Climate alteration is the effect of any sort of accommodations in the clime system. Change in clime is caused by fluctuations in the factors that influence climatic forms. This phenomenon has become one of the greatest environmental menaces and hazards that the universe is confronting. Persistent human activities such as driving autos, agriculture, deforestation, and industrialisation consequence into production of nursery gases. These gases gather in the atmospheric infinite, and pin down the heat from the Sun. This is what causes clime alteration manifested through planetary heating and other procedures. The effects of riotous alterations have led to ruinous events like storms, drouths, rise in the sea degrees, and inundations ( Kammen & A ; Casillas 2010, p. 1181 ) .
Climate alteration is majorly caused by nursery gas emanations. Most of the intercession attempts meant to extenuate the impacts of clime alteration therefore aim human activities that contribute to extra emanation of nursery gases into the ambiance ( Letcher & A ; ScienceDirect 2009, p. 67 ) .
Therefore, renewable energy has been considered as one of the taking solutions to climate alteration. Provision of ‘carbon-neutral ‘ beginnings of power, heat, conveyance fuels and renewable energy options has been considered by environmental scientists as a great move in the right way. The aim is to ordain a passage from high to low C economic system.Although the renewable energy sector is rapidly altering, clime alteration crises dictate that the energy system be drastically transformed. This will assist in battling the dangers that are associated with planetary heating that threatens to slouch the planetary economic system in the face of globalisation and industrialisation. Roggema ( 2009, p.
211 ) cited air pollution caused by conveyance and power sectors of the economic system have been a great menace non merely to the human wellness but have besides shifted the clime systems.
Prospective Interventions to Address Climate Change Crisis
Climate alteration as an environmental job is basically a job caused by the utmost use of fossil energy. Agriculture, alterations in land usage, cement production and usage of chemicals all contribute to the emanation of the nursery gases ( Roggema 2009, p.
234 ) . However, 70 % of the planetary warming/climate alteration jobs is caused by unsustainable usage of fossil fuels. Therefore, in order to cover with the jobs related to climate alteration, there has to be a displacement from usage of fossil fuels at place, in the industries, conveyance and by and large the full sectors of the economic system ( Roggema 2009, p. 203 ) .In order to debar the challenges associated with clime alteration, economy of energy is indispensable. Electricity, cars and C emanations are the chief causes of jobs related to climate alteration. The regular incandescent visible radiation bulbs should therefore be changed and replaced with the energy salvaging compact fluorescent bulbs which are more efficient and energy economy.
The emanations that result from cars like motor vehicles, bikes should besides be reduced ( Letcher & A ; ScienceDirect 2009, p. 154 ) .Climate alteration has been caused by human activities such as deforestation in hunt of more infinite for agricultural activities. Therefore C dioxide concentration in the ambiance continues to lift.
Bing a nursery gas, C dioxide has contributed to the rise of planetary temperatures. Roggema ( 2009, p. 183 ) cited that human activities that encroach to the environment should therefore be limited to forestall farther crises associated with planetary heating.Traditional methods of preservation of forest ecosystems should be embraced to continue the ecosystem and extenuate the effects of clime alteration ( Tracy 2010, p.353 ) . Therefore re-afforestation should be encouraged so that the nursery gases like C dioxide are reduced from the ambiance.
Farming activities that promote environmental jeopardies such as dirt eroding should therefore be limited and replaced with agrarian attacks that are environmentally tutelary.Industrialization is the major subscriber to climate alteration. This is because of the emanation of the nursery gases like Nitrous Oxide and Carbon dioxide ( Tracy 2010, p. 354 ) . In order to debar clime alteration challenges there should be focus on alteration in the energy used in the industries from the dirty to clean energy. Climate alteration scientists have advocated for the usage of renewable energy as the solution to the clime alteration jobs that are caused by the usage of environmentally risky fuels like coal and atomic energy in the industries in the planetary economic system ( Tracy 2010, p. 355 ) .
Climate Change and the options for Renewable Energy
Human activities and natural environmental procedures are all responsible for clime alteration.
Natural causes include volcanic eruptions, ocean currents, alterations in the earths orbit and solar fluctuations. An eruption of vents throws out great volumes of sulfur dioxide, H2O vapour, dust, and ash into the ambiance ( Wengenmayr 2008, p. 141 ) . The big volumes of gases and ash have the ability to act upon climatic forms by increasing the planetal coefficient of reflection taking to atmospheric chilling. The aerosols are produced by vents besides affects the pureness of air in the ambiance.
These contribute greatly to climate alteration.The oceans currents are considered a great menace to the clime stableness. The currents release great sums of heat across the planet. Besides, the interaction between the ocean and the ambiance can bring forth El Nino. The oceans determine the atmospheric concentration of C dioxide. This implies that alterations in the ocean circulation greatly affects clime and significantly contributes to the clime ( Wengenmayr 2008, p.
231 ) .Climate alteration has been caused by human activities. MacZulak ( 2010, p. 9 ) cited that this is majorly through the combustion of fossil fuels, alterations in the land usage, and industrialisation. With industrial revolution of the nineteenth century, fossil fuels have been used to back up industrial procedures. Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas have been great energy supplies for the industrialised economic systems.
However, these beginnings of energy have contributed to great emanations of the nursery gases in the ambiance. These are responsible for clime alteration ( MacZulak 2010, p. 8 ) .
Carbon dioxide concentration in the ambiance has increased because of human activities such as deforestation and agribusiness. Methane is released through oil boring, excavation of coal, leaking gas grapevines, landfills and waste mopess ( MacZulak 2010, p. 9 ) . These nursery gases cause great addition in the clime alteration and are significantly responsible for planetary heating. The greatest cause of clime alteration and planetary heating nevertheless is the combustion of the fossil fuels. These fuels cause emanation of nursery gases into the Earth ‘s atmosphere taking to depletion of the ozone bed and planetary heating ( Twidell & A ; Weir 2006, p. 143 ) .
Options for Renewable Energy
The term renewable energy is used in mention to the energy resources that occur of course in the environment and can ever be re-used after the initial map.
Examples of this energy are the solar, air current, hydro, and geothermic energy. Rivers, biomass and refuse are besides considered as renewable energies ( Abid, Crawford & A ; Davoudi 2009, p.167 ) . Renewable energy is the hereafter of the Earth ‘s energy demands.
However, in order to efficaciously battle clime change-related challenges, the planetary mean temperatures have to be kept below two grades Celsius. This calls for anterior planning and transmutation of the industrial sectors ‘ usage of energy. Renewable energy has the possible diminishing the usage of fossil fuels that are to fault for most of the jobs associated with clime alteration ( Abid et al 2009, p. 169 ) .Renewable energy beginnings such as air current energy, solar energy, and the bio-fuels are progressively being used as energy options. With the clime alteration and its crises, such signifier of energy has the advantage of energy security since the dodo fuels will be depleted as a consequence of clime alteration. Climate alteration is mostly a effect of anthropogenetic activities such as combustion of the fossil fuels, industrial procedures, deforestation and the release of nursery gases into the ambiance.
It is estimated that the power sector by itself contributes about 40 % of the entire C emanations ( Abid et al 2009, p. 297 ) . This can merely be altered by switching to the usage of renewable energy.Climatic impacts such as tsunamis, drouths, wildfires, inundations, storms, heat moving ridges and twisters are effects of clime alteration ( MacZulak 2010, p.
8 ) . However, harmonizing to the clime alteration specializers, clean air policy that includes usage of renewable energy can well extenuate the negative impacts of clime alteration caused by fossil fuels. Renewable energy engineerings are considered to be the most possible extenuation for nursery gases. In the steadily turning consciousness on the importance of environmental protection precedences, renewable energy is considered appropriate in the extenuation of clime alteration effects ( Chiras 2007, p. 67 ) .
Renewable energy is the option to the clime alteration crises since it does non bring forth nursery gas emanations and foul the air as is the instance with the fossil fuels. Chiras ( 2007, p. 17 ) indicated that biomass energy for illustration, has been used as an option for fossil fuels so as to conserve the environment.
It is considered a nursery gas impersonal since its burning releases no more C dioxide than was absorbed during growing period of the organic stuff. Biomass fuel besides contain small sulfur and low burning temperatures. This limits the formation of N oxide which is a nursery gas unsafe to the environment ( Abid et al 2009, p. 269 ) .
Reacting to Climate Change
The conveyance industry is driven largely by gasoline. This causes emanation of C dioxide into the ambiance.
The C dioxide combines with other nursery gases in the ambiance and cause planetary heating. In order to cover with this threat, there is demand for states to put in energy efficient engineerings like plug-in intercrossed electric vehicles and new engineerings such as H autos ( Abid et al 2009, p. 297 ) . This has the potency of cut downing crude oil emanations of nursery gases into the air. Further, there is demand to switch from air and truck conveyances to electric rail conveyance that reduces emanations significantly.Industries should switch from the fossil fuels to utilize of bio-fuels such as ethyl alcohol and biodiesel fuels should be used in the gasolene engines in the industrial economic systems. Abid et Al ( 2009, p. 169 ) cited that electric vehicles can lend into decrease of unsafe gases into the ambiance particularly if the energy is produced through the renewable energy beginnings.
In order to cover with clime alteration and environmental crises associated with it, riddance of waste methane is required. Methane is considered to be one of the strongest nursery gases that are responsible for the clime alteration jobs. Waste methane should therefore be dealt with responsibly. This is through careful handling of oil Wellss, landfills, coal mines and the waste intervention workss ( Chiras 2007, p. 17 ) . This will supply a net nursery gas emanation benefits.Biomass as a beginning of bio-energy can be used to capture C. Biomass traps C dioxide in the ambiance through photosynthesis.
When biomass is decomposed through burning, C is released as C dioxide. This is the procedure involved in the C rhythm. Biomass fuelled power workss result into a net-negative C dioxide emanation. This implies that there will be less C in the ambiance will be trapped through the engineering and cut down nursery gases that are a menace to the environment ( Abid et al 2009, p. 169 ) .
The acceptance of renewable energy engineerings is strategic in turn toing the jobs associated with clime alteration and planetary heating ( Ehrfeld 2009, p. 113 ) . From 1970s and 80s, development bureaus have promoted small-scale renewable energy engineerings. This includes the usage of biogas, cooking ranges, the air current turbines and solar warmers in the industrializing states. In the big scale developing states have responded to climate alteration through the usage of ethyl alcohol in the conveyance sector. This is particularly the instance in Brazil. In India, biogas is being used in families for illuming and cooking.
Grid connected power in India and hydropower are being used in India and Nepal severally as renewable beginnings of energy and safe energy for environmental preservation ( Ehrfeld 2009, p. 119 ) .
Naturally Sustainable Renewable Energy
As oil reservoirs and oil Wellss in the universe tally dry due to extended development and usage in the energy sector, there is besides an call in the environment that is caused by their effects. Renewable energy beginnings include geothermic energy, solar, hydroelectric, biomass and weave energy ( Chiras 2007, p. 233 ) . These signifiers of energy have been considered to be the most environmental friendly because they do n’t bring forth high degrees of nursery gases and other substances that are non environmentally friendly.
The challenge that these signifiers of renewable energy have is sustainable usage.Hydroelectric power uses the motion of falling H2O to run the turbines. Unlike other beginnings of energy, hydroelectricity does non depend on the fuels like natural gas or gasoline to run the engines.
This makes it more environmentally friendly. Besides, it is more sustainable with the sustainability of the environment so that H2O capacity of the dike is non interfered with. It uses the natural patterned advance nature to bring forth electricity ( Chiras 2007, p. 117 ) .Hydroelectric power does non bring forth direct waste that pollutes the environment. It is therefore considered to be environmentally sustainable ( Ehrfeld 2009, p. 114 ) . The C dioxide degrees produced by hydroelectric power workss are well really low.
This is nevertheless merely produced during the building phase of the workss and non in the operational stage of the workss doing it environmentally friendly.As a renewable beginning of energy, hydroelectric power does non necessitate the usage of fuels to run the turbines. The usage of gasoline in the production of hydroelectric energy is non existing. This implies that when the monetary value of the fossil fuels rises, the hydroelectric workss are frequently non affected. This makes it a sustainable and dependable beginning of energy when compared to other beginnings of energy ( Ehrfeld 2009, p. 116 ) .
It besides means that the consumer monetary value of this signifier of renewable energy is reasonably changeless. In footings of sustainability, hydroelectric power Stationss last longer than the energy works Stationss that are powered by fossil fuels. They are by and large easy to keep and present no much menace to human life and belongings.Hydroelectric energy workss contribute to preservation of the environment. In the states where great investings have been done in the hydropower such as Bhutan, environmental stewardship and custodianship is encouraged. Ehrfeld ( 2009, p.
119 ) cited that since it depends on H2O, a batch of forest preservation and re-afforestation is encouraged. This helps in the decrease of the C dioxide concentration in the ambiance. The human activities that contribute environmental debasement are besides reduced through investing in the hydroelectric power workss.Climate alteration is caused by human activities that tamper with the environment. However, when a state invests in the hydroelectric workss, environmental preservations attempts are boosted. With the preservation of the H2O catchment countries and the woods, hydroelectricity becomes a really sustainable and dependable beginning of renewable energy. As it produces clean energy through environmentally friendly attacks, it besides helps in the protection of Mother Nature ( Ehrfeld 2009, p.121 ) .
International Agreements and Government Interventions in Climate Change
Assorted intercession attempts have been made at the community and single degrees to battle clime alteration and to cut down the negative effects of human activities on the environment. However, much is still needed to be done particularly at the inter-state and governmental degree. One of the attempts that the authoritiess from the industrialised states are doing in the mitigating clime alteration is through the Kyoto Protocol. The focal point of the protocol is in the decrease of nursery gas emanations particularly from the industrialised states by 2012.The developed states have the duty to cut down their emanation of nursery gases from their big industries. These gases contribute to planetary heating and clime alteration. The Kyoto Protocol intercession marks decrease of C in the ambiance ( Karlsson, Lund, & A ; Mathiesen 2010, p.
488 ) . This is through emanation trading, clean development mechanism and the joint execution. These schemes target decreases of nursery gases in the ambiance. The states that are signers are therefore puting in renewable energy engineering options in the industries.The UK authorities considers climate alteration as a precedence.
Its attacks include aiming families to assist in energy economy and strengthen renewable energy acceptance. Civil society, community and private organisations are besides strengthened through grants to assist in coevals of renewable heat from the renewable beginnings ( Ehrfeld 2009, p. 115 ) . The industrialised states are re-focusing investings towards coevals of renewable energies that are environmentally friendly and are sustainable.
There is therefore need to promote less usage of fossil fuels and more investing in the bio-fuels.Improvement of energy efficiency is a good authorities scheme for covering with the clime alteration jobs. Reduced usage of energy implies reduced production of C dioxide. Karlsson et Al ( 2010 p. 501 ) cited that this calls for more efficient vehicles, motors, contraptions and industrial procedures. Besides, development of renewable energy beginnings such as solar, geothermic, hydroelectricity, and biomass should be encouraged to cut down the effects of nursery gases in the ambiance.
The conveyance sector should cut down gasolene ingestion. The trucks, autos and coachs use about half of the oil in the United States. There is hence pressing demand for investing in electric and fuel-celled vehicles so as to cut down the emanation of C dioxide. Transport policies should besides promote less drive of single-passenger vehicles in order to cut down nursery emanations ( Ehrfeld 2009, p. 115 ) .Human activities that involve land usage are mostly to fault for devastation of the environment. Governments should concentrate on developing agricultural policies that discourage environmentally risky patterns and activities such deforestation and other human activities that are unsafe to the environment. Climate alteration has negatively impacted on nutrient security.
In order to therefore fight poorness, clime alteration must be addressed through agricultural activities and policies that are environmentally friendly ( Kammen & A ; Casillas 2010, p. 1181-1182 ) .
Climate alteration is greatly caused by human activities more than the natural procedures. Industrialization and agricultural activities are mostly responsible for the production of nursery gases that promote planetary heating and other effects. These threaten wildlife and human being and as such should be addressed. Renewable energy is the possible deliverance of the environment from the negative effects of human activities. Governments and states therefore need to utilize less of fossil fuels and put more in renewable energy engineering options.
These include hydropower, geothermic, weave energy and other dependable beginnings of environmentally friendly renewable energy beginnings.