Gizem ?ahinUniversity of Bucharest, Psychology and EducationalSciences Over the last years internet included our lives moreand more and change its purpose from helping communication and organize data tothese two features and entertainment, encourage and enterprise. While internetwas becoming midpoint of people’s lives the side effects of internet hasemerged.
One of these side effects is internet gaming disorder. Researchersmade studies about damages of Internet Gaming or non-internet gaming on severalconditions and also benefits of Internet Gaming or non-internet gaming on them.Internet gaming disorder most often involves specific internet games, but itcould involve non-internet computerized games as well (American Psychiatric Association, 2012-2013). Damages of internet games or non-internet games generallygather under those titles: physical damages, academically deficiency,encouraging violence, economical issues, lack of attention, social damages andpsychological damages. Laura Lockner has studied about gamers’ repetitiousmotions may annoy hand tendons eventually and cause Carpel Tunnel Syndrome (Reuters & Syndicate, 1999) which this diseaseis common (Tingle, Graham, & Hammert, 2015).In fact, a recent study showed that video games improve balance youth withautism. The researchers reviewed 29 participants with autism spectrum disorder,aged between 7 and 17 years to study the effects of 6-week balance training.
Theresults showed that the study participants made significant improvements in notonly them in-game poses but also their balance and posture outside of the gameenvironment (Travers, et al, 2017). Loneliness,lack of communication skills, social anxiety, lower leves of well-being, lackof sense of belonging, les fulfilling real life relationships, lack ofenvironmental awareness, traumatic experiences because of sexual harrasment,anger control issues can exampfily as psychogical and social damages of internetor non-internet gaming addiction (Young, 2009; Kowert, Vogelgesang, Festl,& Quandt, 2015; Block, 2008)Clinical presentations of excessive Internet gamingbehavior are increasingly recognized as an issue of psychiatric relevance dueto the negative effect of Internet gaming on multiple domains of functioning (Daniel L. King, 2014).Internet Gaming Disorder formally presented by Kimberly Young (1996), mentionedin DSM-IV but there wasn’t enogh data, for the first time diagnosed inDiagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition.
Young likens Internet Addiction to other addictions, itcan cause a loss of control, social isolation, problems in marital and familyrelationships, and educational or employment problems (Freeman, 2008).After that diagnose confirmation the topic increased its research speed.Internet gaming disorder is defined in DSM-V as “Persistent and recurrent useof the Internet to engage in games, often with other players, leading toclinically significant impairment or distress” and the symptoms are in 5 ormore of the following in a 12-month period:1. Preoccupation with Internet games.
(The individualthinks about previous gaming activity or anticipates playing the next game;Internet gaming becomes the dominant activity in daily life). Note that thisdisorder is distinct from Internet gambling, which is included under gamblingdisorder.2. Withdrawal symptoms when Internet gaming is takenaway.
(These symptoms are typically described as irritability, anxiety, orsadness, but there are no physical signs of pharmacological withdrawal.)3. Tolerance—the need to spend increasing amounts of timeengaged in Internet games.4. Unsuccessful attempts to control the participationin Internet games.5. Loss of interests in previous hobbies andentertainment as a result of, and with the exception of, Internet games.
6. Continued excessive use of Internet games despiteknowledge of psychosocial problems.7. Has deceived family members, therapists, or othersregarding the amount of Internet gaming.8.
Use of Internet games to escape or relieve anegative mood (e.g., feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety).9. Has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship,job, or educational or career opportunity because of participation in Internetgames. (American Psychiatric Association, 2012-2013) TreatmentTreatment services for Internet gaming disorder arebecoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, particularly in East Asia (Daniel L. Kinga, et al, 2017). Internetgaming addiction has been found to be more common in some Asian countries thanU.
S. (Zhang, Amos, & McDowell, 2008). South Korea hastrained 1,043 counselors and enlisted over 190 hospitals and treatment centersof June 2007 (Block, 2008)and use the Shutdown Law to ban under 16 years olds to access online games 12a.m.
to 6 a.m. (Shutdown Law, 2017). Recently in China a teenager has diedafter entering internet addiction boot camp was thought due to harsh addictiontreatment and corporal punishment (Hersey, 2017).Investigating the study literature, most of the studiesemployed cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing (MI), realitytraining, or a combination of psychological and/or counseling therapies withina broader treatment program (Daniel L.
King,2014; Daniel L. Kinga, et al, 2017). According to Daniel L, et al(2017)’sreview psychological therapy and counseling regulations ranged from a singletherapy session to programs that involved participation for up to 19 months.
Nevertheless, the most common interventions were based on 6- session cure andpharmalogical interventions were mainly antidepressants. However, out of 30studies only 14 studies reported changes in gaming behavior. In terms of adverse outcomes, the 4pharmacological intervention studies and the electro-acupuncture documentednausea, fainting, headaches, insomnia, fatigue, libido changes, and abdominalpain or discomfort. None of the studies reported null effect but some of thehas weaker efficiency than expected e.
g. “still playing daily” (Daniel L. Kinga, et al, 2017) The reasons of theseweaker effection could be using limited measurement methods and lacked blindingtechniques.Joseph M. Graham Jr. Found out thatNarrative Therapy can be used for internet gaming addiction. Narrative therapyis developed by White and Epston (1990) as a framework to provide individuals theopportunity to view their experiences within larger contexts, such as cultural,political, and social.
The four central tenets of narrativetherapy are: a) externalizing the problem, b) developing the “team,” c)creating the preferred story, and d) thickening the thread (Poole, Gardner, Flower, & Cooper, 2009).Derived from Carr (1998), Gardner and Poole (2009) developed a three-stagemodel of narrative therapy. The first step is to deconstruct the problem-saturatedstories, which includes the first two tenets of narrative therapy. Next, thesecond stage reauthors new stories that encompass the other two tenets ofnarrative therapy. Finally, the third stage is making the new story real andsalient. (Graham, 2014)In Joseph M. Graham’s case study 17years old WoW(World of Warcraft, online game) addicted Sammy discovered that hehad a lack of control ability and has learned how to internalize his strengthsand translate his skills between the online and offline worlds. (Graham, 2014)And researcher advised to counselors be more aware of bias for online gamingand should think of how to transfer skills from game to real life.
Specific video games designed also to use in mentalhealth care. Comparing to other media forms, video games are useful deliveringmanual based interventions such as in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (Cerano?lu, 2010; USAB, Holzinger, , 2007) Also video games can use for maintain client resistence andtherapies with children (Cerano?lu, 2010). Using the mainstimulating power of games can used individual and especially online games ingroup therapies is recommended for future researches. Also online games can be usedto collect data.
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