic communication. Collier said that “for academic accomplishment. it does non count when 2nd linguistic communication begins. every bit long as cognitive development continues at least through age 12. ”
First linguistic communication proficiency is besides a major factor. as what was noted by research workers that it may suppress the development of the 2nd linguistic communication. Attitude and single differences refer to linguistic communication acquisition manners and behaviour of the scholars towards the linguistic communication. It is on this premiss that this research survey is geared to turn out or confute the cogency of the said effects of English linguistic communication proficiency on academic accomplishment and employability. Sufficient informations are so gathered to supplement the research survey and to help the research worker with the proper processs in carry oning the survey. These informations are grouped harmonizing to relevancy and importance and on the grade of mention. The involvement of the research survey started as a practical observation in the call centre puting. It has been observed that those who have the ability. in whatever degree of proficiency. in the English linguistic communication have the competitory advantage over those who are less or no ability to utilize English in footings of academic public presentation. employability. and even occupation publicity. The involvement was so broadened into a existent research work. Theoretical Framework | Conceptual Framework
This survey is anchored on Jim Cummins’s Theory on Second Language Acquisition. where five phases of acquisition are discussed in relation to students’ capacity or preparedness to accomplish academic proficiency. The five phases are as follows: Phase 1: The Silent/Receptive or Preproduction Stage. which can last from 10 hours to six months. Here. the pupils frequently have up to 500 hundred words that they can understand. but they may non be comfy utilizing ; Stage 2: The Early Production Stage. which can last extra six months after the initial phase. At this phase. pupils have normally developed near to 1. 000 receptive or active words ; Stage 3: The Speech Emergence Stage. which can last up to another twelvemonth. Students in this phase have normally developed about 3. 000 words and can utilize short phrases and simple sentences to pass on ;
Phase 4: The Intermediate Language Proficiency Stage. which may take up to another twelvemonth after address outgrowth. Students have typically developed near to 6. 000 words and are get downing to do complex statements. province sentiments. ask for elucidation. portion their ideas. and speak at greater length ; Stage 5: The Advanced Language Proficiency Stage. which typically takes from five to seven old ages. By this phase. pupils have already developed some specialised content-area vocabulary and can take part to the full in conversations that require great eloquence similar to that of native talkers. In relation to these phases. the achievement degree of the pupils in their faculty members depends on what present their proficiency of English is into.
Another theory of Jim Cummins is that of Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills ( BICS ) and that of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency ( CALP ) . This theory states that the “average pupil can develop colloquial eloquence within two to five old ages. but that developing eloquence is more proficient. academic linguistic communication can take from four to seven old ages depending on many variables such as linguistic communication proficiency degree. and the grade of support for accomplishing academic proficiency. ” The paradigm shown on the following page features the construct of this survey. The uninterrupted rhythm begins with English linguistic communication proficiency foremost. and after accomplishing proficiency in the linguistic communication. pupils will be able to correctly manipulate linguistic communication signifiers and forms for easy apprehension of academic lessons presented in English. This consequences to high academic public presentation. which will besides augment students’ proficiency in the linguistic communication. The more adept one is in English. the more academically good one becomes and the more one achieves academically. the more one becomes proficient in English.
Paradigm: The uninterrupted flow of English linguistic communication proficiency to use of linguistic communication signifiers and forms to academic accomplishment and so back to English linguistic communication proficiency.
Statement of the Problem
This survey determines and proves the important correlativity of English linguistic communication proficiency to academic accomplishment of Grade 9 pupils of Calumpang High School for the school twelvemonth 2014 – 2015. Specifically. it seeks to reply the undermentioned inquiries: 1. What is the profile of the respondents harmonizing to:
1. 1. Age ;
1. 2. Sexual activity ;
1. 3. Birth Order ;
1. 4. Parents’ Educational Background ; and
1. 5. Socio-Economic Status?
2. What is the respondents’ degree of English proficiency as a consequence of the English Proficiency Test? 3. What is the academic accomplishment of the respondents as reflected by their mean grade in all topics from their old twelvemonth? 4. What is the grade of the variableness of the respondents’ classs and tonss on the English Language Proficiency Test? 5. What is the correlativity of English linguistic communication proficiency to academic accomplishment? 6. Does a positive correlativity between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic public presentation dictate high degree of go throughing rate in the call centre industry? Hypothesis of the Study
For statistical testing and informations reading. this hypothesis is considered: English linguistic communication proficiency has no important consequence on academic accomplishment of the pupils ; therefore. no correlativity can be made between the degree of proficiency in English linguistic communication and academic accomplishment. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
While there is a strong presence of the issue of bilingualism and trilingualism and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. this survey covers merely the inherent and possible relationship of English linguistic communication proficiency and academic accomplishment. The above two issues are excluded here although some facets have been tackled because of some relevancy and association with the chief focal point of this survey. This survey besides adheres to its chief aim. which is to find whether or non the ability to right utilize the English linguistic communication has an consequence on the students’ academic accomplishment. and in bend get a really high employability rate in the Business Outsource Processing industry. Although consequences vary due to factors like age. gender. birth order. socio-economic position. and the similar. any decisions made in this survey are entirely based on one variable. English linguistic communication proficiency. The term English linguistic communication proficiency covers non merely command of grammar and mechanics or sentence forms. but more so on the command of the four macro accomplishments: reading. composing. speech production. and listening.
Proficiency in this survey refers to the ability of the pupils to read. compose. speak. and listen in English. Any of these macro accomplishments does non find proficiency because proficiency means more that merely the ability to read. compose. speak. and listen. Rather. proficiency means the ability to right utilize these four macro accomplishments in a given state of affairs. In this survey. the proficiency of the pupils in the English linguistic communication is measured under these conditions. Academic accomplishment covers the school public presentation of the pupils through their classs from the old academic twelvemonth merely. It includes academic topics like Mathematics. Sciences. Language. Social Studies. Arts. and Livelihood Education. Academic accomplishment is measured here through the students’ class from their old twelvemonth. The respondents of this survey are enrolled Grade 9 pupils Calumpang High School of school twelvemonth 2014–2015. Those who indicates in the study questionnaire that they are aliens and/or native talkers of English are excluded in the survey. It is on these conditions where the consequences of this survey can be concluded valid and dependable. Significance of the Study
The survey on the relationship of English linguistic communication proficiency and academic accomplishment has been the topic of many researches for decennaries now. Educators and school decision makers promote the thought that linguistic communication proficiency affects academic public presentation and linguistic communication proficiency and academic public presentation affect employability. Although there are some who contradicted such thought. the impact of the consequences of these researches and surveies proved to be interest-provoking and had alarmed those in the authorization. That is why considerable figure of similar researches is still conducted. The survey on the important effects of English linguistic communication proficiency on academic accomplishment is the cardinal factor in understanding learners’ diverse ways on geting command of the topic affairs specially those that use English as medium of direction.
The survey entirely may extinguish subjectiveness on the portion of the instructors in footings of measuring the academic public presentation of the pupils. In such ways. the instructors are given anterior cognition about the capacity of their pupils to utilize the English linguistic communication and finally do the necessary accommodations so that all pupils. in whatever degree of English proficiency they have. shall larn efficaciously whatever the academic topic is. Additionally. understanding that the pupils are traveling through a predictable and consecutive series of developmental phases in English linguistic communication proficiency helps instructors predict and accept students’ current phase. while modifying their direction to promote patterned advance to the following phase. This survey can besides assist instructors develop appropriate instructional schemes and appraisals that guide pupils along a continuum of linguistic communication development.
This survey will besides profit the pupils themselves. Having this background. they can already set to different academic undertakings in the schoolroom. Besides. this shall supply them with the necessary information on measuring their ain competency in English and suit it to allow degree of academic battle. They will be given significant aid for them to understand their degree of competences in the linguistic communication. In the instance of those who are in the authorization. they will be given adequate background on the degree of English proficiency and its consequence to academic accomplishment of the pupils. With this. they shall hold footing in future plan execution in relation to educational development.
Furthermore. this research survey is an of import country in English linguistic communication instruction. possibly an country that can be significantly studied more. This survey will bring forth new thoughts that can be used for future researches related to the subject. As a mere research survey. this may non be the be-all and end-all in depicting students’ academic acquisition manners. but this will be a starting point in analysing the of import function of English non merely as an international linguistic communication. but besides as a linguistic communication of faculty members.
Finally. understanding the construct of English linguistic communication direction and its impact to the overall academic public presentation of the pupils is a good bird’s oculus position to class developers and pedagogues of Call Center Programs in the K-12 course of study. Identifying the countries of English our pupils are challenged with versus the English proficiency demands of the call centre occupation enables our school decision makers to make skills-related learning methodological analysis to fit our pupils in their occupation application in the hereafter. Furthermore. it is imperative for the whole academia to understand the demands of the planetary market and the relevancy of linguistic communication proficiency and academic public presentation to marketability and dignity. This research finally seeks replies to the unidentified grounds of the “declining English proficiency” and what effectual plans and solutions can we implement to turn to such issues. Definition of Footings
Throughout the survey. there are words and footings that are contextually and operationally used. This subdivision includes clearly and briefly defined coined words and proficient footings as follows: Academic Achievement. This refers to the school public presentation of the pupils through classs. Bilingualism. This term refers to the usage of two linguistic communications. the first linguistic communication and English. as a medium in communicating. Name Center Industry. Besides known as Business Process Outsourcing. this term refers to the big operations of foreign companies in the Philippines. Communicative Competence. This refers to the ability to pass on efficaciously in whatever signifiers of speech production and authorship every bit good as the ability to acquire messages through hearing and reading. English Language Proficiency. This term refers to the competency in utilizing English in signifiers of written discourse and unwritten communicating.