Geography. the scientific discipline of topographic point. i. e. . the survey of the surface of the Earth. the location and distribution of its physical and cultural characteristics. the areal patterns or topographic points that they form. and the interrelatedness of these characteristics as they affect worlds. Methods and Branchs
Geography is a synoptic scientific discipline that uses the same elements as the other scientific disciplines but in a different context. It integrates informations spatially. doing luxuriant usage of maps as its particular tool. Geography may be studied by manner of several interconnected attacks. i. e. . consistently. regionally. descriptively. and analytically. The systematic attack organizes geographical cognition into single classs that are studied on a world-wide footing ; the regional attack integrates the consequences of the systematic method and surveies the interrelatednesss of the different classs while concentrating on a peculiar country of the Earth ; the descriptive attack depicts where geographical characteristics and populations are located ; the analytical attack seeks to happen out why those characteristics are located where they are. In the survey of geographics two chief subdivisions may be distinguished. physical geographics and human ( or cultural ) geographics. originally anthropogeography. The first. based on the physical scientific disciplines. surveies the world’s surface. the distribution. word picture. and nature of its land and H2O countries.
Climate. landforms ( see geomorphology ) . and dirt are examined as to origin and are classified as to distribution. Pulling on the biological scientific disciplines. zoology and vegetation ( biogeography ) are brought into an areal form. Through the mathematical scientific disciplines the gesture of the Earth and its relationship to the Sun ( seasons ) . the Moon ( tides ) . and the planets are studied. every bit good as cartography and pilotage. Human geographics topographic points worlds in their physical scene ; it surveies their relationship with that environment every bit good as their witting activities and uninterrupted advancement in accommodating themselves to it ( and to other worlds ) and in transforming their environment to their demands.
Human geographics may in bend be subdivided into a figure of Fieldss. such as economic geographics. political geographics ( with its 20th-century outgrowth. geopolitics ) . societal geographics ( including urban geographics. another 20th-century branching ) . environmental perceptual experience and direction. geographical mapmaking. geographic information systems. and military geographics. Historical geographics ( which reconstructs geographicss of the past and efforts to follow the development of physical and cultural characteristics ) and urban and regional planning are sometimes considered subdivisions of geographics. History of Geographic Study
Geography was foremost consistently studied by the ancient Greeks. who besides developed a doctrine of geographics ; Thales of Miletus. Herodotus. Eratosthenes. Aristotle. Strabo. and Ptolemy made major parts to geography. The Roman part to geographics was in the geographic expedition and function of antecedently unknown lands. Grecian geographic acquisition was maintained and enhanced by the Arabs during the Middle Ages. Arab geographers. among whom Idrisi. Ibn Battutah. and Ibn Khaldun are outstanding. traveled extensively for the intent of increasing their cognition of the universe. The journeys of Marco Polo in the latter portion of the Middle Ages began the resurgence of geographic involvement outside the Muslim universe. With the Renaissance in Europe came the desire to research unknown parts of the universe that led to the ocean trips of geographic expedition and to the great finds. However. it was mercantile involvement instead than a echt hunt for cognition that spurred these enterprises. The 16th and 17th cent. reintroduced sound theoretical geographics in the signifier of text editions ( the Geographia generalis of Bernhardus Varenius ) and maps ( Gerardus Mercator ‘s universe map ) .
In the 18th cent. geographics began to accomplish acknowledgment as a subject and was taught for the first clip at the university degree. The field of geographics is a huge and fantastic academic field with 1000s of research workers working in tonss of interesting sub-disciplines or subdivisions of geographics. There is a subdivision of geographics for merely about any topic on Earth. In an attempt to introduce the reader with the diverseness of the subdivisions of geographics. I summarize many below. Human Geography Many subdivisions of geographics are found within human geographics. a major subdivision of geographics that surveies people and their interaction with the Earth and with their organisation of infinite on the earth’s surface. Economic Geography Economic geographers examine the distribution of production and distribution of goods. the distribution of wealth. and the spacial construction of economic conditions. Population Geography Population geographics is frequently equated with human ecology but population geographics is more than merely spiels of birth. decease. and matrimony. Population geographers are concerned with the distribution. migration. and growing of population in geographic countries.
Geography of Religions This subdivision of geographics surveies the geographic distribution of spiritual groups. their civilizations. and reinforced environments. Medical Geography Medical geographers study the geographic distribution of disease ( including epidemics and pandemics ) . unwellness. decease and wellness attention. Diversion. Tourism. and Sport Geography The survey of leisure-time activities and their impact on local environments. As touristry is one of the world’s largest industries. it involves a great figure of people doing really impermanent migrations and is therefore of great involvement to geographers. Military Geography Practitioners of military geographics are most frequently found within the military but the subdivision looks non merely at the geographic distribution of military installations and military personnels but besides utilizes geographic tools to develop military solutions. Political Geography Political geographics investigates all facets of boundaries. state. province. and state development. international organisations. diplomatic negotiations. internal state subdivisions. vote. and more.
Agricultural and Rural Geography Geographers in this subdivision survey agribusiness and rural colony. the distribution of agribusiness and the geographic motion and entree to agricultural merchandises. and land usage in rural countries. Transportation Geography Transportation geographers research transit webs ( both private and public ) and the usage of those webs for traveling people and goods. Urban Geography The subdivision of urban geographics investigates the location. construction. development. and growing of metropoliss — from bantam small town to immense megalopolis. Physical Geography Physical geographics is another major subdivision of geographics. It is concerned with the natural characteristics on or near the surface of the Earth. Biogeography Biographers study the geographic distribution of workss and animate beings on the Earth in the topic known as biogeography. Water Resources Geographers working in the H2O resources subdivision of geographics expression at the distribution and usage of H2O across the planet within the hydrologic rhythm and of human-developed systems for H2O storage. distribution. and usage. Climate Climate geographers investigate the distribution of long-run conditions forms and activities of the earth’s atmosphere.
Global Change Geographers researching planetary alteration explore the long term alterations happening to the works Earth based on human impacts on the environment. Geomorphology Geomorphologists study the landforms of the planet. from their development to their disappearing through eroding and other procedures. Hazards Geography As with many subdivisions of geographics. jeopardies combines work in physical and human geographics. Hazard geographers research utmost events known as jeopardies or catastrophe and research the human interaction and response to these unusual natural or technological events. Mountain Geography Mountain geographers look at the development of mountain systems and at the worlds who live in higher heights and their versions to these environments. Cryosphere Geography Cryosphere geographics explores the ice of the Earth. particularly glaciers and ice sheets. Geographers look at the past distribution of ice on the planet and ice-cause characteristics from glaciers and ice sheets. Arid Regions Geographers analyzing waterless parts examine the comeuppances and dry surfaces of the planet.
The explore how worlds. animate beings. and workss make their place in dry or waterless parts and the usage of resources in these parts. Coastal and Marine Geography Within coastal and Marine geographics. there are geographers researching the coastal environments of the planet and how worlds. coastal life. and coastal physical characteristics interact. Soils Geography Soil geographers study the upper bed of the geosphere. the dirt. of the Earth and its classification and forms of distribution. Regional Geography Many geographers focus their clip and energy on analyzing a specific part on the planet. Regional geographers focus on countries every bit big as a continent or every bit little as an urban country. Many geographers combine a regional forte with a forte in another subdivision of geographics. Applied Geography Applied geographers use geographic cognition. accomplishments. and techniques to work out jobs in mundane society. Applied geographers are frequently employed outside of academic environment and work for private houses or governmental bureaus.
Mapmaking It has frequently been said that geographics is anything that can be mapped. While all geographers know how to expose their research on maps. the subdivision of mapmaking focal points on bettering and developing engineerings in map-making. Cartographers work to make utile high-quality maps to demo geographic information in the most utile format possible. Geographic Information Systems Geographic Information Systems or GIS is the subdivision of geographics that develops databases of geographic information and systems to expose geographic informations in a map-like format. Geographers in GIS work to make beds of geographic informations and when beds are combined or utilized together in complex computerized systems. they can supply geographic solutions or sophisticated maps with the imperativeness of a few keys.
Geographic Education Geographers working in the field of geographic instruction seek to give instructors the accomplishments. cognition. and tools they need to assist battle geographic illiteracy and to develop future coevalss of geographers. Historical Geography Historical geographers research the human and physical geographics of the past. History of Geography Geographers working in the history of geographics seek to keep the history of the subject by researching and documenting the lifes of geographers and the histories of geographic surveies and geographics sections and organisations. Remote Sensing Remote feeling utilizes orbiters and detectors to analyze characteristics on or near the earth’s surface from a distance. Geographers in distant feeling analyze informations from distant beginnings to develop information about a topographic point where direct observation is non possible or practical. Quantitative Methods This subdivision of geographics uses mathematical techniques and theoretical accounts to prove hypothesis. Quantitative methods are frequently used in many other subdivisions of geographics but some geographers specialize in quantitative methods specifically. Physical geographics
Chief article: Physical geographics
Physical geographics ( or physical geography ) focuses on geographics as an Earth scientific discipline. It aims to understand the physical jobs and the issues of lithosphere. hydrosphere. atmosphere. pedosphere. and planetary vegetation and zoology forms ( biosphere ) . Human geographics
Human geographics is a subdivision of geographics that focuses on the survey of forms and processes that form the human society. It encompasses the human. political. cultural. societal. and economic facets. Human geographics can be divided into many wide classs. such as: Cultural geographics. Development geographics. Economic geographics Health geographics Historical & A ; Time geog.