I. AN OVERVIEW.
With the turning criterions of the universe and the bing constructs and complexnesss in political. economic and socio-cultural political orientations. adult male has ever and continuously pondered over the facets of his nature. Unity. equality. trade and commercialism are at the head of man’s complexnesss. With these ideas in head. adult male has moved through history seeking to fulfill his desires in relation to others. The coming of the 21st century gave birth to the thought of doing the universe a individual small town. therefore. globalisation. Globalization is the most talk-about issues in the twenty-first century. However. there is the trouble of the universe to come up with a individual and unvarying definition. This is because. so many people doubt if the occurrences in the universe today are as a consequence of globalisation. Therefore. due to these planetary differences of what this construct really is about. globalisation has grown to affect facets non merely of economic system. but political relations and other socio-cultural issues. Globalization affects about every human being. this is because the procedure of globalisation is said to hold expanded about through out the full universe either through conveyance. commercialism. and communicating. In add-on. man’s activities on the Earth are all located under these sectors.
Culture. as a manner of life of adult male. is identified by every one instantly after birth and was frequently seen as distinguishable from one another. However. with coming of the procedure of globalisation. there is now the integrating and homogenisation of civilizations. “Homogenization of civilizations is the loss of diverseness of civilization between two or more cultural groups” . Therefore. our subject. “globalization and its effects on cultural integrating in the Czech Republic” The Czech Republic is a state with a rich cultural heritage with plants of art seen in theaters. film. libraries. globally recognized galleries. museums and concert halls and with well-maintained traditions particularly. in the small towns of the Moravian-Silesian part. These small towns remain as a mark of the cultural gustatory sensation of the specific countries.
II. THE PROBLEM.
Human existences with limitless pursuit for wants have let to the coming of the procedure of globalisation. This has come through a dramatic enlargement in the volume and assortment of cross-border minutess in goods and services. The development of new engineerings used for information. communicating and transit ; and the immense addition in international flow of capital. has gone a long manner to impact the economic. political. environmental and socio-cultural sectors of many states in the universe. both positive and negative. Effectss on globalisation on cultural integrating being our subject of treatment. in recent old ages at that place have been plans carried out by the authorities organic structures. United Nations. the European Union and the Non-governmental organisations for the integrating of immigrants and aliens in the Czech Republic.
As a manner of encouraging integrating. the ministry of civilization represents intercultural duologue within the province policy. The ministry besides give support to cultural activities of members of national minorities populating in the state. support for integrating of members of the Roma community and immigrants. The Department of Arts. Libraries. Department of Media. and Audiovisual Policies have besides supported intercultural undertakings. Non- governmental organisations such as: Organization for Aid to Refugees. ( OPU ) . Peoples in Need. and Czech Mobility Center and “Ethnic Friendly employer” .
III. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
The chief aim of this survey is to analyze globalisation and its effects on cultural integrating in the Czech Republic.
Other aims are to analyze the effects of globalisation on the economic. political and socio-cultural spheres in the Czech Republic in general.
To find how globalisation has contributed to the transmutation of the
national sovereignty to planetary sovereignty.
It is besides to analyze the current rate of integrating and the features of the people in the cultural integrating procedure.
Furthermore. the survey is intended to place and depict the techniques in which people become culturally incorporate and the figure of inquiries being raised.
It is besides aimed at analyzing the function of authorities. the United Nations the World Bank. the NGOs. the Foreigners. Immigrants. in the cultural integrating procedure.
Finally. it is to analyze the restraints and effects of cultural integrating. since the long-run consequences are go forthing a bequest positively and negatively. As we move towards the 3rd millenary. a rational planning strategy and use of civilizations should stay the major pre-occupation of the society.
In order to transport out the survey and accomplish the declared aims. a figure of hypotheses were advanced to turn to the job ;
I ) Globalization and cultural integrating signifier an interconnected spiral. There is. the more there the hereafters of globalisation. the more there is cultural integrating.
two ) Intensification of trade and commercialism and communicating is the chief cause of cultural integrating in the Czech Republic.
V. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY.
The ulterior portion of the twentieth century has seen a singular growing in the degree of popular concern for environmental. political. economic and socio-cultural issues. which have come as a consequence of the coming of the globalisation procedure. It is going progressively clear that if the present environmental crisis is non confronted instantly. we stand the hazard of holding serious and irreversible effects on our universe.
The Czech Republic has an involvement in its cultural protection. That is why the authorities in order to continue the Czech civilization organizes one-year cultural festivals in the state. However. there is small grounds that sufficient stairss have been taken to guarantee effectual protection is done. This is due to the fact that the local communities. which are straight concerned with the civilization. are non frequently considered when doing policies refering their civilization. direction and protection.
Hence. a survey of this nature could hold consequences. which are good in a figure of ways. Some of these include ;
To raise consciousness of the community on the significance and ways of proper direction of cultural issues.
To turn to a figure of jobs. caused by globalisation and its effects on the cultural integrating.
To supply policy shapers and research establishments with the basic information. this would assist in planing new plan that will be existent and job particular.
To supply citizens of non merely the Czech Republic but European Union members every bit good on the currents effects of alterations on cultural issues as a consequence of globalisation.
VI. IIData Collection
Although the author has interacted for some clip in this country. and has grown up with a wealth of cognition of the Czech civilization. a farther reading was carried out in order to further cognition of the recent alterations in the Czech civilization due to the coming of globalisation. The theoretical and empirical research was most based on secondary beginnings and official web sites like the Czech Statistical Office. the Ministry of Labor Youths and Sports and Eurostat. Most of the research was largely on secondary beginnings were largely consulted. Several text editions. diaries. unpublished thesiss and other related publications on the topic were besides consulted.
VI. II. Data Analysis
The descriptive techniques were used in analysing the informations collected from beginnings such as the Czech statistical Office. and Eurostat website. These techniques included the usage of tabular arraies and graphs with the computations of per centums. and norms. In add-on to this. the information was illustrated in saloon charts. and histograms. This can be seen in chapter three.
VII. Restrictions of the Study
The first restriction is that even when the research worker tried to transport a reappraisal on some research in the libraries on the effects of globalisation on cultural integrating in the Czech Republic. there of few text editions. which have dealt with this subject. Second. even with the few 1s. some there were largely in other linguistic communications like the Czech linguistic communication. So due to the scarceness on text books on the subject and the hinderance to confer with some of the available 1s most of the stuffs were been extracted from official web sites like the Czech Statistics Office. Eurostat. the Ministry of Youths and Sports. Another restraint on the research was that of finance. Some of stuffs found on the Internet were on sale. and twosome with the fiscal restraints. the research worker was unable to make all of the available stuffs.
VIII. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
The survey country is situated between latitude 49° 45 N of the equator and longitude 15 ? 30 E of the Greenwich Meridian. Czech Republic is found in the cardinal Europe. bordered in E by Slovakia. in the South by Austria. in the North by Poland and in the West by Germany. It has a land screen of 78. 864 sq. kilometres with a population of 10. 2 million dwellers. Major metropoliss include. Prague ( the capital metropolis ) . Brno. Plzen. Olomouc. Karlovy Vary. Ceske Budejovice. Cesky Krumlov. Liberec. Hradec Kralove. Bechyne. Kolin. Pelhrimov. Sumperk. Trebon. Uherske Hradiste and Bruntal.
The chief cultural groups in the Czech Republic include ; the Czech who are about 9. 25 million of the population. the Moravian ( more than 380. 000 ) . the Slovak about ( 193. 000 ) . the Roma about ( 171. 000 ) . the Silesians ( 11. 000 ) . the Polish ( 52. 000 ) . the Germans ( 39. 000 ) . the Ukrainian ( 22. 000 ) and the Vietnamese ( 18. 000 ) Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs ( January 2008 ) .
Map 1 The Map Of The Czech Republic
Beginning: World Atlas. com.
Chapter ONE: Definition OF TERMS.
Traveling back to the subject of our thesis. “Globalization and effects on cultural integrating in the Czech Republic” . there is the demand to specify what globalisation really is. With the turning argument of what when the globalisation phenomenon began and it existent significance. some societal scientific discipline theoreticians have come Forth with the definition of globalisation both from the classical and the modern-day epoch.
1. 1 Definition of Globalization
Bruno walters says the Webster’s lexicon is the first major lexicon to advert the word globalisation in 1961. The dictionary defines globalisation as “to render global” or “the act of globalizing” cited in Malcolm Walters ( 2001:2 ) . The construct globalisation has now being use by many faculty members and there has been a argument on when the construct of globalisation really began. There are some who have perceived the construct of globalisation has been in to existence before this period. Therefore. the below mentioned are some of the definitions of globalisation posed by assorted societal scientific discipline theoreticians.
Marx ( 1977 ) is considered by societal theoreticians as the first writer to concentrate on the dimensional attack in the account of the construct of globalisation ; He explained the globalisation phenomenon. establishing his statement on the economic factor. Marx in his dependence theory saw that the political-territorial boundaries remain integral and will vanish under a future proletarian domination. This is seen because. instantly after his decease on 14th of March 1883. his thoughts began to raise a major influence on workers rebellions in the universe such as. Bolsheviks motion besides known as the October revolution in Russia in October 25 1917. Wallerstein ( 1974 ) is another diamensionalist. who focuses on the economic position on the definition of globalisation.
Taking from the plants of Marx’s dependance theory. in his universe systems theory where he developed a theoretical model to understand the historical alterations involved in the rise of the modern universe. defines globalisation as. “an increasing degree of mutuality between national systems by manner of trade. military confederation and domination. and cultural imperialism” cited in Walters ( 2001:4 ) . Robertson Roland has been considered as one of the most outstanding authors of issues of globalisation. He explains globalisation in the cultural sphere. In is text. “Globalization as a Problem” in The Globalization Reader says ‘globalization as a construct refers both to the compaction of the universe and the intensification of consciousness of the universe as a whole” Cited in Frank Lechner and John Boli ( 2004:94 )
For Wallerstein. the universe started traveling compaction since the beginning of the 16th century. but Robertson ; he argues that the history of globalisation is far longer. For Robertson. through an addition in universe broad consciousness a individual is looked at and is examined by the whole universe and non merely by his or her ain local environment in which he/she lives. However. both Wallerstein and Robertson’s thoughts of the intensification of the universe broad consciousness is said to fit. Harmonizing to Giddens globalisation is seen as “the intensification of universe broad societal dealingss which link distant vicinities in such a manner that local occurrences are shaped by events happening many stat mis off and frailty versa” Giddens ( 1990:4 ) . These local occurrences were said to be may be influenced by distant events and non merely the local events. which all have been influenced by the forces of globalisation.
Looking at Giddens ( 1990 ) and Robertson’s ( 1992 ) definitions. Giddens believes modernness has come as a consequence of globalisation. That is. he considers modernness to be inherently globalising. For Giddens globalisation is said to hold started during the 16th century onwards and in Europe in peculiar. However. in Robertson’s sentiment. the job of globalisation is non new. He believes the societal compaction of the universe has begun before the 16th century as predicted by Giddens. He predicts modernness and the rise of capitalist economy to be the cause of the rise of globalisation. That is for Robertson. modernisation has an influence on globalisation.
In add-on. because of this. it led to a high degree of consciousness and the present state of affairs where we in the present twenty-four hours are unable to follow the diffusion of globalisation across a big figure of countries in the different parts of the universe. However. what can be said is that both Giddens and Robertson have tried to demo that people are now able to see and understand issues beyond their immediate environments due to the outgrowth of the construct of globalisation. Luhmann in his account of globalisation focuses more on communicating. For him communicating is the major factor of globalisation. He therefore defines globalisation as “the passage from integrating to distinction. from territorial society to universe society ; from individuality to difference ; from ‘stratified’ distinction to ‘functional’” Luhmann ( 1982:133. 229 ) .
Armand refers globalisation as “one of those slippery words. one of those instrumental impressions that. under the effects of market logics and without citizens being cognizant of it have been naturalized to the point of going indispensable for set uping communicating between people of different cultures” Armand ( 2000:97 ) . For Armand. globalisation has a dominant function in forming and decrypting the significance of the universe.
In a similar mode. Beynon John and Dunkerley David in their general debut to globalisation: the reader. made the claim that “globalization is impacting on the lives of everyone on the … globalisation might justifiably be claimed to be the specifying characteristics of human society at the province of the 21st century” Beynon John and Dunkerley David ( 2000: 3 ) .
Beck on his text. What is globalisation. he says globalisation is the “blanket term” and therefore depict it to be “the procedures through which Sovereign national provinces are criss-crossed and undermined by multinational histrions with changing chances of power. orientation. individualities and networks” Beck ( 2000:11 ) . Beck besides referred globalisation as the “intensification of multinational infinite. events. jobs. struggles and biographies” ( ibid: 87 ) . He argues that we are traveling into a ‘second modernity’ that is seen through growing of the economic system. the information and communicating engineerings. civil society communications and the alterations in the environment. He sees globalisation to be discontinuous. conflictual and sick reversible because for him. it non different from any other historical procedure.
Although Beck contributed in the account of modernness merely like other societal scientists like Giddens and Marx. he ne’er saw any good in this procedure. He therefore focused more of his attending on the bad side of modernness. which he called a “risk society” . That is. the new modernness is merely concern with the “prevention. minimisation and channeling of risk” Cited in Ritzer ( 2000:222 ) .
Waters Malcolm defines globalisation in a less political attack as ‘a societal procedure in which the restraints of geographics on economic. political. societal. and cultural agreements recede. in which people become progressively cognizant that they are withdrawing and in which people act accordingly’ Walters ( 200:15 ) . The thought that people are witting that they are withdrawing ( been carried off can to some how be argued. This is because ; at clip. some people are non ever witting of the fact that the procedures globalisation is impacting them. Peoples may be traveling or moving through the forces of globalisation unconscious.
Held and McGrew besides defines globalisation as a “process ( or set of procedures ) which embodies a transmutation in the spacial organisation of societal dealingss and minutess – assessed in footings of their extensity. strength. speed and impact- bring forthing transcontinental or inter-regional flows and webs of activity” Held and McGrew ( 1999:16 ) .
Therefore. sing the positions of the above-cited writers. globalisation can be defined as intensification of economic. political. and socio-cultural dealingss in the vicinities of the universe. Alternatively. it can be seen as the development of equal chances in the political. economic. socio-cultural kingdom of all states in the universe. It’s besides related to the spread of modernisation throughout the universe. Globalization indicates addition linkages between people. goods and engineering. It is a procedure whereby. national concern endeavors and markets become universe broad or international. That is. a state of affairs whereby concerns which were been carried out within a peculiar state are now been extended to other states across the Earth. Globalization is the procedure of doing the small town a individual entity. That is with the coming of globalisation there is the continuity of the homogeneousness of civilization. economic system. societal and environmental facets of the universe.