Based on the job statement and research inquiries, questionnaires will be distributed to respondents of 100 local tourers and 100 international tourers take parting in the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme utilizing non chance, convenience trying method.
Consequences that will be obtained based on local and international tourer ‘s satisfaction take parting on the selling mix of the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme will be determined.
Homestay programme was foremost introduced back in 1970 ‘s in Kampung Cherating Lama, Pahang. The laminitis of such adjustment was famously known as Mak Long. Types of basic adjustment Mak Long has provided for the invitees during those yearss consist both breakfast and dinner and served at place ( Amran, 2008 ) . It is believed that in the late eightiess, the homestay programme so has been transformed into Nipponese young person stay where they learned the rural manner of life of the locals ( Ibrahim and Razzaq, n.d. ) . ( Kalsom and Ashikin, 2006 ) homestay programme in Malaysia was introduced in 1988 by the once known as Ministy of Culture, Arts and Tourism Malaysia subsequently known as Ministry Tourism of Malaysia.
Today, homestay programme in Malayan context is defined as the rural-cultural- community based touristry merchandise ( The Star, 2009 ) and is seen to hold possible in supplying income and employment for the rural community as a whole. Therefore, as stated under the Ninth Malaysian Plan, an sum of RM 40 million allocated to the Ministry of Tourism to upgrade substructures needed in the rural countries ( Ibrahim and Razzaq, n.d. ) . ( Ninth Malaysian Plan, 2006-2010 ) the authorities ‘s precedence is on development of rural communities and two schemes undertaken include minimising the obvious spread in income between the rural and urban countries. As stated by the Ministry of Tourism Malaysia ( 2010 ) “ Until May 2010, a sum of 227 small towns and 2984 participants registered under Ministry of Tourism Malaysia ” .
1.1 ) Background of survey: Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme
It was believed that Santubong was one time celebrated for its trade and this information is backed up by the leftovers of English, Hindu and Chinese influence here. Based on the claim made by the local community of Santubong, Santubong was originally known as Kampung Teluk Pasir Putih ( White Sandy Bay Village ) as given by the Chinese colonists trading at the clip. The most alone characteristic of the legendary saddle horse Santubong is the feminine figure lying on her side ( Sarawak Museum ) .
Santubong is considered as the largest archeological site in Malaysia compared to Lembah Bujang in Peninsular Malaysia due to 1000s of ceramic together with 40,000 metric tons of Fe were found in 1947 by conservator, Tom Harrison ( 1947-1966 ) . This topographic point was believed to be of import country for merchandisers and Fe excavation from 11th to 13 century.
Santubong Village, a Malay fishing small town strategically located at the river oral cavity of the Sarawak with the legendary saddle horse Santubong as the background makes this small town a alone 1. About 40 proceedingss ‘ thrust from the Kuching metropolis Centre to make Santubong Village, this Santubong small town is rich with celebrated landmarks that can be found around the small town. Popular list among tourers are the cryptic Sultan Tengah Tomb ( First and the last Sarawak Sultan ) , the Legendary Mount Santubong surrounded by myths. Other historic landmarks that exist until today are the James Brooke Bungalow. The really celebrated history marked here every bit good where Wallace the celebrated scientist penned his theory on speciation and life here, ‘Batu Buaya ‘ ( Curse crocodile rock ) , ‘Teluk Sepang ‘ ( Raden Merpati landed in Santubong ) , ‘Bongkisam ‘ ( An old Fe mine ) , ‘Batu Gambar ‘ ( Pictorial Rock ) and ‘Pulau Kera ‘ ( Monkey Island ) .
( Beginning: Sarawak Museum, n.d. ) .
1.2 ) Problem statement
There have been several researches done antecedently on the benefits and positive part through the homestay programme. However, this survey will concentrate on finding the effectivity of each constituents of marketing mix such as merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity by Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme against tourer satisfaction.
1.3 ) Research aims
The aim of the survey is to find the effectivity of each constituents of marketing mix such as merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity against tourer satisfaction are as follows: –
To find tourist satisfaction against merchandise in Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
To find tourist satisfaction against monetary value offered by Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
To find tourist satisfaction against promotional scheme offered by Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
To find tourist satisfaction against the topographic point in which Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme is located.
1.4 ) Research Questions
How effectual are the constituents of marketing mix used by Kampung Santubong homestay programme against tourer satisfaction. The traditional constituents of marketing mix in are as follows: –
How to find tourist satisfaction against merchandise in Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme?
How to find tourist satisfaction against monetary value offered against promotional scheme offered by Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme?
How to find tourist satisfaction against the promotional scheme offered by Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme?
How to find tourist satisfaction against the topographic point in which Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme located?
1.5 ) Scope of Study
This research is undertaken to find the effectivity of each constituents of marketing mix such as merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity by the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme against tourer satisfaction. This research of survey will chiefly concentrate at the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme located at Santubong, Kuching Sarawak.
1.6 ) Restriction of Research
1.6.1 ) Insufficient resources
Insufficient resources due to miss of relevant old researches done through online scholarly diaries. Most on-line diaries are on payment footing and merely few free articles or diaries available online.
1.6.2 ) Time restraint
Limited clip to carry on research since distribution of questionnaires in targeted country falls during the month of Ramadhan, the fasting month for the Muslims and besides on the gay month, Hari Raya. Some of the local community participated in the Santubong Homestay Programme may non hold clip to entertain invitees.
1.6.3 ) Tourist
Tourists engagement response to the questionnaires distributed may change. Some tourers may be willing to take part in this research and some may non.
1.6.4 ) Seasonal factor
Due to the nature of merchandise of homestay programme, during low season, figure of tourers take parting in the homestay programme may be affected.
1.7 ) Significance of Study
This survey aid in lending valuable information to all homestay operators in Kuching on the influence of tourer satisfaction against the selling mix adopted by homestay programmes in order to heighten homestay programmes in the hereafter. In fact, utilizing tourer ‘s satisfaction as a tool to find on the elements of the marketing mix such as the merchandise, monetary value, publicity and topographic point can profit homestay operators on supplying the best homestay product/ service by distinguishing themselves from each other, therefore, the sense of singularity to pull more tourers in take parting in the homestay programme particularly in throughout Kuching.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
2.1 ) Definition of footings
2.1.1 ) Homestay Programme
The term homestay programmes are varied in different parts of the universe therefore, harmonizing to Barke ( 2004 ) “ In specifying the term homestay programme, there is no individual accepted definition in the International surveies ” . Lane ( 1994 ) stated homestay as a rural community based touristry merchandise, therefore falls under rural touristry class.
2.1.2 ) Tourist satisfaction
Tourist satisfaction is defined as ( Klaus,1985, pg 21 ) ‘the accrued experience of a client ‘s purchase and experiences ‘
2.1.3 ) Selling mix
( Perreault, Jr.and McCarthy, 2004, pg38 ) selling variables are separated into merchandise, monetary value, publicity and monetary value leads to an easy preparation of selling scheme.
2.2 ) Homestay Programme
( Akbar, Bael, Hassan Baguley, 2003 ) homestay programme in Australia is the type of adjustment for international pupils to shack in and is believed to assist them with civilization version. Homestay is comparable to bed and breakfasts and more low-cost compared to rental type adjustment ( Akbar, Bael, Hassan, Baguley, 2003 ) . In Malaysia context of homestay programme natural scene, Both ( Kalsom, 2009 ; and Tourism Government, 2008 ) mentioned homestay programme takes topographic point in a “ kampung ” or village puting where invitees have the chance to populate together in the same house with their “ adopted households ” and larn the traditional manner of lives of the host household. ( Kalsom, 2009 ) added Malaysia homestay programme differed from other type of homestay programme where host-tourists engagement is emphasized through engagement in local activities.
( Tourism Government, 2008 ) homestay programme in Malaysia is owned by homestay operators that are granted with a licence to take part in the homestay programme. Meaning to state, non all place proprietors have the privilege to take portion in this homestay unless they abide to a list of standards established by the Ministry of Tourism for all take parting homestay operators. The list of standards refering to hygiene, condemnable record, clean lavatory, equal figure of adjustment in footings of separate sleeping rooms, handiness to chief route and no catching disease are extremely regarded. By and large, homestay development policy in Malaysia is aimed to to the full utilised natural resources at “ kampung ” degree, preservation of the socio cultural and artistic imposts of the small town every bit good as its singularity.
However, there are several grounds clearly shows that there are similarities in some elements of the homestay programme. For illustration, the homestay programmes in states like Australia, Malaysia, and Kwam Emakana community in South Africa stated that the civilization exchange between the host and the invitees does be through adjustment provided by the host household.
This cultural exchange is stressing through host-guest engagement on local activities, local nutrient and imposts. Similar to the Malayan context of homestay, the Kwam Emakana community besides takes portion in the community based touristry homestay where it takes topographic point in a rural / small town scene. However, non all homestay adjustment of the Kwam Emakana exists in the rural scene since they besides provide township adjustment with private places ( Kwam Emakana Community Based Homestay Initiative in South Africa, 2010 ; pg 152 ) . Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization projections cites in ( African Business, 2010 ) , homestay programme additions its popularity may drive by the demand to happen inexpensive adjustment and affecting vacations from the traveler ‘s portion. In order to hold a direct experience of the host civilization, invitees expected the homestay adjustment including the nutrient and local activities as it is. ( Solomon Mburu, African Business, 2010 ) .
2.3 ) Tourist satisfaction
In touristry, satisfaction is evaluated based on the features of touristry offers and respondents are typically evaluated through satisfaction graduated table ( Kozak, 2001 ) . ( Fuchs Weiermair ( 2003 ) finish properties are correlated to a variable measurement entire client ( tourers ) satisfaction ensuing in more valid managerial deductions. Harmonizing to ( Zeithaml et al. . . ) cited by ( Pawitra and Tan, 2003 ) touristry in nature is different from other country of services, therefore there is a demand for touristry industry to used SERVQUAL to mensurate tourist satisfaction for a finish.
( Kozak and Rimmington, 2000 ) tourer satisfaction are greatly affected by the tourer motive to buying, ingestion and services related to touristry offers. In add-on, tourer satisfaction considered as an effectual tool in homestay touristry and helped sellers in touristry merchandise placement ( Seubsamarn and Cho, 2009 ) .There was research being done on the relationship between quality, satisfaction, old experience and trueness ( Baker and Crompton, 2000 ; Bignee et al. , 2001 ; Pritchard, 2003. Petrick, 2004b ; Yoon and Uysal, 2005 ; Um et al. , 2006 ) . Perceived quality leads to consumer satisfaction, therefore enhance publicity of the finish through word of oral cavity and repetition purchase ( Brady and Robertson, 2001 ) . This statement agreed besides by ( Bignee et al. ( 2001 ) finish ‘s image is a major key related to quality, satisfaction, and tourer ‘s motive repetition purchase. ( Yoon and Uysal, 2005 ) shows the difference tourists motive that needs to be applied in multiple dimensions via incorporate attacks and the complex nature of satisfaction every bit good as the theories of mensurating satisfaction.
2.4 ) Elementss of the Marketing Mix ( 4Ps )
The traditional definition of selling mix which consists of 4Ps was proposed by E. Jerome McCarthy ( 1960 ) . It ‘s elements viz. ; the merchandise, monetary value, publicity and topographic point have been used extensively by sellers all over the universe ( Wikipedia.org, 2012 ) . Kannan and Srinivasan ( 2009 ) implied the selling mix for any service industry normally comprises of 8ps, where four adopted from the traditional selling mix and the later are procedure, physical grounds, people, and productiveness.
The first component of marketing mix is the merchandise. In a homestay programme context, what drives tourers to flock to any finish as stated by Maimunah and Abdul Rahim ( 2009 ) cited in ( Ibrahim and Razzaq, n.d. ) “ The motive factor of the tourers to see a peculiar finish is chiefly for the merchandise or attractive forces.
The merchandises mentioned referred to the auxiliary attractive forces such as the natural resources like nature and home ground of the small town scene has to offer, common architecture, traditional daintinesss and drinks, humanistic disciplines and trades, music and cultural activities, historical significance, agricultural activities and particular phenomena ” . Hence, touristry merchandise / service normally have direct impact on tourer satisfaction. In a service context, a demand fulfilling merely emerged bit by bit for the client throughout the ingestion procedure. Meaning to state, a service is seen as a procedure that leads to an result during partially coincident production and ingestion procedures ( Gronroos, 2001 ) .
In the context of touristry merchandise which normally related with the service, Ferrell ( 2005 ) merchandise is the nucleus of the selling mix scheme and therefore, shareholders involved in the devising and production of the touristry merchandise can easy pull strings those merchandises and come up with more alone characteristics in the attempt to separate themselves from rivals. Lapp goes to the homestay programme bundles offered by shareholders involved such homestay operators of Kampung Santubong with the aid of circuit operators that conveying in the tourers to the small town and active publicity and grants by the Malaysia Tourism Ministry ( Ministry of Tourism Malaysia, 2011 ) .
In contrary, this has non ever been the instance. Harmonizing to Seaton and Bennett ( 1996 ) and Butler and Hall ( 1998 ) , one of the chief issues that are faced by most touristry finishs is the trouble to separate themselves from each other. Technically, most of the touristry merchandise / services offered by these touristry finish operators are similar which by all agencies they might hold lost their sense of uniqueness particularly in the eyes of the tourers, their mark market ( Garrod, Wornell, Youell, Garrod et Al. , 2006 ) .
Mentioning back to the merchandise, since touristry merchandise / service are categorized as services selling, there is a demand to distinguish touristry selling when compared to other services ( Lovelock ) . In this sense, “ The differences between touristry selling and other type of services include: – the nature of the touristry merchandise itself where it emphasizes on supplying recreational experience and cordial reception to tourers, tourers must go in order to devour the touristry product/ service therefore doing the elements of clip and money spent to go affect tourer ‘s travel determinations ” ( Kannan and Srinivasan, 2009 ) . This similar attack besides agreed by Seaton and Bennett ( 1996 ) whereby touristry merchandise does non permitted the mark market which is the tourer to seek the touristry merchandise / service before buying. In add-on to the issue refering to the nature of touristry merchandise / service, as implied by Parasuraman et Al. ( 1985 ) ; and Schiffman and Kanuk ( 2000 ) , the nature of touristry merchandise besides may act upon the position of the consumer, the tourers on the service quality.
Promotion is defined as all the methods of communications used by the seller in order to reassign information about certain merchandise or a service. The methods are gross revenues publicity, advertisement, personal merchandising and public dealingss ( Wikipedia.org, 2012 ) . These methods of publicity are comparatively different from each other. Ad is different compared to public dealingss because an person or an establishment demand to pay for their narratives to be advertised is it in the cyberspace, newspaper or telecasting. Public dealingss are normally used as a medium for promotional scheme. Such illustration of PR was the launching of Misompuru Homestay Packages with MASWings by the Federal Tourism Minister, Dato Eng Yen Yen ( Daily Express, 2012 ) . It is up to the stakeholders involved on how to advance the finish image in which the homestay programme puting prevarications. Tourism Malaysia ( 2010b ) is continuously advancing the homestay programme assorted local activities go oning in different homestay programme operators throughout Malaysia ( Jamaludin, Othman and Awang, 2010 ) .
Harmonizing to Ministry of Tourism Malaysia ( 2011 ) , “ Homestay Programme is an experience where tourers stay with selected households, interact and experience, the day-to-day life of these households every bit good as sing Malayan civilization ” .Thus, possible tourers that are acute to take part in the Malayan version of a homestay programme can easy shop through the official Malaysia Homestay Website: www.go2homestay.com. Information on gross revenues publicity of homestay bundles is available at that place every bit good ( Ministry of Tourism Malaysia, 2011 ) . Other illustration of the latest publicity attempt by the Tourism Malaysia with is the “ Homestay Rail ” , as stated by the manager of the bureau from Singapore, Zalizam Zakaria ( News Straight Times, 2012 ) . This “ Homestay Rail ” will pull chiefly pupils and senior citizens from Singapore to take part in the homestays located along the journey between Johor Bharu and the east seashore ( News Straight Times, 2012 ) .
When it comes to advancing the touristry merchandise such as homestay programme, the finish image plays an of import function in advancing the touristry merchandise / services in this instance, the homestay programme. The definition of finish image are agreed by both Buhalis ( 2000 ) ; Baloglu and McCleary ( 1999 ) in which perceptual experiences of any finish held in the heads of tourers. Harmonizing to Chon ( 1992 ) ; Baloglou and Bringmerg ( 1997 ) cited in Buhalis ( 2000 ) “ Before people go to a finish they develop the image and a set of outlooks based on old experience, word of oral cavity, imperativeness studies, advertisement and common beliefs ” ( JobTrust Incorporated, 2007-2012 ) . However, this will non ever seem to be the instance, Weirmair and Fuchs ( 1999 ) mentioned “ Finishs could alter their advertisement schemes. Advertisement could either underscore the service procedure features of its touristry and related civilizations by concentrating on tourers ‘ experiences within the finish ” ( Munar, n.d. ) .
Monetary value refers to the sum a client is willing to pay for the merchandise or service in relation to touristry services context. The monetary value offered for the merchandise / service must complements other elements of marketing mix in order since it will find whether the net incomes are favorable which is of import for the concern endurance ( Wikipedia.org, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Ministry Tourism of Malaysia ( 2011 ) , the basic cost of disbursement on homestay bundles range from Ringgit Malaysia 150 – 250 inclusive of repasts, adjustment, and activities, depending on the activities offered in assorted homestay programme operators throughout Malaysia. In add-on, all cost related information to homestay bundles offered from assorted homestay operators are accessible through the official Malayan Homestay web site, www.go2homestay.com. Topographic point is where the merchandise / service is provided by single or establishment to the client and the topographic point must be accessible and convenient to the clients. Topographic point is besides normally referred to distribution ( Wikipedia.org, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Uysal, Chen and Williams ( 2000 ) to construct a positive finish image in the heads of tourers was non an easy occupation and served as selling challenges for shareholders involved.
2.5 ) Theoretical Framework
Tourist ‘s Satisfaction
Marketing mix ( 4Ps )
Chapter 3: Research Design and Methodology
3.1 ) Definition of research design
( Micheal. S.Carriger, 2000 ) stated research design can be seen as as common sense and clear thought for the direction of research to come up with effectual scheme in carry oning a reaserch.
3.2 ) Sampling
Research sample is a group of people chosen from the trying frame by stand foring the whole population of survey ( goodresearch.eu, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Uma Sekaran ( 2000 ) , a sample size is a subset of a population being studied and merely some elements of the population are treated as the sample.
3.2.1 ) Population
Harmonizing to Uma Sekaran ( 2000 ) , Population is defined as the full group of people, events, or things of involvement that the research worker wishes to look into. As besides stated by Joan Joseph Castillo ( 2009 ) “ Research population is by and large a big aggregation of persons or objects that is the chief focal point of a scientific question ” . The mark population for this research is local and international tourers sing Kuching, Sarawak.
3.2.2 ) Sample frame
A sample frame is referred to the list consisting of the units of the population ( MBA Official, 2010 ) . Besides stated in ( Wikipedia.org, 2012 ) sample frame may include the persons, families or establishments which related the population. The sample frame of research is of local and international tourers who are take parting in the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
3.2.3 ) Sampling design
Non chance, convenience trying method will be used for this research. Convenience trying involved roll uping information from members of the population who are handily available provide to it ( Sekaran, 2000 ) . Therefore, both the local and international tourers who are most available or most handily selected will be asked through questionnaires.
3.2.4 ) Sample size
A sample size of 200 respondents of both local and international tourers from a convenience trying method is to be selected on the footing of this research.
3.3 ) Instrument for the research
These questionnaires are divided into three subdivisions: Section A: List of personal informations inquiries on demographic of tourer will be asked as closed ended inquiries with utilizing ordinal graduated table. Section B: Pertaining to the selling mix of Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme against tourer satisfaction. Using Likert graduated table closed complete inquiries consists of “ Strongly disagree, impersonal ( either agree or disagree ) , agree, strongly agree. Section C: Open-ended inquiries chiefly on recommendations or betterments of the Kampung Santubong Homestay marketing mix will be asked.
3.4 ) Data Collection Method
Questionnaire as referred to Wikipedia.org ( 2012 ) “ … a research instrument represents by sets of inquiries for the intent of garnering the information relevant to the survey of research ” . Questionnaires are to be distributed in a signifier of study signifier to local and international tourers who take parting in the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme, Harmonizing to BusinessDictionary.com ( ) “ questionnaires are a list of a research or study inquiries asked to respondents and designed to pull out specific information ” . Questionnaires are to be distributed to the local and international tourers who are take parting and had participated in the Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme and local community of Kampung Santubong
Both primary and secondary informations are used in carry oning this survey. Primary informations as mentioned by Karuna ( 2012 ) are referred to raw and original stuffs collected by the research worker which comparatively expensive and clip consuming as compared to secondary informations. Karuna ( 2012 ) stated secondary informations on the other manus deficiencies of originality ( Preserve articles.com, 2012 ) . Primary information is informations collected by the research worker to roll up quantitative methods while secondary informations referred to as informations obtained from beginnings which are already available such as literature, industry studies, digests. . . ( socialscience.stow.ac.uk, 2000 ) .
Analysis of Datas
3.5.1 ) Spss
The first version of SPSS ( Statistical Package For Social Science ) was released in 1968 and was developed by ( Norman H, Nie and C. Hadlai Hull ( Wikipedia.org, 2012 ) . It is used by every administration such as authorities, selling establishements.
3.5.2 ) Pilot trial
Pilot survey will be conducted earlier to prove the dependability and cogency of the questionnaires. Harmonizing to Julie Stachowiak ( 2008 ) pilot survey is defined as a smaller version of a big survey that is conducted to fix for that survey. It is besides used as a tool to prove an thought or hypothesis.
3.5.3 ) Reliability trial
“ Dependability of a step indicates the extent to which the step is without prejudice and offers consistent measuring across clip and other points related in the intruement ” . ( Sekaran, 2001 )
3.5.4 ) Hypothesis statement
H1: Tourists are satisfied with the merchandise of Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
H2: Tourists are satisfied with the monetary value of Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
H3: Tourists are satisfied with the publicity of Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.
H4: Tourists are satisfied with the topographic point of Kampung Santubong Homestay Programme.