Environmental
criteria

One of the prime
objective of Eco-industrial Park (EIP) is environmental sustainability means
efficient natural resource use, reduction of waste and pollution in industrial
production. For the implementation of EIP, different industrialized nations
emphasized on environmental criteria in different way, so that it effects on
successful EIP implementation in various circumstances.

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In Egypt, the
government launched two programs to ameliorate environmental condition in
industrial sector. First one was Industrial Cities Program (NICs) was initiated
to ensure sustainable use of natural resources with supportive environments for
industrial production by the compliance with existing Egyptian environmental
Law and legislations. But it was failed after some time due to incompliance of
the companies with environmental laws and regulations. Second initiative by the
govt. of Egypt was Integrated Industrial Solid Waste Management (IISWM) with
the objective of integrated industrial solid waste management by comparing among
expected integrated waste management techniques and conventional waste management
techniques. And it generated waste exchange program, a new concept in Egypt
with anticipation to disseminate the concept in national level. But lack of
information dissemination regarding environmental impacts of industry at all
levels of regulatory bodies and scientific communities and lack of information
on production and pollution level in inspected industries causes failure of
taken strategies in Egypt (Sakr et al.,
2011).

 

In China, Tianjin
Economic technological Development Area (TEDA) emphasized on environmental
infrastructural development and brining new techniques to solve problem
regarding environmental issues in industrial areas. Though initially it was
successful and in later stage TEDA was facing problems and launched other
projects to improve the situation. An online questionnaire system launched to
collect information about waste generators and recyclers, byproducts, unused
resources to analyze and find sustainable solutions. Communities established to
disseminate information about low carbon emission techniques, energy
efficiency, waste minimization, efficient water use, and pollution control and
environmental safeguard at industrial level and trained them for advanced
techniques. Giving discount in waste dumping or by certification as environment
friendly encouraged industries to control pollution (Chang Yu et al., 2014).

 

Devens
eco-industrial Park in USA is a good example of EIP implementation by
sustainable industrial development. Sustainability for Devens was conceptualized
as: “the thoughtful and careful redevelopment of the base for promoting
economic development, social welfare, environmental protection, and natural
resources” (Devens Sustainability Indicator Report, 2000). Ensuring
sustainability and encouraging people in low impact development with resource
conservation, waste exchange program were major concentration. Devens took
environmental quality and natural efficient resource use as essential part of
achieving sustainability (Veleva, 2012). Number of companies accepted reuse
which played important role in sharing knowledge about environment friendly
industrial activity and structural development (Veleva et al., 2015).

Developed energy
and materials efficiency can make economic benefit as well as can reduce energy
use and pollution (Zhu and Cote, 2004).

 

Long run of
industrial development in Korea results economic development and created
enormous environmental problems which needed to solve. So they have taken a
long strategy which divided into three phase from 2005 to 2020. Industrial
communities emphasized on environmental management and formed alliance and also
ministry of environment attributed strict environmental law that facilitates
pollution control and sustainable resource use (Choi, 2002). They also adopted
new concepts in Korean industrial sector like of cleaner production (CP) and
industrial ecology,  promoted new
technologies and disseminate experience, so that new techniques accepted in
larger industrial context (Park et al., 2008). Korean Industrial Complex
Corporation (KICOX) taken strategies to get environmental profit from industry
and they regularly monitored to evaluate the achievement. During the project
period, most of the program was on environmental development like efficient energy
use, waste reuse etc. In this project, environmental management made economic
benefit by reuse of materials and waste treatment. EIP implementation
initiative in Korea results great amelioration in industrial pollution control,
greenhouse gas emissions reduction and waste minimization (Park et al., 2016).

 

Symbiotic
relationship criteria

Symbiotic
business relationship is an integrated process to achieve sustainability in
industrial production. Industrial symbiosis considered “as a systemic
innovation vital for green growth” (Lombardi et al., 2012). From different
regional experience we identified the role of symbiotic relation in industrial
development.

 

In Egypt it
found that, though symbiotic business relationships is very important factor
EIP development, there were no such relationship among industries due to isolation
of companies from society, lack of reliability and resistance between company’s
information or materials exchange, fear of government regulatory authorities. The
study emphasized on social cohesion in industrial context, so that
environmental and economic benefits can be achieved by help of private owner of
companies by their willing participation exchange program and government
support by law and legislations. This study also suggested to take strategic
action plan for EIP implementation (Sakr et
al., 2011).

 

In China, to
make industrial closed chain relation industrial symbiosis proposed in TEDA’s
National Level EIP Development Planning. (TEDA, 2004). TEDA’s Low-Carbon Economy
Promotion Center called Eco-center plays major role to connect all stakeholders
of industry and started training and awareness raising program regarding
symbiotic relation in industrial production (Eco-center, 2011). Companies
within TEDA started to practice closed loop chain relationship by reusing,
exchanging and recycling a products and byproducts although in reality it is
not so easy to build such relationship within short time. So that, TEDA have
been on that to engage more companies in symbiotic relationship. And as a
result some companies already believing in common solutions which facilitates
EIP implementation (Sakr et al., 2011).

 

In USA, study
found that industrial collaboration such as information sharing, material
exchange, service sharing, joint training on safety and other issues can saves
a lot and also creates reliability and mental well-being. They also reveals
that encouraging knowledge sharing, environmental friendly behavior among
companies and cooperation from successful body are key factors for successful
implementation of EIP (Veleva et al.,
2015).

 

Korean government
has taken detailed master plan on industrial symbiosis by finding weakness,
strength, scope and threats to transform industry into EIP. For sustainable
development in industrial sector at Korea, the Korean National Cleaner
Production Center (KNCPC) reviewed international strategies for industrial
symbiosis. Korean government established EIP center which coordinated for networking
and information sharing and disseminating cleaner technology among business
societies and started research from level of universities, institutes and then
it developed as project idea and plan. During project implementation project
authority regularly monitored improvement by surveys and shared these through
forums, workshops. After the implementation of industrial symbiosis project
most of them were successful in terms of economics and environment (Park et al., 2016).           

 

Conclusion

                                   

 

In Egypt and Korea compliance with
environmental law played most important role. Incompliance of industries with
environmental law causes failure of EIP in Egypt while compliance with
environmental law in Korea brought success. Similar case noticed for
environmental information dissemination in Egypt and China. China was
successful where Egypt failed due to lack of this factor in EIP implementation.
Energy efficiency act as success factor in USA and Korea. And environmental
management by environment friendly infrastructural development with protection
of natural environment was very important mediator in EIP in all four countries
except Egypt. An integrated plan with all these criterions can be the best
possible option to EIP implementation in any region or situation.

Communication and
collaboration within industries played significant role in EIP. Information and
experience sharing was important success factor in China and Korea. Finding
weakness, strength, scope by research and formulation of a complete action plan
can build up industrial symbiotic relationship. Egypt should adapt such integrated plan and follow the
success factors from other countries for their eco-industrial development.

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