In this policy file, I will discourse and critically analyze the policy response to youth force. Before I discuss about young person force and the legal model regulating the job, I will foremost give a definition of young person force and an overview of the history of young person force. Throughout my policy file, I will chiefly concentrate on the extent of knife offense and how authorities policies have been introduced to forestall knife offense.
John Muncie and David Wilson – Student Handbook of Criminal Justice and Criminology – Chapter 15, Youth offense and young person justness – London: Cavendish, 2004.
Harmonizing to both Muncie and Wilson, young person offense is a deep concern in our society today. They besides province that in late modernness young person force has attracted a huge sum of attending by the politicians, the pubic and the media. Geoffrey argues that immature wrongdoers emerged during the beginning of the industrial revolution, which so continued throughout the nineteenth century. Geoffrey states that footings such as ‘yob ‘ and ‘hooligan ‘ derived from the late nineteenth century ; these footings were used to depict immature people who were involved in pack force ( Muncie and Wilson, 2004 ) .
Furthermore, immature people ‘s engagement in young person force has created a moral terror. Stan Cohen references that ‘socities appear to be capable, every now and so, to periods of moral terror when a status emerges to be defined as a menace to societal values and involvements ‘ ( Cohen, in Muncie and Wilson, 2004, 222 )
Self study surveies suggest that immature people piquing is now seen as a common norm, whereby bulk of immature people view piquing as a normal thing to make whist turning up ( Graham and Bowling, in Muncie and Wilson ) . In a recent survey carried out by Claire, she reported that 60 per centum of male childs reported to hold committed a offense.
However, official statistics show that young person offense is in diminution, the Home Office reported that between 1992 and 2001, the figure of 10-17 twelvemonth olds convicted for offense fell by 21 per centum ( Home office, in Muncie and Wilson, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to official statistics, in 2001, 66 per centum of recorded young person offense was for larceny, fraud and managing stolen goods ( Muncie and Wilson, 2004 ) . It is besides apparent that most young person offense is carried out in hapless communities ( Simmons, in Muncie and Wilson, 2004 ) .
Young person force is chiefly carried out by immature males, male childs tend to perpetrate more serious offenses compared to misss.
Youth justness systems may change harmonizing to which state a individual lives ‘ in, there are important differences in the age at which a young person is deemed to be responsible for his/her condemnable act. In the U.K, the age at which a kid is seen to be responsible for their condemnable action is set at 10 old ages old ( Muncie and Wilson, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Nacro, in 1992, 100 kids under the age of 15 were sentenced to gaol, whereas in 2001 there was an addition of 800 per centum of kids traveling to imprison ( NACRO, In Muncie and Wilson, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to official statistics, more immature people are being sentenced to gaol in England and Wales compared to any other state in the European Union.
Understanding public attitudes to condemnable justness – Julian V. Roberts and Mike J. Hough. Holocene reforms in juvenile, Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2005.
Harmonizing to Roberts and Hough, there are high degrees of public concern about young person force in today ‘s society. The Crime and Disorder Act 1998, set up a young person justness board and a system of young person piquing squads which consists of constabulary officers, probation officers and societal workers, their chief end is to utilize their experience and therefore respond to immature wrongdoers. New statute laws and such as curfew orders, electronic tagging and surveillance plans have been introduced to forestall young person offense since the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act ( Roberts and Hough, 2005 ) .
Harmonizing to statistics youth force has been stable and worsening since 2003 ; nevertheless a group of respondents argued that young person force is on the addition compared to 2003. Majority of the respondents cited the media as their chief beginning of information. A MORI study which was carried out in 2001 asked the public what methods can be used in order to cut down offense in Britain. Majority of the respondents replied by saying that better parenting and more subject in school is needed. In 1998, the British Crime Survey carried out a study to place the best ways of covering with immature wrongdoers, bulk of respondents stated that the best solution would be to increase parental duties.
Crime bar – Adam Sutton et al Crime bar: rules, positions and patterns / Adam Sutton, Adrian Cherney and Rob White. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Youth packs and societal struggle
Harmonizing to some immature people to be portion of pack can take them to safety, whereas if they were non involved in a pack it could take them to danger ( Sutton et al, 2008 ) . Young people need to be supervised, by supplying immature people with free leisure activities and after school nines may forestall them from being involved in young person offense. Bing involved in a pack, gives immature people a sense of belonging, and individuality ( Sutton et al, 2008 ) .
The community needs to supply more for its immature people ; they need to give immature people more chances which cater their demands. More chances should be given to immature people whereby they can prosecute in activities which suit their involvement and demands ( Sutton et al, 2008 ) .
Young person and offense – John Muncie, London: Sage, 2009. 3rd erectile dysfunction. Youth Justice strategies 2: Prevention and Punishment
In the twenty-first century, the young person justness is designed to penalize the wrongdoer every bit good as taking their public assistance into consideration. The young person justness system has many functions, nevertheless they chiefly focus on two cardinal facets, foremost how to forestall offense and secondly how to penalize those who offend ( Muncie, 2009 ) .
Ron Clarke, a former research worker at the UK ‘s Home Office and Ray Jeffery an American criminologist foremost promoted the thought of situational and societal offense bar to be introduced. Whereby, offense rates will worsen through environmental designs, such as holding more street visible radiations and more CCTV cameras, therefore doing it more hard for offense to happen. Hence, it is better to undertake the causes of offense instead than covering with the effects afterwards, ( Matthews and Young in Muncie, 2009 ) .
There are many developments in young person justness statute law and policy in England and Wales such as the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, giving out anti societal behaviour orders and kid safety orders. The 2000 young person inclusion programme which works with targeted 13-16 twelvemonth olds most at hazard of piquing and being excluded from school. The 2005 clean vicinity and environmental act, which issues a fixed punishment for minor environmental upsets to kids over the age of 10 old ages old and above.
The 2008 young person offense action program was introduced to supply intensive rearing support and enforce tougher penalties to those who offend. There are many more constabularies and statute laws which have been introduced to forestall young person offense, nevertheless the large inquiry is how effectual are the constabularies and statute laws in forestalling young person offense.
In 2002, it was claimed that there were about 30.000 pack members in England and Wales, ( Observer in Muncie, 2009 ) . The incidents of the slaying of Rhys Jones and James Bulger may hold caused a moral terror.
Official statistics show that the figure of people reported of transporting knife between 1997 and 2006 rose from 482 to 1265. However, a study conducted by the Metropolitan constabularies in 2007, province that knife offense dropped by 15.7 per centum over the old two old ages ( Muncie, 2009 ) .
Crime bar and community safety: new waies / edited by Gordon Hughes, Eugene McLaughlin, John Muncie. London: Sage, in association with the Open University, 2002.
A new trade for young person ‘s early intercessions
Muncie argues that certain hazard factors need to be dealt with first such as hapless parenting, hooky and deficiency of employment in order to cut down young person offense ( Muncie in Hughes et Al, 2002 ) .
The primary purpose of the young person justness system act is to guarantee that offense is prevented by immature people. In January 2003, Tony Blair stated that we must be tough on offense, and tough on the causes of offense, since so new labors focused its policies on the causes of offense. The cardinal causes of offense were, deficiency of employment, hapless parenting, deficiency of installations for immature people and many more ( Muncie, in Hughes 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to a longitudinal survey on ‘delinquent households ‘ six variables were mentioned as forecasters of future criminalism, such as hapless parenting, household struggles and socio economic background. Harmonizing to Farrington and West who conducted the survey, they argue that kids who were brought up in hapless households are more likely to perpetrate offense as they are less able to accomplish their ends lawfully, such as driving without insurance ( Farrington in Hughes, 2002 ) .
Crime bar and community. Crime bar and community safety: political relations, policies, and patterns / Adam Crawford. Harlow: Longman, 1998. #
Home office statistics estimated that immature people under the age of 21 are responsible for about half of all offense committed ( Home office, in Crawford, 1998 ) . Harmonizing to Crawford, locking up immature people would take them to farther prosecute a calling in condemnable activity, it will cut down their opportunities of making something constructive ( Crawford, 1998 ) . Many immature people engage in condemnable activities, nevertheless merely a little minority of them go onto to go felons in the hereafter ( Farrington, in Crawford, 1998 ) .
Criminologists have identified certain hazard factors such as household poorness, lone parenting, hapless instruction accomplishments, employment chances and many more which lead to condemnable activities. If the above hazard factors can be dealt with so criminologists argue that young person force will be in diminution. Harmonizing to Graham and Bowling the undermentioned preventative intercession demand to be taken into consideration in order to cut down young person force. There are beef uping households and back uping good parenting, beef uping and bettering parental supervising, beef uping school s, cut downing hooky, cut downing school exclusions and household school partnerships ( Graham and Bowling, in Crawford, 1998 ) . Two chief factors which are losing from Graham and Bowling protective factors are leisure and employment chances. Both these elements provide personal fulfilment and hence can cut down young person force ( Crawford, 1998 ) .
The new political relations of offense and penalty – The new political relations of offense and penalty / edited by Roger Matthews, Jock Young. Cullompton: Willan, 2003.
Youth justness in England and Wales
Young person force has become a major political issue in the U.K for the past 20 old ages, ( Garland and Pitts, in Matthews and Young, 2003 ) . Many Politian ‘s argue that if immature people are prepared to make the offense they should besides make the clip i.e in gaol ( Simon, in Matthews and Young, 2003 ) .
Article 3.1 of the UN convention on the rights of the kid states that ‘in all actions refering kids, whether undertaken by public or private societal public assistance establishments, tribunals of jurisprudence, or legislative organic structures, the best involvements of the kid shall be a primary consideration ‘ ( Matthews and Young, 2003,72 ) .
The young person justness system in England and Wales started its beginning in the nineteenth century. In the concluding decennaries of the nineteenth century there were public and media concerns in the manner kids were exposed and viciously treated in grownup gaols. The first juvenile tribunal was established in Chicago in 1899, around 1910 more juvenile tribunals were established in most western European states. The Children Act 1908 and the Prevention of Crime Act 1908 established juvenile tribunals.
Jack Straw described the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 ‘as the most extremist shake up of young person justness in 30 old ages ( Matthews and Young, 2003, 88 ) .
Understanding force – Elizabeth Kandel Englander. [ Mahwah, N.J. ; London ] : Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007. 3rd erectile dysfunction.
Harmonizing to Englander, young person force is on the lessening ; nevertheless despite this pack force is still a major issue and has been for the past 50 old ages ( Englander, 2007 ) .
The penal system: an debut / Michael Cavadino and James Dignan. London: Sage, 2002. 3rd erectile dysfunction. Young wrongdoers: Systems Management or System Disaster
Condemnable activity caused by immature people has ever been a major cause of public concern ( Cavadino and Dignan, 2002 ) . In 1999, 41 per centum of people who were found guilty for an offense were immature people under the age of 21. Official statistics show that the peak age for perpetrating an offense among immature people was 18 old ages old for male childs and 15 for misss ; nevertheless most of these offenses were non serious ( Cavadino and Dignan, 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to Cavadino and Dignan, young person force is diminishing ; the figure of people under 21 who were found guilty for perpetrating an offense in 1999 was down by 33 per centum compared to 1985.
In May 2000, 17 per centum of the prison population was immature people.
By jurisprudence in the U.K kids under the age of 10s can non be prosecuted for offenses. The young person justness system trades with wrongdoers between the ages of 10 to18 old ages old.
Youth tribunal magistrates consists of people who have experience and involvement in working with immature people, the tribunals proceedings are non unfastened to the populace ( Cavadino and Dignan, 2002 ) .
Young person offense and justness – Barry Goldson and John Muncie Youth offense and justness: critical issues / edited by Barry Goldson and John Muncie. London: Sage, 2006.
Histories of young person offense and justness
In the early phases of the industrial revolution, many alterations accord such as the growing in population, addition degrees of poorness, whereby offense was ever a characteristic. Today ‘s young person are said to be presenting more menace to societal order than any other clip. It was during the early nineteenth century when a specific definition of the kid who was engaged in offense was given. Three chief developments agreement, foremost the addition figure of recorded juvenile offense, secondly widespread public concern and argument, and thirdly penal schemes to get by with the turning job ( Goldson and Muncie, 2006 ) .
By the mid 1970 ‘s Britain was a society in national diminution, offense degrees were really high particularly youth force was on the addition. Britain was confronting all tonss of jobs from economic crisis to violent political battles between left and far right demonstrators. During the 1970 ‘s when the conservativists won the elections they argued that force should non merely be the concern for the constabulary, but it should besides be the concern of parents, instructors and community leaders. Harmonizing to Goldson and Muncie the manner society creates and reacts to youth force Tells us more about societal order and the province instead than how to cover with immature wrongdoers efficaciously ( Goldson and Muncie, 2006 ) .
In 2005, the Guardian study stated that one on four teenage male childs are serious wrongdoers. However these figures were cites out of context and therefore created a moral terror among the general populace. Harmonizing to Goldson and Muncie, the figure of young persons locked up is due to harsher intervention, instead than alterations in the young person piquing system ( Goldson and Muncie, 2006 ) .
82 per centum of male childs who were released from immature wrongdoer establishments, offended once more within two old ages of release. Condemnable statistics can non ever demo a true image of immature people piquing ( Goldson and Muncie, 2006 ) .
Criminology – Tim Newburn Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2007.
Youth force committed during 1981 compared to 1999 significantly decreased from 230,700 to 145,7000. Despite the big sum of young person justness reforms being introduced since 1997, there is small grounds which suggest that young person force is diminishing.
Young people and piquing: instruction, youth justness and societal inclusion / Martin Stephenson. Cullompton: Willan, 2007.
Truancy in school has now become a major job ; many immature people who are non in school on most school yearss have a high hazard in going involved in young person offense. Harmonizing to Stephenson, clip lost from instruction is a direct cause of young person offense. Children who truant from school have a higher per centum in being unemployed in the hereafter, going teenage parents, and stoping up in prison. Lack of preparation and unemployment, hapless accomplishments, low income, hapless lodging, high offense environments all have direct cause to youth offense ( Stephenson, 2007 ) .
Funding to undertake knife
( Home Office, 2011 ) crimehttp: //www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/news/tackle-knife-crime – accessed on 23/03/2011 Wednesday, 02 Feb 2011
More than ?18m to undertake knife, gun and pack offense has been announced by the Home Secretary today. This follows a study into knife offense by former Eastenders actor Brooke Kinsella, whose brother, Ben, was killed three old ages ago.
Police forces countries where more than half of the state ‘s knife offense occurs -A London, Manchester and the West Midlands – will have ?3.75m. Meanwhile, ?4m will back up a ‘communities against packs, guns and knives ‘ fund – for local voluntary administrations across England and Wales. And ?10m has been set aside to fund activities with immature people identified as being at hazard of going involved in offense. The Home SecretaryA added ‘This new support will back up critical constabulary work where it is most needed and most significantly assist immature people and local voluntary administrations working at the bosom of our communities. ‘
Media casts young person in a changeless bad visible radiation – Accessed 23/03/2011 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/media/2004/oct/12/pressandpublishing.broadcasting Matt Wells, media letter writer – The Guardian, Tuesday 12 October 2004 07.18 BST
Harmonizing to immature people and imperativeness articles the media portrays immature people in a really negative manner. Many youth workers argue that the yellow journalisms portray a negative image of immature people.
Dolan Cummings – The telegraph July 15th, 2008http: //blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/dolancummings/4624307/The_moral_panic_over_knife_crime/ accessed on 23/03/2011
There are two major jobs with the current argument about knife offense. The first is that national politicians are seeking to work out what ought to be a job for the Metropolitan Police – a figure of unconnected slayings, largely in London – and beliing that job in the procedure as an look of general societal dislocation.
The 2nd is that a echt and much wider moral unease is being discussed and interpreted through the prism of this localized offense job, falsifying the nature of that unease.
As members of the Institute of Ideas ‘ Education Forum late noted, the high profile given to knives by politicians and the national media has led to politically-motivated runs in schools where knife offense is merely non a job. This scheme risks holding the perverse consequence of normalising and glamorizing the carrying of knives ( “ Everyone else has got one: where ‘s yours? ” )
Possibly even more significantly, the fevered argument has refocused of import inquiries about the way of society on the condemnable behavior of a little figure of adolescents. In some respects this looks like a authoritative “ moral terror ” , and surely it is merely historical memory loss that keeps us from admiting that similar terrors have flared up clip and once more in the yesteryear, merely to taper off out.
The impression of moral terror is frequently misunderstood as proposing that frights are merely fabricated. In fact what it refers to is the disproportionate and moralistic character of the response, whereby a localized job, whether minor or serious, is interpreted as an experiential menace to society and its mores.
What is arguably new about more recent terrors is that modern-day society is less certain of what it does stand for. This echt moral unease is more clearly expressed in the meanderings of the political category than in the behavior of adolescents, but the current argument has become a focal point for it, albeit in a deformed signifier.
In a paper published by the Institute of Ideas in 2005, sociologist Stuart Waiton coined the term aa‚¬E?amoral terror ‘ to depict state of affairss in which the terror is less about a sensed menace to societal mores than anxiousness about the absence of any moral consensus to be threatened.
Characteristically, such terrors give rise to awareness runs and autocratic catchs like curfews, instead than any effort to turn to difficult moral inquiries, which so frequently have small to make with the peculiar issue in the intelligence.
The willingness of the political category to see a localized job with knife offense as symbolic of a “ broken society ” , and so to offer proficient holes, is testament to a failure of the moral imaginativeness.
Today ‘s politicians may be unable to defy the enticement to roll up these two really different jobs together. A existent moral and political lead would intend go forthing knife offense to the constabulary, and offering a political vision capable of animating all of us instead than maintaining the childs off the streets.
Theresa May announces excess ?18m to undertake knife offense
Announcement comes as study by former EastEnders actor Brooke Kinsella calls for more action to undertake the job, including anti-knife presentations in schools
Alan Travis place personal businesss editor – guardian.co.uk, Wednesday 2 February 2011 10.38 GMT – Accessed on 23/03/2011
More than ?18m supernumerary is to be spent on undertaking knife offense and gun and gang civilization over the following two old ages, the place secretary, Theresa May, announced today.
She said the support was being made available “ on the dorsum of ” a study into knife offense, published today, by former EastEnders actor Brooke Kinsella, whose brother, Ben, was stabbed to decease at the age of 16 three old ages ago.
The study by Kinsella, who was appointed as an advisor on knife offense to the place secretary last twelvemonth, calls for anti-knife offense presentations in schools and more preventive work to halt adolescents acquiring involved in knife and gun offense and a strategy to undertake the “ fright and manner factor ” of transporting knives.
“ Brooke Kinsella has done a great occupation in foregrounding what works and what could work better in seeking to accomplish that, ” the place secretary said today.
“ Off the dorsum of Brooke ‘s recommendations, we will put money into altering attitudes and behavior, alongside being tough on those who persist in being involved in mindless offenses. ”
At the London launch of her study today, Kinsella said: “ Peoples are n’t shocked any more by the stabbing of a kid, and that is non right. There is no more clip for talk. I truly believe the job of knife offense has escalated in the past few old ages, and the impact it has on communities and households is lay waste toing. ”
She said local knife offense undertakings needed more stable support so they could be after in front with fewer box-ticking ordinances.
The former EastEnders histrion said bar was the keyword, and schools needed to take the job more earnestly with kids every bit immature as 10 given anti-knife offense consciousness lessons in schools.
Kinsella said: “ While seven may be deemed excessively immature for some of the content I experienced in the undertakings I visited, it seems to be the bulk sentiment that instruction and consciousness demands to get down at primary school degree, peculiarly in the last twelvemonth before they move up to secondary school and go more susceptible to peer force per unit area and influence. ”
There were besides “ spreads ” in the undertakings available, she said, and more work to undertake knife-wielding miss packs was besides needed.
She was peculiarly impressed by a “ Fear and Fashion undertaking ” run in London, which used workshops and games led by immature people with experience of knife offense to acquire immature people to research and understand the grounds why they might transport a arm.
She besides said the negative portraiture of immature people in the media as if they were all felons meant it was besides of import to give them better things to draw a bead on to with an awards ceremonial for immature people.
May, denoting the inside informations of the excess ?18m, said that at a clip of tight budgets, some issues such as knife offense were excessively of import non to fund.
The money includes ?10m to forestall adolescents being sucked into knife and gun pack civilization, ?4m for a “ communities against packs, guns and knives ‘ fund ” , and ?3.75m for the worst-hit countries in London, Manchester and the West Midlands, which account for more than half of all knife offenses.
A farther ?1m is to be spent on developing anti-knife offense stuffs for schools and ?250,000 will travel for one farther twelvemonth to the Ben Kinsella fund set up in memory of Brooke ‘s brother to assist adolescents put up anti-knife offense undertakings.
He died in June 2008 after a battle in a saloon spilled out onto the streets of Islington. Kinsella began working on the knife offense undertaking with the Conservatives before the general election and spent July and August speaking to project workers and community leaders about the job.
At the weekend, a adolescent became the UK ‘s latest victim of knife offense when he was fatally stabbed in forepart of a stationary coach full of riders in south London.
Daniel Thompson Graham, 18, was repeatedly knifed near East Dulwich railroad station in the early hours of Saturday forenoon.
The latest offense figures show the figure of incidents affecting knives fell by 6 % to 29,288 over the last twelvemonth but showed there were 202 fatal stabbings, the same figure as the twelvemonth earlier.
Mayor dorsums anti-knife offense operation
2 JUNE 2010 – Fiona.laurent
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.london.gov.uk/media/press_releases_mayoral/mayor-backs-anti-knife-crime-operation – Accessed on 23/03/2011
In May 2008, with the support of the Mayor, the Met launched Operation Blunt 2 to undertake the issue of knives being carried in London, frequently by immature people. Blunt 2 officers work across each of the 32 London boroughs.
Since Operation Blunt 2 was launched in May 2008:
– More than 18,000 apprehensions made by Operation Blunt 2 officers
– More than 9,500 knives seized
– More than 500,000 marks searched
– More than 90 per cent of people accused of ownership of a knife have been charged
– And serious force ( categorised ‘most serious ‘ ) has dropped by 22 per cent in current fiscal twelvemonth to-date
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.crimestoppers-uk.org/crime-prevention/latest-crime-statistics – accessed on 23/03/2011 – Crime stoppers, 2009 – Accessed on 23/03/2011
Knife statistics drop The Daily Mirror reports that the figure of immature people being treated for pang lesions has dropped, and that fewer immature people are transporting knives. [ 11 March 2009. 1 in 3 carry knives The Youth Justice board has found that one in three immature people carry a knife or gun and a offense is committed by a immature individual every two proceedingss. [ 6 March 2009 ] Hardline Scottish knife policy a success The Solicitor General of Scotland has announced that their tough policy on knives has resulted in more than 600 apprehensions. [ 2 March 2009 ]
The vagaries of UK knife offense statistics
By John Steele, Crime Correspondent 12:01AM GMT 20 Mar 2007 – accessed on 23/03/2011 – the telegraph
Up to 60,000 immature people, largely male, may be stabbed and injured each twelvemonth, the equivalent of more than 160 victims a twenty-four hours, harmonizing to a worst-case estimation for knife force in England and Wales.
On the other manus, the figure may be around 22,000 each twelvemonth for victims aged 10 – 25-year-old.
The different between the two estimations – derived from the inquiring of around 600 under-25s about whether they had been “ knifed or stabbed ” , and so extrapolated to the wider population, with all the statistical vagaries that entails – reflects the deficiency of precise information about the graduated table of knife offense in England and Wales.
It is besides ill-defined whether knife offense is traveling down or up. Available official statistics suggest it has fallen since the mid-1990s, but the Government concedes the limited figures are far from dependable.
The decease of Adam Regis, aged 15, at the weekend, and the stabbing of Kodjo Yenga, a 16-year-old, last hebdomad do little to chase away the perceptual experience that knife force is a major job, though it remains the instance that knife slayings – for which there are dependable figures – are rare.
Reid: We do n’t cognize plenty about knife offense
20 Mar 2007
The two deceases besides reflect a world which is widely acknowledged, even if the graduated table is ill-defined. If you are immature, male, black or Asiatic, and you live in a high-crime interior metropolis country, you are far more likely to be a victim of knife force.
John Reid, for one time shuning the promise of instant statute law, acknowledged the spreads in the image yesterday when he committed the Home Office to roll uping better statistics on the usage of knives in offense.
New Torahs – or possibly another knife amnesty – would likely hold small consequence. Knife offense has grown in the last three decennaries despite the transition of assorted Torahs. Last twelvemonth ‘s Violent Crime Reduction Act banned the sale of knives to anyone under 18.
It was already an offense under the Prevention of Crime Act 1953 to hold an violative arm in a public topographic point ; this includes ”any article made or adapted for usage for doing hurt to the individual, or intended by the individual holding it with him for such usage by him or by some other individual ” .
The Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959 banned the carrying, industry, sale, purchase, hire or loaning of flick-knives and ”gravity knives ” . The Criminal Justice Act 1988 contained a list of forbidden soldierly arts-style arms and made it an offense to transport an article with a blade or crisp point in a public topographic point. The Offensive Weapons Act 1996 made it illegal to sell knives to kids under 16. The Knives Act 1997 prohibited the selling of combat knives.
There is a broad acknowledgment in patroling and condemnable justness circles that, unlike gun offense, the form of knife offense has non been closely monitored. There is small uncertainty that gun offense, peculiarly pistol offense, has more than doubled since Labour came to power – once more despite statute law, in the signifier of a post-Dunblane prohibition on pistols.
The estimation of up to 57,900 one-year “ knifing or knifing ” victims comes from the Government ‘s Offending, Crime and Justice Survey ( OCJS ) which, like the bigger British Crime Survey ( BCS ) , inquiries people about their experiences of offense.
However, because the figure of victims of force in such studies are comparatively little, extrapolated decisions are correspondingly less dependable.
The BCS suggests the figure of violent incidents affecting knives in 2005/2006 was, at 169,000, around half the degree of 340,000 in 1995, though it had increased on 2004 – 2005 and had been lifting since the old twelvemonth The proportion of overall violent incidents affecting knives was eight per cent in 1995 and seven per cent in 2005 – 2006.
BCS findings besides suggest that the usage of knives in woundings, common assaults and robberies followed similar forms – important falls on 1995 but an upwards tendency since 2003. Homicides affecting “ crisp instruments ” – knives and bottles – have fallen since 1995 as a proportion of overall violent deaths. There were 236 in 2004 – 2005.
There is no statistical uncertainness about person being stabbed to decease. However, the truth of other findings have been questioned – non merely is the sample of victims of force comparatively little but the BCS does non test under-16s, a major tranche of victims.
Police recorded offense statistics – traditionally lower than BCS degrees – make non reflect the usage of knives and few forces have copied the lead of the Metropolitan Police in analyzing knife offense.
Scotland Yard said there had been 11,168 “ knife-enabled offenses ” – covering everything from slaying to robbery with a knife – in the 10 months to February this twelvemonth.
If the Met can be held – crudely in statistical footings – to stand for around a fifth of England and Wales offense, that might propose good more than 60,000 knife-enabled offenses a twelvemonth. Very approximately, that would suit with the belief of some criminologists that knife offense runs at four times gun offense.
However, it is besides clear that knife offense – as gun offense – is non equally spread. Taking out the knife force which occurs in the place in domestic onslaughts, the form of “ public ” knife force shows, in the words of a study from the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies at King ‘s College, London: “ Knife, like other violent offense, is suffered most by the immature, the hapless and the black and cultural minority communities. ”
As with gun offense, there is concern about the progressively immature age at which people admit transporting knifes, in portion to experience “ safer. ” Knife force has emerged in schools and there have been slayings in Lincolnshire every bit good as London. Guns are more hard for childs to obtain.
However, research has suggested that when immature white schoolboys admit to holding carried a knife, they are speaking about legal pen-knives less than three inches in length.
The usage of illegal knives is higher for immature work forces from cultural minority backgrounds and, constantly, from “ less safe ” interior metropolis countries.
More Than 350 Knife Crimes A Day
More than 350 knife offenses are committed in England and Wales every twenty-four hours, the latest figures have revealed. – Accessed on 23/03/2011 sky intelligence hypertext transfer protocol: //news.sky.com/skynews/Home/UK-News/British-Crime-Survey-Reveals-Extent-Of-Knife-Crime-In-England-And-Wales/Article/200807315040004
Knife offense is now recorded individually
The British Crime Survey ( BCS ) showed about 130,000 took topographic point last twelvemonth – and the sum does non include offenses affecting under-16s.
It means that person was wounded or threatened with a knife, on norm, one time every four proceedingss.
Police figures besides disclosed that more than 22,000 serious offenses involved a knife last twelvemonth, including 231 attempted slayings, about 14,000 robberies and more than 8,000 woundings.
The figures will intensify public concern about knife offense after a atrocious series of deceases on Britain ‘s streets.
The figures showed a 3rd of all violent offenses involved a pack of three or more wrongdoers.
A one-fourth of such offenses featured four or more attackers and 8 % involved three aggressors.
About one in eight violent offenses involved school-age kids and 52 % were committed by felons aged 16 to 24.
An overview of the history and definition of job
Extent of the job
Legal model regulating the job, legal position
Latest functionary statistics on extent of job
Nature and effectivity of policy intercessions have policies helped prevent young person force
Empirical research findings from official studies