Governance TheoryResearchers have arguedthat governance is the capacity of government to formulate and implementpolicies with the view to steering the affairs of society (Pierre & Peters,2000). Managers and stakeholders are linked together via the governance chain.
The governance chain “shows the roles and relationships of different groupsinvolved in the governance of an organisation” (Johnson et al., 2017, p.143).Good governance has been identified as a requirement to promote and sustainPPPs.
(Bult-Spiering & Dewulf, 2006; UNECE, 2008; Babatunde, 2015). Hughes(2003) has identified good governance as a reform strategy in strengthening thecapacity of civil society organisations and promote transparency,responsiveness, accountability and democratic tenets. Governance theory is anecessary ingredient in ensuring the success of PPPs. (Babatunde, 2015).
The PPP approachinvolves various stakeholders and therefore applying the principles of thestakeholder theory is crucial to understanding the successful implementation ofPPP projects. The governance theory will help in appreciating the roles andresponsibilities of the various actors within the concept of PPP. CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionThischapter describes the methods and procedures used to obtain data for theresearch work. The chapter explains the structure of the study, the targetpopulation, sampling methods, sources of data, data collection instrument,ethical considerations, and data analysis procedures.3.2 Research DesignTheresearch design consists of four key components: research questions, datacollection, methods of data collection, and data analysis. This study employs adescriptive approach, which shows how the research looks like and summarizesthe general nature of the findings (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2003).
This is the method used to obtain the necessary information or personal datafrom the relevant population. The descriptive design provides a good number ofresponses from the respondents. It makes it possible for data on criticalsuccess factors for financing infrastructure in Ghana through PPP mechanisms tobe assessed by evaluating participants’ opinions. The choice of this research design makes it possible toconduct a systematic examination of an event or a set of related events withthe aim of describing and explaining the phenomenon that is of interest to theresearcher (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2003).
Since the researchis interested in exploring the CSFs in financing infrastructure in Ghanathrough PPP, the descriptive research method is considered suitable.3.3Target Population of the StudyThe research population is acollection of components from which the sample is essentially selected. Itincludes all the units or members from which information can be obtained (Rubin& Babbie, 2001).
Roberts (2010)indicates that the population is the researcher’s target group on which he/shewould like the results to be applicable. The population of this study constitutesrespondents from the Ministry of Finance (MoF), the Ministry of WaterResources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), the Ministry of Roads and Highways (MRH)and their private sector partners in Ghana.3.4 Sample Sizeand Sampling Technique When conducting research, it is often impossibleto collect data from all potential units that comprise the population.Consequently, a sample from the population is selected for the study.
Thepurposive and snowball sampling techniques were considered appropriate for thestudy. The researcher used these sampling techniques because they are essentialfor gathering relevant information required for research within a short periodwithin the constraints of limited resources at the researcher’s disposal. Thesesampling techniques are appropriate to help solicit specific information on CSRsfor financing the development of infrastructure and therefore, an expert withthe requisite experience is required to provide information (Atindabila, 2013).These sampling techniques were employed to select 90 respondents to partake inthe study.3.5 DataCollection 3.5.1 Type of DataThe qualitative research approach was considerednecessary for this study.
Qualitative data helps researchers to assess the occurrence of a phenomenon and itseffect on the society (Tull & Hawkings, 1990). It is used to measure anentity or action in a specific way, and it is a research method that aims toqualify data and apply some statistical analysis (Tull & Hawkings, 1990).3.5.2 Source of Data The main source of data used for this work is primarydata, which provided practical information through the administration ofself-designed structured questionnaires. The data collection involvedcollecting information directly from the respondents.
This approach helped therespondents to provide specific responses to the research questions. Thismethod is considered to be the most effective and detailed form of gettingreliable information (Rubin & Babbie, 2001).3.6 Instrument for Data Collection Aquestionnaire was developed by the researcher to gather the necessaryinformation. The questionnaires comprising close-ended questions were designedbased on the researcher’s objectives. The close-ended questions enabledparticipants to express their views on options available to them. Thequestionnaire has four sections. The first section contains information on thedemographic of the respondents.
The second section collected data on criticalfactors for the successful implementation of PPP projects. The third sectionfocused on the impact of CSFs on a successful delivery of PPP projects and thefinal section looked at the factors that hamper the implementation of PPP projectsin Financing Infrastructure Development in Ghana. 3.7 Ethical ConsiderationsBefore the commencement of the study, theresearcher sought permission from Management of the selected organisations fortheir consent and the purpose of the study was explained as being for academicpurposes. Again, the researcher sought the consent of respondents and thepurpose of the study made known to them. Respondents were assured ofconfidentiality, anonymity, and data protection. 3.
8 Data AnalysisThestudy used descriptive statistics and as such, simple frequency counts andpercentages were used in the data analysis. The Statistical Package for SocialSciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to analyse the data and the findingspresented in simple descriptive statistics involving tables.