Geneshave an effect on the human body as the task of DNA is to make sure that a cellworks properly and is carrying the complete genetic material of a cell.
However, if alterations occur in a gene, which is a part of a DNA, it can haveconsequences on health and cause disorders.Therisk of developing a specific disease, however does not only relay on genes.Also, the environmental component plays a huge role within the risk of gettinga disease. Hence diseases get categorised into either “genetic diseases”,”Multifactorial diseases” or “environmental diseases”.
To distinct them, everycategory has their own characteristics. „Genetic diseases” are most of the timesingle-genes disorders and their mutations in a DNA can be passed to the nextgeneration as the damaged gene can be found in sex cells. However only becausethe gene gets passed on, it doesn’t mean that the disease have to occur, butpeople with a certain anomaly are at higher risk getting specific diseases. Anexample for this kind of disease would be the cystic fibrosis but they are generallyreally rare. (- Stewart A) Onthe other hand, all the more regular maladies such as heart diseases, diabetes,Cancer and Alzheimer are more complex and are named “multifactorial diseases” wherethe inheritance pattern and therefore the genes have an influence. Therefore,mutation in certain genes like BRCA1, BRCA2, p53 or PTEN genes are increasingthe risk in breast cancer for women and mutations in amyloid precursor protein,Presenilin 1 or Presenilin 2 genes expands the exposure for Alzheimer disease. Nonethelessit can’t be said with 100 percent certainty which element in a gene is reallyresponsible for the susceptibility of a disease as many genes due to high variationand complexity have immense impact.
Since its called multifactorial not onlygenes have an impact on the development, however a combination of environmentalfactors and the interaction of numerous genes has the result of the outbreak. Consideringthat, actual environmental ailments don’t exist as genes are always involved assoon as it comes to human errors due to their influence on behaviour andcharacteristics of a human being. (- StewartA) 3.2 Personalized medicine Onecomponent of genomics in Public health is the field of personalized medicine,since genetic material is meant to be included in medical judgments. For instance,it should optimize predicting the risk of an individual, providing the righttreatment and giving further information for health care strategies. Asremarkable progress has been made regarding the research of genetics, it alsofound its way to the development of treatments and therapy methods. Therefore,the information that has been gathered from an individual, focuses not only onpeople at their onset of the disease but also on their wellbeing to eitherprevent outbreaks or keep them healthy.
To accomplish this goal, health riskassessment is an important element, as it evaluates the chances of anindividual getting infected. On the other hand, also, family health history isa helpful method to obtain information about the health risk of a patient as itillustrates the connection of genetics, environment and lifestyle. In the tablebelow, it can be seen to what extend relationships in a family haveconsequences on the risk development for specific diseases. An example are families where lung cancer has occurredearlier in a parent or sibling 1.
7 – 2.5 times more likley to develop thisspecific cancer. In Colon cancer this chance is even higher as the odds ration comesto 2.0 – 2.6.