1. Introduction

Enterococci are gram positive, catalase/oxidase negative, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteriums which when visualised under the light microscope exist singly, as diplococci or in short ironss. Despite of course happening in the lower gastrointestinal ( GI ) piece of land, unwritten pit and the tegument Enterococci has quickly emerged from what used to be described as a harmless, medically unimportant micro-organism to the 3rd most common nosocomial pathogen with the possible to do life endangering infections ( Fisher and Phillips 2009 ) . There are presently more than twenty known species, nevertheless harmonizing to the UK Health Protection Agency ( HPA ) the two most common isolated from about 80 % of clinical samples are E.faecalis and E.faecium ( Health Protection Agency 2009 ) .

Enterococci are rather rugged and when outside the mammalian organic structure can last rough conditions therefore easy transmitted on inanimate surfaces. Despite their optimal growing temperature being 35A°c the bulk of species are able to turn between 10 and 45A°c ( Tendolkar, Baghdayan and Shanker 2003 ) . In add-on they can turn in up to pH9.6, in saline conditions ( 6.5 % NaCl ) and can hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40 % gall salts ( Sood et al 2008 ) . The ability to last such conditions explains why it has become such a job in healthcare scenes. It can be easy transferred to toilet seats and door grips used by multiple patients, many of which are likely to be immunocompromised hence susceptible to bacterial infection significance infirmaries can move as a ‘hub ‘ . As more strains become immune to antibiotics, detergents and other cleansing agent ‘s even the rigorous infirmary cleansing and sanitising governments may non be sufficient to kill them. This farther hinders the job leting transmittal to and from surgical instruments and medical forces ( Fisher and Phillips 2009 ) .

Their presence has besides been noted in groceries, in peculiar those derived from carnal beginning such as milk, cheese, sausage and minced beef which has been partly attributed to their ability withstand warming at 60A°c for 30 proceedingss ( Foulquie et al 2006 ) . For old ages Enterococci have been used in the nutrient industry, both in the fabrication procedure and as probiotics ( Gupta and Garg 2009 ) . Kuhn et Al ( 2003 ) reported that agricultural harvests treated with pig manure tested 100 % positive for Enterococci, whilst those grown in the absence of animate being fertilizers reduced Numberss by about 77 % proposing transmittal by nutrient merchandises. However one should be cognizant that non all strains isolated from groceries possess the virulent nature which can take to disease.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Enterococci are associated with a broad scope of clinical manifestations including Bacteraemia, surgical site and soft issue wound infections, Urinary Tract Infections ( UTI ) , neonatal sepsis, endocarditis, intra-abdominal/pelvic infections and meningitis ( Butler 2006 ) .

2. Virulence Factors

Virulence factors can be defined as molecules expressed or secreted by infective bacteriums to ease host colonisation, entry into cells, equivocation of the host immune system and the obtaining of foods indispensable for growing and endurance ( Giridhara- Upadhyaya, Ravikumar and Umapathy 2009 ) . In Enterococci some virulency cistrons are located on a 150kb pathogenicity island ( PAI ) foremost described by Huyche, Spiegel and Gilmore ( 1991 ) , whilst others can be found on bacterial plasmids. Over the last decennary much research has been carried out on the virulent belongingss of Enterococci nevertheless many of the mechanisms are still incompletely defined. Some of the cardinal factors are described below.

2.1. Enterococcal Surface Protein ( ESP )

ESP is a 200kDa cell wall anchored protein found preponderantly in clinical isolates of E.faecalis. It is thought to heighten adhesion and colonisation of specific host tissues every bit good as playing a function in the equivocation of the host immune response ( Foulquie et al 2006 ) . Shanker et Al ( 2001 ) demonstrated the function of ESP in the adhesion and colonisation of uroepithilial cells in go uping urinary piece of land infection ( UTI ) . Other surveies suggest ESP has an of import function in biofilm formation ( Heikens, Bonten and Willems 2007 ) .

2.2. Collection Substance ( AS )

AS is a 137 kDa surface glycoprotein which when expressed promotes cloping of bacterial cells. The cistron is located on a plasmid regulated by a pheromone secreted from cells which do non possess the plasmid themselves ( Hallgren et al 2009 ) . This promotes conjugative plasmid transportation to plasmid free cells via pili, which in add-on have been shown to play a function in biofilm formation ( Hendrickx et al 2008 ) . AS besides promotes attachment to eucaryotic cells including nephritic epithelial tissue, enterocytes and neutrophils ( Koch et al 2004 ) . Collection of cells increases the hydrophobicity of the surface which has been suggested to help the bacteriums in the equivocation of the host immune system ( Fisher and Phillips 2009 ) . A recent survey has besides demonstrated the importance of AS in the manifestation of endocarditis ( Chuang et al 2009 ) .


Haemolysin is a cytolytic toxin encoded on a plasmid regulated by a two phase quorum feeling mechanism. It I?-haemolytic belongingss are capable of lysing human, Equus caballus and coney red blood cells ( Giridhara- Upadhyaya, Ravikumar and Umapathy 2009 ) . It has besides believed to move as a bacteriocin by suppressing the growing of other closely related gm positive micro-organism giving it a competitory advantage in the organic structure ( Coburn et al 2004 ) .

2.4.Hydrolytic enzymes

The degredative enzyme Hyaluronidase depolymerises hyaluronic acid, an of import constituent of human connective tissue easing the being ‘s motion through the host tissue. The metalloendopeptidase gelatinase hydrolyses cellular constituents such as gelatine, hemoglobin and other peptides along with serine peptidase in order to obtain foods indispensable for growing and endurance ( Fisher and Phillips 2009 ) . A recent survey has besides demonstrated gelatinase ‘s ability to split C3 proteins proposing a function in equivocation of the host immune response by inactivation of the complement system ( Park et al 2008 ) . The cistrons encoding gelatinase and serine peptidase are closely located and controlled by the same quorum feeling mechanism. An accretion of an car bring oning peptide ( AIP ) secreted by Enterococci during exponential growing leads to transcriptional events on the separate fsr venue later taking to look of the hydrolytic enzymes in inquiry to harbor more foods ( Pillai et al 2002 ) .

Other virulency factors include capsular polyoses, extracellular superoxide ( Fisher and Phillips 2009 ) and collagen adhesion ( Cna ) ( Nallapareddy, Singh and Murray 2008 ) .

3. Host defense mechanism mechanisms

With the outgrowth of multiple opposition Enterococci as the 3rd most common nosocomial pathogen it is surprising that really few surveies have been published and that small is known about the host defense mechanism mechanisms. Surveies have shown that by and large merely hospitalized patients, and hence normally immunocompromised suffer diagnostic infection and normal healthy persons are able to hedge ( Koch et al 2004 ) . Much of the work carried out has been on the innate immune response which is normally considered to be the first line of defense mechanism against occupying pathogens.

Both gram positive and negative beings display pattern associated molecular forms ( PAMPS ) which are recognised by pattern acknowledgment receptors ( PRR ) on the surface of immune cells. A survey by Giebelen et Al ( 2009 ) suggested peritoneal macrophages are the first line of unconditioned defense mechanism against Enterococcal infection. Mice who did non hold the macrophages exhibited higher degrees of bacterial colonisation than those who did hold them. It was besides pointed out that in covering with the pathogen the macrophages prevented a monolithic inflammatory response as degrees of cytokines/chemokines and neutrophils infiltration were significantly higher in the macrophage free group. The information from this survey is slightly limited in the fact that peritoneal macrophages are localized in the peritoneal pit therefore go arounding macrophages may act otherwise. Other surveies have demonstrated the ability of some Enterococci to last inside macrophages potentially utilizing them as a vehicle for entry into other tissues ( Sussmuth et al 2000 ) , nevertheless this once more may be due to immunocompromised patients already holding a suppressed immune response.

Another survey has demonstrated the importance of Toll like receptor 2 ( TLR2 ) and the MyD88 adapter protein in the acknowledgment of PAMPs and subsequent enlisting of neutrophils ( Leendertse et al 2008 ) . Leendertse et Al ( 2009 ) demonstrated the importance of neutrophils in remotion of the pathogen by demoing that neutropenic mice showed a greater degree of colonisation and increased clip to pathogen clearance. This is farther evident in Willems et Al ( 2009 ) that demonstrated patients who have undergone an acute stage response, and therefore are unable to expeditiously enroll neutrophils are more susceptible to infection.

The information available is reasonably limited and does n’t let dependable decisions to be drawn sing host defense mechanism hence farther surveies are required to derive a better apprehension of the mechanisms.

4. Treatment

4.1.Uncomplicated Infections

The bulk of UTI ‘s, kind tissue lesions and intra-abdominal infections are classed as unsophisticated and hence can normally be treated by disposal of a individual antibiotic, sooner Principen due to its lower effectual dose demand compared with penicillin ( Butler 2006 ) . These I?-lactam antibiotics competitively bind and suppress transpeptidase enzymes responsible for cross associating the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan ironss finally doing cell lysis. I?-lactamase bring forthing Enterococci possessing opposition to conventional beta lactam antibiotics can normally be treated with the glycopeptide Vancomycin ( Cunha 2006 ) . Nitrofurantoin is besides effectual in the intervention of lower UTIs. It is suggested that in the decreased signifier Nitrofurantoin causes harm to bacterial DNA therefore suppressing protein synthesis ( Sandegren et al 2008 ) .

4.2.Complicated Infections

Complicated infections normally require multi-drug ( combination ) therapy. Failure of a first line beta-lactam entirely in the intervention of bacteraemia requires combination therapy with an aminoglycoside such as gentomycin or streptomycin, which binds to cytosolic ribosomes suppressing protein synthesis ( Champney 2001 ) . A similar government is frequently adopted for intervention of endocarditis ( Westphal, Plicht and Naber 2009 ) .

4.3.Antibiotic opposition

The contracting spectrum of effectual drugs due to the outgrowth of immune strains, in peculiar Vancomycin opposition Enterococci ( VRE ) makes it hard to efficaciously handle septic persons. Despite a recent diminution ( Health Protection Agency Reports 2009 ) the incidence of VRE in health care scenes has grown tremendously in the last 20 old ages and has been attributed to both the usage of avoparcin ( a similar compound to Vancomycin ) incorporating carnal provenders and widespread usage of Vancomycin, particularly in the USA where obviously it has become progressively easy to obtain such drugs ( Nailor and Sobel 2009 ) . Resistance is conferred by alteration of the D-Ala-D-Ala mediety of the N-acetylglucosamine/N-acetylmuramic acid peptides of the peptidoglycan cell wall constituent. Alternatively the terminal Alanine is replaced by a Lactate to organize D-Ala-D-Lac. Despite weakening the cell wall it consequences in a 1000 crease lessening in the efficaciousness of Vancomycin ( Altun et al 2008 ) . The three identified opposition discrepancies are designated Van A, Van B and Van C. The Van B and C discrepancies confer opposition to Vancomycin, but non the similar compound Teicoplanin which hence can be substituted in some infections. Van A is the most clinically important being immune to both Vancomycin and Teicoplanin ( Zheng et al 2009 ) .

4.4.Recent developments in antibiotic intervention

Novel antibiotic development is really much an active research country and several new compounds have late become available. Linezolid is an up and coming man-made antibiotic belonging to the group of oxazolidinones and is effectual in the intervention of complicated tegument infections caused by VRE ( Smith et al 2005 ) . To forestall a repetition of the opposition job associated with Vancomycin it is normally recommended as a last resort, nevertheless in recent old ages several immune strains have been reported ( Kainer et al 2007 ) . The lipopeptide daptomycin binds to the outer cell membrane triping depolarisation. The escape of K+ ions leads to a loss in membrane potency and accordingly cell decease ( Silverman, Perlmutter and Shapiro 2003 ) . It is preponderantly used for skin infections including those caused by VRE ( Poutsiaka et al 2007 ) . Tigecycline is a late approved glycylcycline effectual against several strains of Enterococci including both E.faecalis and E.faecium. Similar to many other antibiotics it binds to the ribosome suppressing protein synthesis ( Yemisen et al 2009 ) .

One of the cardinal recent antibiotics is the semi-synthetic lipoglycopeptide Oritavancin shown to be quickly effectual against VRE. Although it has non been definitively defined several possible mechanisms of action have been proposed including suppression of cell wall synthesis, break of membrane potency and suppression of RNA synthesis ( Belley et al 2009 ) . Another recent survey suggested Oritavancin inhibits transpeptidation of peptidoglycan ( Patti et al 2009 ) . Due to miss of clinical test informations the drugs blessing petition was rejected pending farther surveies therefore it could be several old ages before it becomes available.

5. Decision

Once considered a harmless being of course present in the organic structure of mammals, Enterococci has quickly become a multiple immune nosocomial pathogen with the ability to do life endangering infections. Several virulency factors have been identified on a pathogenicity island in add-on to several others located on plasmids acquired from other deadly gm positive beings. Further surveies are required to find the host defense mechanism mechanisms to derive a better apprehension and assist develop new intervention governments. Most unsophisticated infections can be easy treated with simple I?-lactam antibiotics. Those of a more serious nature nevertheless are going debatable due to the outgrowth of multiple drug immune strains. Again a more unequivocal apprehension of the mechanisms of action of interventions will help in the development of new 1s.

6. Mentions

ALTUN, B, CENGIZ, AB, KARA, A, CEYHAN, M, UNAL, S, SECMEER, G and GUR, D ( 2008 ) . First vancomycin-resistant blood isolate of Enterococcus faecium in a kids ‘s infirmary and molecular analysis of the mechanism of opposition. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, 50 ( 6 ) , 554-558.

BELLEY, Adam, NEEDHAM-GRENON, Eve, MCKAY, Geoffrey, ARHIN, Francis F, BEVERIDGE, Terry, PARR, Thomas R and MOECK, Gregory ( 2009 ) . Oritavancin Kills Stationary-Phase and Biofilm Staphylococcus aureus Cells In Vitro. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53 ( 3 ) , 918-925.

BUTLER, Karina M ( 2006 ) . Enterococcal Infection in Children. Seminars in Paediatric Infectious Diseases, 17 ( 3 ) , 128-139.

CHAMPNEY, WS ( 2001 ) . Bacterial ribosomal fractional monetary unit synthesis: a fresh antibiotic mark. Current drug marks Infectious upsets, 1 91 ) , 19-36.

CHUANG, Olivia N, SCHLIEVERT, Patrick M, WELLS, Carol L, MANIAS, Dawn A, TRIPP, Timothy J and DUNNY, Gary M ( 2009 ) . Multiple Functional Domains of Enterococcus faecalis Aggregation Substance Asc10 Contribute to Endocarditis Virulence. Infection and Immunity, 77 ( 1 ) , 539-548.

COBURN, PS, PILLAR, CM, JETT, BD, HAAS, W and GILMORE, MS ( 2004 ) . Enterococcus faecalis senses target cells and in response expresses cytolysin. Science, 306 ( 5705 ) . 2270-2272.

CUNHA ( 2006 ) . Antimicrobial therapy of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Medical Clinics of North America, 90 ( 6 ) , 1165-1182.

FISHER, Katie and Phillips, Carol ( 2009 ) . The ecology, epidemiology and virulency of Enterococcus. Microbiology, 155 ( 5 ) , 1749-1757.

FOULQUIE MORENO, MR, SARANTINOPOULOS, P, TSAKALIDOU, E and DE VUYST, L ( 2006 ) . The function and application of enterococci in nutrient and wellness. Journal of International of Food Microbiology, 106 ( 1 ) , 1-24.

GIEBELEN, Ida, LEENDERTSE, Masja, WILLEMS, Rob, ROELOFS, Joris, VAN ROOIJEN, Nico, BONTEN, Marc and VAN DER POLL, Tom ( 2009 ) . Peritoneal macrophages are of import for the early containment of Enterococcus faecium peritoneal inflammation in mice. Innate Immunity, 15 ( 1 ) , 3-12.

GIRIDHARA UPADHYAYA, PM, RAVIKUMAR, KL and UMAPATHY, BL ( 2009 ) . Review of virulency factors of enterococcus: An emerging nosocomial pathogen. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 27 ( 4 ) , 301-305.

GUPTA, V and GARG, R ( 2009 ) . Probiotics. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 27 ( 3 ) , 202-209.

HALLGREN, Anita, CLAESSON, Carina, SAEEDI, Baharak, MONSTEIN, Hans-Jurg, HANBERGER, Hakan and NILSSON, Lennart E ( 2009 ) . Molecular sensing of collection substance, Enterococcal surface protein, and cytolysin cistrons and in vitro adhesion to urinary catheters of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium of clinical beginning. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 299 ( 5 ) , 323-332.

Health Protection Agency ( 2009 ) . [ on-line ] . Last accessed 27/11/2009 at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hpa.org.uk/HPA/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/1191942125810/

Health Protection Agency Report ( 2009 ) . [ on-line ] . Last accessed 27/11/2009 at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb & A ; HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1216367375928

HEIKENS, Esther, BONTEN, Marc and WILLEMS, Rob ( 2007 ) . Enterococcal Surface Protein Esp Is Important for Biofilm Formation of Enterococcus faecium E1162. Journal of Bacteriology, 189 ( 22 ) , 8233-8240.

HENDRICKX, Antoni P.A, BONTEN, Marc J.M, VAN LUIT-ASBROEK, Miranda, SCHAPENDONK, Claudia M.E, KRAGTEN, Angela H.M and WILLEMS, Rob J.L ( 2008 ) . Expression of two distinguishable types of pili by a infirmary acquired Enterococcus faecium isolate. Microbiology, 154 ( 7 ) , 3212-3223.

HUYCKE, MM, SPIEGEL, CA and GILMORE, MS ( 1991 ) . Bacteremia caused by haemolytic, high-ranking gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy, 35 ( 8 ) , 1626-1634.

KAINER, Marion A, DEVASIA, Rose A, JONES, Timothy F, SIMMONS, Bryan P, MELTON, Kelley, CHOW, Susan, BROYLES, Joyce, MOORE, Kelly L, CRAIG, Allen S and SCHAFFNER, William ( 2007 ) . Response to emerging infection taking to outbreak of linezolid-resistant enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13 ( 7 ) , 1024-1030.

KOCH, Stefanie, HUFNAGEL, Markus, THEILACKER, Christian and HUEBNER, Johannes ( 2004 ) . Enterococcal infections: host response, curative,

and contraceptive possibilities. Vaccine, 22 ( 7 ) , 822-830.

KUHN, Inger, IVERSEN, Aina, BURMAN, Lars G, OLSSON-LILJEQUIST, Barbro, FRANKLIN, Anders, FINN, Maria, AARESTRUP, Frank, SEYFARTH, Anne M, BLANCH, Anicet R, VILANOVA, Xavier, TAYLOR, Huw, CAPLIN, Jonathan, MORENO, Miguel A, DOMINGUEZ, Lucas, HERRERO, Inmaculada A and MOLLBY, Roland ( 2003 ) . Comparison of enterococcal populations in animate beings, worlds, and the environment – a European survey. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 88 ( 2 ) , 133-145.

LEENDERTSE, Masja, WILLEMS, Rob, GIEBELEN, Ida, VAN DEN PANGAART, Petra, WIERSINGA, W, VOS, Alex, FLORQUIN, Sandrine, BONTEN, Marc and VAN DER POLL, Tom ( 2008 ) . TLR2-Dependent MyD88 Signaling Contributes to Early Host Defense in Murine Enterococcus faecium Peritonitis. The Journal of Immunology, 180 ( 7 ) , 4865-4874.

LEENDERTSE, Masja, WILLEMS, Rob, GIEBELEN, Ida, ROELOFS, Joris, BONTEN, Marc and VAN DER POLL, Tom ( 2009 ) . Neutrophils Are Essential for Rapid Clearance of Enterococcus faecium in Mice. Infection and Immunity, 77 ( 1 ) , 485-491.

NAILOR, MD and SOBEL, JD ( 2009 ) . Antibiotics for Gram-positive bacterial infections: Vancocin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, oxazolidinones, daptomycin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 23 ( 4 ) , 965-982.

NALLAPAREDDY, Sreedhar, SINGH, Kavindra and MURRAY, Barbara ( 2008 ) . Contribution of the Collagen Adhesin Acm to Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in Experimental Endocarditis. Infection and Immunity, 76 ( 9 ) , 4120-4128.

PARK, S, SHIN, Y, KIM, C, PARK, H, SEONG, Y, KIM, B, SEO, S and LEE, I ( 2008 ) . Immune equivocation of Enterococcus faecalis by an extracellular gelatinase that cleaves C3 and iC3b. Journal of Immunology, 181 ( 9 ) , 6328-6336.

PATTI, Gary J, KIM, Sung Joon, YU, Tsyr-Yan, DIETRICH, Evelyne, TANAKA, Kelly S, PARR, Thomas R, FAR, Adel Rafai and SCHAEFER, Jacob ( 2009 ) . Vancomycin and Oritavancin Have Different Modes of Action in Enterococcus faecium. Journal of Molecular Biology, 392 ( 5 ) , 1178-1191.

PILLAI, SK, SAKOULAS, H, GOLD, HS, WENNWESTEN, C, ELIOPOULOS, GM, MOELLERING, RC and INOUYE, RT ( 2002 ) . Prevalence of the fsr Locus in Enterococcus faecalis Infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40 ( 7 ) , 2651-2652.

POUTSIAKA, DD, SKIFFINGTON, S, MILLER, KB, HADLEY, S and Snydman, D ( 2007 ) . Daptomycin in the intervention of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bacteriemia in neutropenic patients. Journal of infection, 54 ( 6 ) , 567-571.

SANDEGREN, Linus, LINDQVIST, Anton, KAHLMETER, Gunnar and ANDERSSON, Dan ( 2008 ) . Nitrofurantoin opposition mechanism and fittingness cost in Escherichia coli. Agents and Chemotherapy, 62 ( 3 ) , 495-503.

SHANKER, N, LOCKATELL, CV, BAGHDAYAN, AS, DRACHENBERG, C, GILMORE, MS and JOHNSON, DE ( 2001 ) . Role of Enterococcus faecalis surface protein Esp in the pathogenesis of go uping urinary piece of land infection. Infection and Immunity, 69 ( 7 ) , 4366-4372.

SILVERMAN, Jared A, PERLMUTTER, Nancy G and SHAPIRO, Howard M ( 2003 ) . Correlation of Daptomycin Bactericidal Activity and Membrane Depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47 ( 8 ) , 2538-2544.

SMITH, Patrick F, BOOKER, Brent M, OGUNDELE, Abayomi B and KELCHIN, Pamela ( 2005 ) . Comparative in vitro activities of daptomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin against Gram-positive bacterial isolates from a big malignant neoplastic disease centre. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 52 ( 3 ) , 255-259.

SOOD, Seema, MALHOTRA, Meenakshi, DAS, BK and KAPIL, Arti ( 2008 ) . Enterococcal infections & A ; antimicrobic opposition. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 128 ( 2 ) , 111-121.

SUSSMUTH, SD, MUSCHOLL-SILBERHORN, A, WIRTH, R, SUSA, M, MARRE, R and ROZDZINSKI, E ( 2000 ) . Aggregation substance promotes attachment,

phagocytosis, and intracellular endurance of Enterococcus faecalis within human macrophages and suppresses respiratory explosion. Infection and Immunity, 68 ( 9 ) , 4900-4906.

TENDOLKAR, P, BAGHDAYAN, S and SHANKER, N ( 2003 ) . Infective enterococci: new developments in the twenty-first century. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 60 ( 12 ) , 2622-2636.

WESTPHAL, Nadja, PLICHT, Bjorn and NABER, Christoph ( 2009 ) . Infective Endocarditis-Prophylaxis, Diagnostic Criteria, and Treatment. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 106 ( 28 ) , 481-490.

WILLEMS, RJ, LEENDERTSE, M, GIEBELEN, IA, VAN DEN PANGAART, PS, BONTEN, MJ and VAN DER POLL, T ( 2009 ) . The acute-phase response impairs host defense mechanism against Enterococcus faecium peritoneal inflammation. Immunology, 128 ( 2 ) , 335-342.

YEMISEN, M, DEMIREL, A, METE, B, KAYQUSUZ, A, MERT, A, TABAK, F and OZTURK, R ( 2009 ) . Comparative in vitro antimicrobic activity of tigecycline against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 27 ( 4 ) , 373-374.

ZHENG, Bo, TOMITA, Haruyoshi, INOUE, Takako and IKE, Yasuyoshi ( 2009 ) . Isolation of VanB-Type Enterococcus faecalis Strains from Nosocomial Infections: First Report of the Isolation and Identification of the Pheromone-Responsive Plasmids pMG2200, Encoding VanB-Type Vancomycin Resistance and a Bac41-Type Bacteriocin, and pMG2201, Encoding Erythromycin Resistance and Cytolysin ( Hly/Bac ) . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53 ( 2 ) , 735-747.

Written by

I'm Colleen!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out