considerations are playing important role in decision making in project of
research. It is about choice and action for the right and wrong assumption. 
There will determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable
situations related to it. Ethical standards will prevent against the
fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promote the pursuit of
knowledge and truth which is the primary goal of research.  Ethical
behavior is also critical for collaborative work because it encourages an
environment of trust, accountability, and mutual respect among
researchers.  This is important when considering issues related to data
sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality, and many other issues
in order for the public to support and believe in the research.  There
have also other guidelines such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance
with the law, conflicts of interest, safety and health standards and so forth,
must be followed by the researcher.  These ethical issues are greatly impact
the integrity of the research project and affected the chances to receive
funding if researcher cannot achieve this requirement.

Ethical considerations
are the main subject in research, so that many professional associations and
agencies have adopted codes and policies for the outline of ethical behavior
and guide for researchers. Examples of codes address issues are related to
honesty, objectivity, respect for intellectual property, social responsibility,
confidentiality, non-discrimination and many others are created.  It will
be the basic guidelines for researcher. However, there are additional issues will
be facing out and specifically addressed during researcher work, required
decision-making of the researcher in order to avoid misconduct.  The resource
on this page address those issues, such as case studies will use in these
resources to provide excellent examples of these current issues in their
project work. 

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The most important in
ethical considerations is the use of human subjects.  To address these
considerations, most institutions and organizations have developed an
Institutional Review Board (IRB).  An IRB is a panel of people who help to
ensure the safety of human subjects in research and who can assist in making
sure that human rights are not violated.  They review the research
methodology in grant proposals to assure that ethical practices are being
utilized.  The use of an IRB also helps to protect the institution and the
researchers against potential legal implications from any behavior that may be
deemed unethical. 

Examples of some of these issues include
voluntary participation and informed consent.   The voluntary participation requires that
people not be coerced into participating in research. It required of informed consent whereby participants must
be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must
give their consent to participate. Harm can be defined
as both physical and psychological.  Ethical standards also protect the
confidentiality and anonymity of the subjects. Good
research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group – a
group of participants who do not get
the treatment or program that is being studied. But when that treatment or
program may have beneficial effects, the persons assigned to the no-treatment control
may feel of their rights to equal access to services are being curtailed

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