In malice of tonss of contentions, in grand 2006 Air Transport World Magazine announced that Ryanair was the most profitable air hose in the universe on the footing of its operating and net net income borders ( instance survey ) . The intent of this study is to set about an environmental analysis of European air hose industry with deductions to Rynair. On the bases of environmental analysis Ryanair ‘s success and its sustainability in European budget air hose industry is critically assessed.

An environmental analysis is undertaken on the European air hose industry with deduction to Ryanair utilizing tools such as PESTEL analysis, Porter five forces, SWOT analysis and Strategic group analysis.

Pestel analysis is one of the of import tools to analyze environmental factors act uponing administration ‘s scheme. PESTEL stands for political, economic, societal, engineering, environmental and legal. It is of import for administration to analyze how these factors are altering and how they are likely to alter in the hereafter ( Johnson et. Al, 2009 ) . PESTEL analysis is used to analysis macro-environment in which Ryanair operates and to place key-drivers of alteration.

Government policies can act upon to a big extend on air hose industry. After the terrorist attract in 2001 UK governments imposed serve security steps at all airdromes. As a consequence of this Ryanair suffered a loss of 1.9 million Euros on decreased engagements. Airport and handling charges was increased by 21 % in 2006, which could set more force per unit area on budget air hose like Ryanair. In 2005 EU ordinances came into consequence, which forced the air hose to return menus to riders in instance of holds, cancellations or denied embarkation.

Economic clime plays a critical function in act uponing air hose industry. During clip of recession people refer to cut down their disbursals which could reflect on figure of people going in a flight, they may utilize any other alternate conveyance.

The chief economic factors that concerns air hose industry is increase in fuel monetary value, which forced some of the air hoses to include fuel surcharges into airfares. Ryanair guaranteed its clients that it will non add fuel surcharges into their tickets. Current fluctuation in exchange rate is another issue in air hose industry. The fuel monetary value was ever quoted in US dollars hence there is ever a hazard in change overing, as Ryanair trades with Euros. Ryanair had non hedged early, so it was paying $ 70 per barrel of oil up to October 2009 while other air hoses were paying $ 50 to $ 60 per barrel of oil.


Social factors include societal life manner, demographic, perceptual experiences which could besides act upon air hose industry. It is expected that by 2012 there will be more old people in European states ; this will be the key to all air hoses to come up with something particular for them. Ryanair charged up to ?18 for utilizing wheelchair and cheque in luggage and advertisement criterions rebuked the air hose for misdirecting advertisement ailment, all these could make a negative impact on clients.


With new technological betterment winging has became a new experience for riders. New flights, online embarkation, in flight amusement system are some of the technological promotion in air hose industry. In 2001 Ryanair launched its web site which facilitates auto & A ; hotel leases, rail services and travel insurance, all at low monetary values. The air hose web site was largest travel web site in Europe and fifth most recognized trade name on Google, offering immense potency in E-commerce and advertisement grosss. Ryanair brought new Boeing 737-800 aircraft which is more environmentally-friendly, cut downing fuel ingestion by 2 % .


The air hose industry is been accused by assorted societal groups for emanations of C. Aviation represents 2.6 % of C emanations in the EU, Oxford university survey predicted that C from air power would speed up. Therefore air hose industry was asked to play environmental revenue enhancements which could set more force per unit area on all air hoses. Ryanair protested against this revenue enhancement reasoning air power contributes merely little proportion of C emanations.


Ryanair filed two instances against UK authorities: one for claim to counterbalance the bearer for lost flights and engagements ; another was for addition in insurance costs for all commercial air hoses. The bearer was sued by Sweden ‘s premier curate and a former foreign curate for puting their exposures in one of company ‘s advertisement run without acquiring their permission.

Porter ‘s Five Forces

The five forces theoretical account was introduced by Porter, which helps to place the beginnings of competition in an industry or sector. Although ab initio used with concern in head, it is of value to most administrations ( Johnson and Scholes, 2002 ) . Porter ‘s five forces theoretical account is used to analyze the degree of competition bing in air hose industry.

Competitive Competition:

The low-priced air hose market is really competitory compared to other markets. The construct of low cost can be easy copied by challengers, which leads to high competition in the industry. Two major low-cost air hoses ( EasyJet and Ryanair ) have ever avoided direct competition by functioning different paths. There is high degree of competition for Ryanair and other established air hoses in acquiring landing permissions and going slots.

Dickering Power of Customers:

Customers who prefer low-priced air hose are frequently monetary value sensitive and tend to exchange over to another air hose. Now yearss all air hoses are on-line which has made clients comparatively easier and cheaper for them to more to another air hose. Furthermore they try to keep some kind of trueness towards the air hose in which they often fly.

Dickering Power of Suppliers:

The major cost for all air hose industry is fuel monetary values, which is invariably increasing. There is no alternate to aviation fuel therefore oil companies has high bargaining power. Boeing supplies plans to Ryanair, if they have to exchange to another provider it will be them high since they have to retrain its pilots. Bigger airdromes like Heathrow has a high bargaining power than smaller airdromes, therefore it will be hard for Ryanair to run from these airdromes.

Menace of New Entrants:

The low-priced theoretical account can be easy adopted by others and can come in into the market. There are besides some barriers for the new entrants like requires immense capital investing, handiness of slots and monetary value war bing in paths where other low-priced air hoses operates. The new entrants have to acquire anterior mandates which are non easy these yearss and need to setup strong base in order to last in the competition.


Not all people prefer to go by flights. Particularly during clip of recession most people avoid flights and travel by other inexpensive options like travel by sea or by trains or by ferries or by autos. There are some people who may be aerophobia ( Fear of winging ) , these people try to avoid winging and take other option.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis summarises the cardinal issues from the concern environment and the strategic capableness of an administration that are most likely to impact on scheme development. It aims at placing the extent to which the current strengths and failing are relevant in covering with menaces in the environment ( Johnson and Scholes, 2002 ) . It is really utile tool in environmental analysis, which helps to happen out strengths, failing and chances & A ; menaces of Ryanair. Strengths and failing are concerned in item to analyze current place of the company, complete SWOT analysis can be found in Appendix 3.


Ryanair ‘s CEO Michael O’Leary is one of the chief strength to the air hose as he frequently comes up with new thoughts and was credited with single-handedly transforming European air conveyance. Ryanair ever operates from little airdromes therefore cut downing their costs on airdrome charges and deriving suited going SLOTS. In 2000, Ryanair launched its web site, which facilitated auto and hotel leases, rail services and travel insurance and all at low monetary values ( Box and Byus, 2007 ) . The air hose uses Boeing 737-800 which is more environmental friendly and besides reduces fuel ingestion by 2 % .


Ryanair is ever criticised for bear downing for wheelchair and check-in baggage which could leaves a negative image on the clients. The staffs and crew members are non good trained hence non client friendly. Ryanair ever avoided bigger airdromes and concentred on little regional airdromes, which could be a drawback for the company for future enlargement. Other of import concern for Ryanair is its relationship with governments, the air hose frequently involved in some sort of clang with them.

Strategic Group Analysis

Strategic groups are administrations within an industry with similar strategic features, following similar schemes or viing on similar bases. There are many different features that distinguish between strategic groups but these are classified into two major classs: range of administration ‘s activities and resource committedness ( Johnson et. al. , 2008 ) . The chief rivals to Ryanair are EasyJet and Aer Lingus. Strategic group analysis ( Appendix 5 ) is used to understand the competition, strategic chances and mobility barriers of Ryanair in low cost air hose industry.

Strategic Groups in Low-cost industry

In Europe there are three chief air hoses supplying low-priced flights to finishs viz. Ryanair, EasyJet, Aer Lingus. Ryanair is dominant low-priced manufacturer and has a gross hard currency of more than 1.8bn Euros. EasyJet ‘s bulk of riders are UK based, but going pan-European participant.

Aer Lingus is another low-priced air hose runing from Dublin functioning more than 70 finishs across Europe and US. Figure 1 in appendix 5 shows the placement of these air hoses on bases of riders capacity and their market portion in industry. Ryanair and EasyJet have 56 % of market portion in low-priced industry.

Strategic Space in Industry

Strategic group maps help us to place the most attractive “ strategic infinites ” within an industry. A strategic group map is merely the first phase of the analysis ; strategic infinites need to be tested carefully ( Johnson et. al. , 2008 ) . In low-priced air hose industry, for case the air hoses can function long draw paths which could assist them in enlargement. They can besides see traveling into other low-priced sections like trains and offer its riders new attractive merchandises and services ( figure 2 in appendix 5 ) .

Mobility Barriers

Traveling across the map to derive competitory advantage is complimentary but it frequently involves hard determinations and rare resources. Mobility barriers are the obstructions to motion from one strategic group to another ( Johnson et. al. , 2008 ) . Similarly in the low-priced air hose industry ( figure 3 in appendix 5 ) it will be hard for air hoses to travel to another strategic group. The deficiency of experience in long draw paths, increasing fuel monetary values, high competition from large air hoses like British air passages and other regional air hoses are some of the barriers which could set more force per unit area on air hoses to travel to another strategic group.


When Ryanair was started in 1990, everyone where dying to see its public presentation in an industry where there was a monopoly created by giants like British Airways and Lufthansa. In response to this, the air hose became one of the successful low-cost air hoses runing from 127 finishs around the universe ( Case survey ) . There have been many ups and downs for Ryanair since its launch but it continues to be successful in its operation.

The success of an air hose depends on how and what it offers to its clients. In instance on Ryanair, it ever tried to offer its riders low-priced airfares at all times. The air hose frequently comes up with new thoughts which make them to cut down its airfares. These new thoughts differentiate it from other traditional air hoses. One of the chief differentiate is its web site, the company ‘s site is largest travel web site which was entering 50000 engagements per hebdomad ( Box and Byus, 2007 ) .

The web site besides provides extra installations to its clients like auto, hotel lease, rail services and travel insurance, all at low monetary values. The air hose offers clients online check-in which enables them to salvage its costs on publishing tickets and other extra costs. The usage of cyberspace besides makes it easy and quicker for clients to check-in.


PESTEL Analysis

The environment is invariably altering hence PESTEL analysis should be done on regular footing and information demands to be accurate ( Campbell et. Al, 2002 ) .

PESTEL analysis is really expensive in footings of cost and clip

The effectivity of this theoretical account depends on the degree of anticipation made on future. No 1 can foretell the hereafter.

The velocity of alterations makes it hard for directors to expect developments that may impact the administration in future.

Porter ‘s Five Forces

Porter ‘s five force theoretical account assumes that all companies try to accomplish competitory advantage over others in the industry

This theoretical account assumes that end of competitory advantage is to rule providers and purchasers ( Campbell et. Al, 2002 ) .

Internal environment is non taken into history

It is hard to utilize this theoretical account in complex industries with multiple interrelatednesss.

SWOT Analysis

It is non critically analysed

The informations used in the analysis may be based on premises.

Lacks elaborate construction.

It usage seldom amounts to much more than a ill structured, really general list of factors regarded by the suggesting single as of import constituents of the administration ‘s strategic state of affairs ( David, 1997 ) .

Value Chain

The construct of value concatenation disaggregates a company into “ activity ” or the distinct maps or processes that represent the elemental edifice blocks of competitory advantage ( Porter, 1998 ) .

There is hazard of losing control of proprietary cognition, accomplishments, capableness, or competency as these are disseminated to provide concatenation members ( Morden, 2007 ) .

It can be applied merely to fabricating companies non to service industries.

Strategic Group Analysis

Difficult to group companies based on their scheme.

Strategic groups are comparatively unstable.


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