The chief intent of present survey was to develop an ocucerts of Fluconazole -I? CD ( Beta cyclodextrin ) composite and to measure both in vitro and in vivo. Fluconazole was made complex with I? Cadmium and the release rate was controlled by HPMC K4 M and Ethyl Cellulose polymers utilizing Dimethyl sulfoxime as permeableness foil. Drug- polymer interactions were surveies by Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopic surveies. The formulated ocuserts were tested for physicochemical parametric quantities in vitro release and in vivo pervasion in coneies. The optimized preparations ( F-4 and F-9 ) were subjected for stableness surveies. The formulated ocuserts were found to hold good physical characters, thickness, diameter, uniformity in weight, turn uping endurance, less moisture soaking up, controlled release of drug both in vitro and in vivo. The optimized preparations were retained their features even after stablenesss. The survey clearly showed that this technique was an effectual manner of explicating ocuserts for retaining the drug concentration at the intended site of action for a sufficient period of clip and to arouse the coveted pharmacological response.
Keywords: Fluconazole, Ocuserts, I? Cyclodextrin, In vitro, In vivo,
Eye beads and oculus unctions are conventional optic dose signifiers. They have certain disadvantages like frequent disposal, hapless handiness, monolithic and unpredictable doses, and drainage of medicine by tear/ nasolacrimal fluid [ 1-3 ] . Ocuserts ( Ophthalmic inserts ) are unfertile readyings, with a solid or a semi solid ingredients with suited size & A ; form particularly designed for ophthalmic purpose [ 4-6 ] . They chiefly composed of a polymeric support with drug ( s ) incorporated as scattering or a solution [ 7-9 ] . Fluconazole, a man-made fungicide agent, is a triazole derived function. It is used in the intervention of a broad scope of fungous infections [ 10 ] and it belongs to category II of Biopharmaceutical Classification System ( BCS ) holding low H2O solubility [ 11 ] . Cyclodextrins ( CDs ) are cyclic torus-shaped molecules with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipotropic cardinal pit that can suit a assortment of lipotropic drugs. Cadmiums are available as I± , I? and I? signifiers. Among them I?-CD is popularly included, which greatly modifies the physical and chemical belongingss of the drug molecule, largely in footings of H2O solubility. Inclusion compounds of Cyclodextrin with hydrophobic molecules are able to perforate in to personify tissues ; these can be used to let go of biologically active compounds under specific conditions [ 12 ] . It was aimed to fix optic movies incorporating Fluconazole I?-CD composite.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fluconazole was a gift samples from Waksman Selman Pharmaceuticals, Anantapur, India. I?-CD, Acetic acid, Propylene ethanediol were procured from Merck chemicals, Goa, India. All other reagents and dissolvers were of analytical class.
Preparation of ocuserts
The readying of ocuserts involved three different stairss [ 13 ]
Preparation of Drug reservoir movie
The polymeric drug reservoir movies were prepared by fade outing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of HPMC-K4M in 15 milliliter of dual distilled H2O. Along with this 26.95 milligram of binary mixture incorporating Fluconazole b-CD was individually dissolved in dilute base hydroxide solution and so it was poured to the polymeric solution. The solution was stirred utilizing magnetic scaremonger at 100 revolutions per minute and Di Butyl Pthalate ( 10 % w/w ) , which was antecedently optimized for its concentration, was incorporated as a plasticiser every bit good as pervasion foil to above solution under same rousing conditions.
After complete blending the solution was casted in petri dish ( antecedently lubricated with Glycerine ) utilizing a ring of 5.0 centimeters diameter and with a funnel inverted on the surface ( for unvarying vaporization of dissolver ) . The dramatis personae solution was allowed to vaporize by puting it inside a hot air oven maintained at 37A±2oC, 30A±0.5 % of RH for 24 hours. After drying the medicated movies of 8 millimeters diameter each incorporating 300 milligram of drug were cut utilizing a chromium steel steel bore bit, which is antecedently sterilized.
Preparation of Rate commanding membrane ( RCM )
A weighed measure of Ethyl Cellulose was dissolved in 10 milliliter of propanone to obtain 4, 5 and 6 % polymeric solutions. Stiring was continuously maintained until the clear solution was obtained. These solutions were poured in petri dish ( antecedently lubricated with Glycerine ) utilizing a ring of 5.0 centimeter diameter. The solution was evaporated easy by inverting a glass funnel on a petri dish at room temperature for 12 hours. The dried movies were cut into 9 millimeters diameter utilizing a chromium steel steel bore bit.
A medicated reservoir phonograph record was sandwiched between two rate commanding membranes. Then this whole unit was placed for 4-5 min, over a wire mesh inside the desiccator. Desiccator was antecedently saturated with ethanol / propanone ( 60:40 ) . This process resulted into successful waterproofing of the medicated reservoir movie between two-rate commanding membranes. The certain ocuserts were stored in an air-tight container under ambient conditions.
Plasticizer weight was based on weight of the polymer. All the above experimentation was carried out under laminar air flow to keep the asepsis conditions of ophthalmic merchandises.
Evaluation of Polymeric Ocuserts
The compatibility of drug with the excipient used was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectrometry. The FTIR spectrums of Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Formulation ( F-5 ) blend were studied by utilizing FTIR spectrophotometer ( Perkin Elmer, spectrum-100, Japan ) utilizing the KBr disc method ( 5.2510 milligram sample in 300.2502 milligrams KBr ) . The scanning scope was 500 to 4000 cm-1 and the declaration was 1 cm-1. This spectral analysis was employed to look into the compatibility of drugs with the polymers used.
Physical Word picture
The ocucets were evaluated for their physical characters such as form, coloring material, texture, visual aspect etc.
Thickness of Film
Movies were evaluated for the thickness utilizing a vernier calliper ( For-bro Engineers, Mumbai, India ) . The norm of 5 readings was taken at different points of movie and the average thickness was calculated. The standard divergences ( SD ) in thickness were computed from the average value [ 14 ] .
Uniformity in drug content
For drug content uniformity, the ocuserts were placed in 5 milliliter of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and were shaken in orbital shaker brooder at 50 revolutions per minute to pull out the drug from ocuserts. After incubation for 24 H, the solution was filtered through a 0.45 millimeter filter and the filtrate was appropriately diluted with buffer solution [ 15, 16 ]
The optical density of the ensuing solution was measured at 254 nanometers.
Uniformity of weight
The weight fluctuation trial was carried out utilizing electronic balance ( Sartorius GmbH, Gottingen, Germany ) , by weighing three spots from each preparation. The average value was calculated and the standard divergences of weight fluctuation were computed from the average value.
A little strip of movie was cut equally and individually folded at the same topographic point till it breaks. The figure of times the movie could be folded at the same topographic point without interrupting gave the folding endurance [ 17 ] .
Percentage wet soaking up
The per centum wet soaking up trial was carried out to look into physical stableness or unity of optic movies. Ocular movies were weighed and placed in a dessicator incorporating 100 milliliter of concentrated solution of aluminum chloride and 79.5 % humidness was maintained. After three yearss the optic movies were taken out and reweighed. The per centum wet soaking up was calculated utilizing the undermentioned equation [ 18 ] .
Percentage wet soaking up = Final weight – Initial weight x 100
Percentage Moisture Loss
The per centum wet loss was carried out to look into unity of the movie at dry status. Ocular movies were weighed and kept in a dessicator incorporating anhydrous Ca chloride. After 3 yearss, the ocuserts were taken out and reweighed ; the per centum wet loss was calculated utilizing the undermentioned equation [ 19, 20 ]
Percentage wet loss = Initial weight – Final weight ten 100
Determination of the Swelling Index and the Surface pH of the Fluconazole Films in Distilled Water
The ocuserts were coated on the lower side with ethyl cellulose ( to avoid lodging to the dish ) so weighed ( W1 ) and placed individually in petri dishes incorporating 25 milliliter of distilled H2O. The dishes were stored at room temperature. After 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 and 60 proceedingss, the movies were removed and the extra H2O on their surface was carefully removed utilizing filter paper. The conceited phonograph record were weighed ( W2 ) and the per centum of swelling was calculated by the undermentioned expression [ 19- 21 ]
Swelling index = W2 – W1 / W1 X100
The movies used for finding of swelling index were used for finding of their surface pH utilizing cosmopolitan pH paper [ 22 ]
In vitro drug release surveies
The ocuserts from each batch were taken and placed in a 15 milliliter phials incorporating 10 milliliter of pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline. The phials were placed in an oscillatory H2O bath at 32 A± 10C with 25 oscillations per minute. 1mL of the drug let go ofing media was withdrawn at assorted clip intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 H and replaced by the same volume of phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. These samples were filtered through 0.45 millimeters membrane filter. The filtrate was diluted appropriately with the buffer [ 23, 24 ] . The drug was estimated in each batch by dual beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer ( Elico SL 210, Mumbai, India ) at 254 nanometer. The obtained information was treated with mathematical kinetic mold.
In vivo drug release survey
Out of 5 batches of preparations F-4 and F-9 were taken for in vivo survey on the footing of in vitro drug release surveies. The ocuserts were sterilized by utilizing UV radiation before in vivo survey. The ocusert and other stuffs were exposed to UV radiation for 1 h. After sterilisation, ocuserts were transferred into polyethylene bag with the aid of forceps inside the sterilisation chamber itself. The pure Fluconazole that was sterilized along with ocuserts was analyzed for authority by UV spectrophotometer at 254 nanometers after suited dilution with pH 7.4 phosphate buffer [ 25, 26 ] .
The albino coneies of either sex ( New-Zealand strain ) , weighing between 2.5-3.0 kilograms were used for the experiment. The animate beings were housed on single coops and customized to laboratory conditions for one twenty-four hours ( received free entree to nutrient and H2O ) .
The ocuserts incorporating Fluconazole were taken for in vivo survey, which were antecedently sterilized on the twenty-four hours of the experiment and were placed into the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac. The ocuserts were inserted into each of the 7 coneies at same clip the other oculus of seven coneies served as control.
Ocuserts were removed carefully at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 H and analyzed for drug content as dilution mentioned in drug content uniformity. The drug remaining was subtracted from the initial drug content of ocuserts that will give the sum of drug released in the coney oculus. Observation for any autumn out of the ocuserts was besides recorded throughout the experiment. After one hebdomad of washed period the experiment was repeated for two times as earlier.
The possible optic annoyance and/or detrimental effects of the ocusert under trial were evaluated by detecting them for any inflammation, redness ( or ) increased tear production. Formulation was tested on five coneies by puting the inserts in the cul-de-sac of the left oculus. Both eyes of the coneies under trial were examined for any marks of annoyance before intervention and were observed up to 12 Hs [ 27 ]
Stability testing has become built-in portion of preparation development. It generates information on which, proposed for shelf life of drug or dose signifiers and their recommended storage conditions are based.
In the present survey, the preparation F-4 was selected for the survey and ocuserts were packed in amber-colored bottles tightly plugged with cotton and capped. They were exposed to assorted temperatures ( 60 O, 40o, 20 O, 10o and 0o C ) for 30 yearss. At regular intervals, the ocuserts were taken in 10 milliliter of pH 7.4 buffer and were shaken for 12 H in an orbital shaker. The attendant solutions were filtered, decently diluted and estimated spectrophotometrically by maintaining pH 7.4 buffers as clean [ 28 ] . The logarithmic per centum of un-decomposed drug was plotted against clip and decomposition rate invariables ( K ) were obtained at each temperature. The logarithm of decomposition rate invariables were plotted against reciprocal of absolute temperature and the resulting line was extrapolated to K at 25o C.
Shelf life can be obtained by utilizing expression,
T90 = 0.104/K at 25o C.
Consequences and Discussion
The Thickness of formulated ocuserts were unvarying and ranged from 0.16A±0.001 to 0.17A±0.005 millimeter. The small fluctuation was observed with preparation F-5 might be due to the more concentration of rate commanding membrane. The values of uniformity of weight found to change from 15.89A±0.028 to 18.48A±0.153 mg. All preparations ( F-1 to F-9 ) showed good uniformity in weight. After the wet loss the ocuserts showed no alteration in unity and it was ranged from 6.29A±0.109 to 9.68A±0.045 % and the wet soaking up was ranged from 4.78A±0.222 to 9.84A±0.148 % . The highest wet soaking up was marked from preparations F-6 ( 9.84A±0.148 % ) , this may be due to the presence of larger concentration of hydrophilic polymer HPMC-K4M. The Folding endurance was ranged from 74A±6.681 to 98A±5.621 and no clefts were observed. Formulations F-9, F-3 and F-8 showed maximal foldable endurance.
The surface pH values of all movies were in the scope 4.5-6.5.
The formulated ocuserts were found to hold uniformity in drug content, preparation F-4 showed least dug content ( 85.65A±9.657 % ) and preparation F-9 showed highest dug content ( 97.26A±2.255 % ) . Water uptake surveies were performed for optimized preparations ( F-4 and F-9 ) . The H2O consumption was bit by bit increasing with clip bespeaking the good wetting nature of the ocuserts. Based on the highest arrested development value ( R ) , which is approaching to integrity, the preparations F-1, F-2, F-4, F-6, F-8 and F-9 followed Higuchi-Matrix dynamicss. This suggests that the drug release by swellable polymer matrix through the diffusion of tear fluids. The ‘n ‘ values of preparations F-1 to F-9 were 0.5652, 0.5329, 0.7126, 0.5984, 0.7687, 0.6295, 0.6985, 0.5987 and 0.7748 severally. This indicates that the release by non-Fickian-diffusion mechanism. Accumulative percent drug release for F-4 and F-9 were found to be 92.31 and 93.03 % severally at 20th h. For in vivo drug release, preparations F-4 and F-9 were selected based on their unvarying drug content and highest in vitro drug release. The cumulative per centum drug release from F-4 and F-9 were found to be 90.24 % and 87.45 % after 20th H severally, which is found to be less when compared to in vitro drug release surveies. The ocuserts were retained in the coney oculus during the full survey.
Stability informations indicates the preparations were stable and no major debasement was found and a shelf life of 1.499 old ages was assigned to the ocuserts ( F-9 ) .
In the present survey an effort was made to develop ocuserts of Fluconazole with improved bioavailability, turning away of repeated disposal and dose decrease. From the experimental determination, it can be concluded that Hydorxy Propyl methyl cellulose is a good movie organizing hydrophilic polymer and is a promising agent for optic bringing. Ethyl Cellulose was a satisfactory polymeric ingredient to manufacture the rate-controlling membrane of the ocusert system. Incorporation of Propylene ethanediol enhances the permeableness of Fluconazole and therefore curative degrees of the drug could be achieved. Complexation of Fluconazole with b-cyclodextrin suggested, heightening the solubility profile of ill soluble drug Fluconazole and besides permeableness of the drug through cornea. The kinetic intervention of in vitro disintegration informations indicated that the ocusert followed non-Fickian diffusion dynamicss. In vivo release profile indicated that drug release was less compared to in vitro and there was complete absence of eye-irritation, inflammation of the coney oculus. The drug remained integral and stable in the ocuserts on storage and shelf life of 1.499 old ages. Further hereafter work will be progressed to set up the curative public-service corporation of these systems by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic surveies in human existences.
Table 1: Composition of assorted polymers in different preparations per ring
( % w/v )
( % w/v )
( % v/w )
( milligram )
12 milliliter of the dramatis personae solution was poured into petri dish to fix round dramatis personae movie. * Based on polymer weight
Table 2: Physicochemical Evaluation of different preparations
( millimeter )
( milligram )
( % )
( % )
( % )
*All values in average A±SD and figure of tests ( n=5 )
Table 3: Water consumption and swelling behaviour
Time ( H )
Water consumption ( milligram )
All values in average A±SD and figure of tests ( n=5 )
Table 4: Kinetic values obtained from Zero order release profile
coefficient ( R )
Table 5: Kinetic Valuess Obtained From First Order Release Profile
coefficient ( R )
Table 6: Kinetic Valuess Obtained From Higuchi-Matrix Release Profile
coefficient ( R )
Table 7: Kinetic values obtained from Korsmeyer Peppa ‘s release profile
coefficient ( R )
Table 8: Kinetic values obtained from Hixson Crowell release profile
coefficient ( R )
Table 9: Datas Obtained From Stability Studies
Temp. ( oC )
Ab. Temp ( T )
D.R.C. ( K )
Temp = Temperature ; Ab. Temp = Absolute Temperature:
Rec. T = Reciprocal of absolute temperature ;
D.R.C. ( K ) = Decomposition rate invariable ( Day-1 ) ;
Log. K = Logarithm of decomposition rate invariable.