Globalisation shaped the contemporary world in various ways. One of them is an international development which made possible massive migration possible. Acknowledging that modern world is far from equal it is self-evident that people craving for a better life will consider developed countries over their own. But because migration is not the matter of hundreds but millions of people, both sides, hosting and countries which have been left, are influenced in both positive and negative ways. One of the widely discussed effects of it is the brain drain. It is important because of the fact that migration and therefore brain drain are highly unlikely to stop or even slow down in the nearest future. It plays a huge role in the development of the countries and. It is known that to develop country has to have human capital and educated individuals. But because of the fact that they are leaving developing countries face serious problems. A lot of countries have found themselves in a vicious cycle and are worried about the consequences. The aim of this essay is to describe brain drain, its impact on developing countries and emphasise the importance of actually dealing with the problem. This paper is structured as follows: firstly one will define the term, argue for the importance of the topic and provide some data to back up the argument, then one will name the most common reasons of brain drain and logically will move to the impact of it on poor developing countries. Also, one will examine a specific example and will conclude with possible solutions and ways of coping with this problem. 
First of all, one has to define and explain the term. It is not as extensive as, for example, “globalisation” however we still have to clarify certain details. “Brain drain” is a relatively a new term was firstly by British Royal Society for the issue of the exodus of scientists and technologists to Canada in 1950s.(Gibson and McKenzie, 2011) However, back then it was concentrated mainly on certain groups of specialists. As the term evolved it widened its meaning to the migration of skilled specialists with a university education,  no longer looking at they specialisation. This term is used to describe both, migration inside the country and emigration of people abroad. In addition, this term is almost always mentioned in the context of migration. This is not only because brain drain is a variation of migration, but due to the fact that a vast percentage of migrants are skilled migrants. In this essay, “brain drain” will be used as a term for migration of educated people or youth that is only receiving their degree from their native countries to more developed ones. 
Before one moves further, an important question has to be answered: is it that crucial and why should one talk about brain drain? The answer to the first question would be definite yes. Firstly, because it is a process which happens all around the globe in developing countries. It is a common observation that there are more developing states than developed ones. Therefore, it makes sense to discuss the issue which directly challenges the majority of the countries and influences another part of it. Second, economic, and third, social, reasons are worth paying attention at because of the first. Due to the fact that all countries brain drain influences economic and social structures in both receiving and accepting sides. It raises many challenges across the globe and thus this current issue is an international concern.
To convince the reader even more that issue should be taken seriously one will provide the data on how extensive is brain drain. It will show real numbers of how influential brain drain is and it will also provide the basis for elaboration.
First of all, it should be mentioned that no uniform system was created for statistics on the number of immigrants and their characteristics. Scholars may rely only on data provided by separate countries which are not able to show a holistic picture on skilled immigrants. The only somehow unified data we have is provided by OECD. But this data includes intellectual migration only to OECD countries for the period of 1990-2000. Taking into account how fast our world develops one may conclude that the actuality of the  data could be questioned. Still one should use them to provide general overview.
In 2000, the number of high-skilled immigrants recorded in the OECD was 20.5 million. (Docquier and Rapoport, 2012) Here it is needed to mention that in the same year according to Ozden, Parsons, Schiff, and Walms (2010) the number of individuals who moved from developing to developed countries, which is the way brain drain happens, was 60 million. At the same time, the average developing country has 7.3 percent of its educated population in developed ones.(Gibson and McKenzie, 2011) But for some developing countries, these numbers are much higher. Brain drain rates exceed 80 percent in states such as Guyana, Jamaica, and Haiti, and are above 50 percent in many African countries. (Docquier and Rapoport, 2012) For any poor country losing individuals is already an issue. What is more, loosing educated ones in such significant numbers  affects the country to even a greater extend. All the data, even though is not as recent as needed, shows that it is a significant phenomenon and it cannot be just left aside. Moreover, one would emphasise the importance of creating a more recent database for further research and analysis.
The next logical step would be to present the most common reasons for brain drain. This question is the least challenging. The answer is even often included in some definitions. However, one may still present them to provide more context. 
Majority of the scholars focus on economic and social reasons. One the main from economic ones is employment opportunities. It is self-evident that developing countries cannot offer enough working possibilities for all educated individuals whereas richer countries are believed to have the capability to do that. Have more economic resources for different projects rich countries have an opportunity to create more working abilities. From this one may logically develop the second reason for brain drain which is higher salaries. In any Western country, workers will receive more than in developing countries for doing the exact same job. That results in underemployment which is the condition in which people in a labor force are employed at less than full-time or regular jobs or at jobs inadequate with respect to their training or economic needs. To elaborate on this, work conditions cannot be left out. Not only safety at work should be mentioned but also the way workers are treated. (Shah, Javed Iqbal, 2011)
An important reason which is neither fully economic nor social is quality of education. Developing countries usually do not have quality universities that can provide them with proper education. For that simple reason a great number of young people, the ones that supposed to contribute to countries development, are leaving to more developed ones. This would not be a problem if those educated individuals returned to their homeland but unfortunately, this is not the case for the majority of individuals. 
The social aspect, however, may seem not as influential as economic, is also contributes to brain drain. This is because educated people are more demanding and they strive for better quality of life. To add to this political reasons should be brought up. Among them, there are both individual and general freedom, rule of law and justice, low crime environment and general peace and tranquillity. In some cases, intellectual migration can be speeded up by countries regime or political oppression. (Johnson, 1967) Although maybe not equally all of the reasons above contribute to brain drain process. 
As it was mentioned in the introduction, globalisation was one of the factors which made such a massive migration and as the result brain drain, possible. Due to the fact that developed countries have more economic resources educated people are no longer spread across the world. They are concentrated in developed usually rich states. That creates imbalances as such countries besides having the ability to educate its own people also attract those from other countries. Although when this issue was just appearing in the discourse scholars were rather positive about it, nowadays most agree that brain drain is rather negative. However, one has to look at this from both sides: hosting and sending countries. 
Majority of academics agreed that such intellectual migrations are highly beneficial host countries. It raises the level of education and innovation, contributes to entrepreneurship and patenting. (Miguelez and Noumedem Temgoua, 2017) For receiving countries, it is “brain gain” not “drain”.
At the same time, some scholars argue that sending countries also do benefit from immigration of educated individuals. Main arguments for that would be, firstly, a substantive inflow of remittance and foreign exchange. Those individuals who were lucky enough to settle abroad are helping their families which are staying at home by sending them money, usually in foreign currency. Secondly, individuals to invest more in their education to be more competitive. This is because the number of working opportunities increases with the opening of the borders and more qualified individuals are needed. Thirdly, the contribution of the diaspora to counties development by foreign investments, technology transfer and trade. (Gla?van, 2008) One will agree that these benefits are real still it is highly doubted whether they are influential enough to cover all the drawbacks. 
But what are those drawbacks? It was already shown that for host countries, which are usually rich and developed, such migration is highly beneficial. But “sending” countries are not in such good position as receiving ones. The reader may have already concluded from the text that countries which are usually left are mainly poor countries that are in need of aid. Although the literature on this topic provides some arguments for advantages of brain drain which were presented above,  there are more disadvantages. With this in mind, let us continue and present the negative impact of brain drain on sending countries.
As brand drain is a worldwide issue it influenced different countries in different ways but main drawbacks are the same. One of the most significant is a loss of human capital. Although it is in general bad for any country, loss of educated and skilled individuals is even more harmful. Raising and educating an individual is not free. Those investments are made in order to receive a payback, especially if the payments are made by the government. States spend millions on education expecting those individuals to work for their country and eventually to pay it back by the work and contribution to the countries development. In other words, work off the expenses. But it never happens as educated individuals end up contributing to other economies because of brain drain. Not only human capital is lost but also resources and possible gains. The exodus of educated individuals also means that funds are taken out of the country of origin and are invested somewhere else. (Sefa Dei and Asgharzadeh, 2002) Also, the level of entrepreneurship decreases significantly. To sum up, in economic terms, poor countries, which are in need of economic aid lose because of the brain drain an unspeakable amount of financial and human resources. Whatever aid developed countries would send to those which are developing and have a major brain drain, unfortunately, it will be never able to cover the expenses. Plus it is not only economic drawbacks but also political and social. When educated middle class migrates, those who left are two opposite camps which start clashing: really rich and poor. This eventually might lead to political instability inside the country. Social aspect would be the gradual erosion of the middle and upper-middle class which leaves a society that is not politically, economically, and culturally healthy and is not able to quit the vicious cycle of brain drain on its own. So, it is pretty evident that poor countries are heavily influenced by brain drain in dreadful way.
Attention has to be paid because developing countries are harmed and they comprise more than half of the world. According to World Bank there are only 84 high income countries which are considered to be destination countries. (World Bank, 2017) As this is not even a half of the countries which exist and even among that list, there are more and less developed countries that suffer from brain drain. This once more shows the importance to seek for a way to stop intellectual migration processes and at least try to reverse them.
In order to present the issue as clearly as possible one has to look closely at the specific case. For this essay it was decided to look at Ukrainian case. It is believed that Ukraine would make a good example. Firstly, it is a geographical centre of Europe thus is surrounded by European countries which are much more developed and attract educated Ukrainians. Secondly, country is politically unstable and is currently engaged into war. Millions of individuals are leaving seeking for better life. Thirdly, economic instability is progressing and crisis deepens every year. Those are the main reasons which make educated skilled individuals leave Ukraine. Adding to that, there is also big amount of youth which leaves willing to get a better education. The percent of educated people is  visibly high for a developing country such as Ukraine. According to the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, 82,3% of Ukrainian population has higher education. This puts Ukraine at 16 place in ranking among 138 countries that were covered in the 2017-2018 report.(CEDOS, 2016) But the quality of education leaves much to be desired. That is why millions of students, precisely 68 000 thousands, are now studying abroad. Moreover, majority of them after getting good education are going to stay there for the rest of their life. Here it should be stated that those who are leaving usually come from wealthy families and have good high school education. Combing the amount of people who were educated in Ukraine and students who left is making it obvious that country is highly influenced by intellectual migration. There are several main consequences of that process in Ukraine.
Firstly, demographic. Emigrants are usually individuals who are young and are expected to have children. It is crucial for society as Ukraine is suffering from brain drain. Additionally, those who are staying are usually retired people, who are not capable of altering the economy or even being a part of its prosperity. Secondly, economic consequences, such as decrease in quality of working force. Highly skilled individuals, including scientists and scholars, who are considered to be the base for the development and are highly involved into the process of making progress  are no longer able to do this. Moreover, those who are left have found themselves under pressure as they are supposed to work more to cover all the duties that is needed to be done still receiving the same amount of money. This adds as a “push” factor for individuals to move abroad seeking for better life. Thirdly, social consequences: decline in social consciousness, loss of incentives to rise the level of education and encouragement to create changes. All of the consequences mentioned above highly slow down the process of development and only widen the gap between poor and rich countries.(Petrova, 2017)
Attention has to be paid because developing countries, such as Ukraine, are harmed and they comprise more than the half of the world. As stated before there are only 84 high income countries which are considered to be destination countries. As this is not even a half of the existing states and even among that list. Moreover, there are more and less developed countries that also suffer from brain drain. This once more shows the importance to seek for a way to reverse intellectual migration process or at least try to slow it down. One will provide possible solutions which are mentioned in the literature. It is believed that problem should be dealt with from both international and domestic levels. However, it should be stated that cases differ from one country to another, thus policies should be different too. Support of the host countries in particular and of the world community, in general, is also necessary to discourage unchecked outflow of the human capital from the developing countries. Firstly, speaking of international level, there are a lot of suggestions of scholar exchange to somehow pay off poor countries.(Zhatkanbaeva, Zhatkanbaeva and Zhatkanbaev, 2012) There was already an attempt to do by a Soviet Union proposal called for compensation of undeveloped countries by developed countries for the economic loss caused by such outflow of trained personnel. Back then, it was strongly opposed as the document was harsh and treated individuals as a “merchandise with a price on them”.(Karla, 1974) This was because such the exchange was supposed to be forced. But one believes that it should not be implemented in such a way. Creation of programs sponsored by international funds which will invite professors from developed to developing countries for a fixed period of time is believed to be an adequate and effective way. 
Other, domestic way of dealing with brain drain, is the complete privatisation of human capital formation. (Gla?van, 2008) Private allocation of human capital will reduce the gap between private costs and gains from human capital accumulation as much as possible and, consequently, reduce brain drain to a minimum. Although the number of people with her education will be smaller the quality of education will be significantly raised. Similarly, there is an option to force individuals who received budgetary education pay of all the expenses plus calculated cost of possible gains. Thirdly, an aspect mentioned by many scholars is constant reminding to younger generation as well as to the experienced professionals that country needs. It is needed to build community conscious. This includes open discussion, educational institutions, seminars, media involvement  etc. (Shah, Javed Iqbal, 2011) 
So, it can be concluded that brain drain is a serious issue. Directly or indirectly, it influences all the countries around the world. By bringing mostly benefits for the rich countries, which are usually the destination for educated individuals, it also takes a lot of resources from already poor countries. But as it was shown in previous paragraph there is way of dealing with it. One believes that further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the policies in different countries. This will be helpful when the specific policies will be chosen. Also one believes that international cooperation, even though it led to the development of the brain drain, is the key to the management of this problem. As it is said among people in Ukraine, one fire drives out another.

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