For decades, the overseas workers become in demand worldwide. Philippines are one of the countries that have numerous overseas workers. This can be root from Spanish and American colonization’ influence to Philippine culture. Due to the duality of roles women are expected to fill, in terms of domestic duties and the expectation to join the labor force, women in European and North American countries have increasingly hired domestic workers as a cheap form of labor (Padilla, 2014). Before 1521 the pre-Hispanic period of the Philippines, there are evidences that women had a central role. The principal religious authority was called babaylan, a tagalog word means only women. The play of this role may be one of the factors that enabled women to also become political authorities in the local administrative units called barangay.
In spite of this freedom among Filipino women, during the arrival of Spanish people the role of women started became different. (Perez, 2013) According in a study of Psychopathology, Filipino psychiatrist Lourdes Lapus writes: The Filipino Culture, for all the increasing signs and protest to stereotypes ego-idea for women of many years, Maria Clara image of a woman was given as an expectation among Filipina. Likewise, a stereotypical family father was the sole breadwinner and usually the woman was a stay-at-home mother in charge of childbearing and housework.
(Moss, 2004) On the report of International Organization for Migration (IOM), last 2003 there is estimated number of migrants worldwide with a statistical data of 175 million workers and half of this are women (Padilla, 2006).Global migration in the Philippines started during the American colonization. At that time there are two ways of migration (1) Filipino migrate in Hawaii and other parts of United States as growers of Pineapple and (2) Filipino intellectuals leave the country to study for their specialization and degrees. Eventually, the time of former President Marcos, there is additional way of migration, Filipino migrate to other countries as an overseas contract worker (OCW). The OCW at that time is introduced as interim strategy to meet the problem of the Philippines: increased of unemployment rate and to pay the external debt of the Philippines. Until to the next generations, OCW still exist to be an interim strategy. They are now known as new heroes of the Philippines as they provide solutions to economic problems (Marcinas, 2008).