The word “homeless” is used to depict many different sorts of people with a assortment of jobs ; the “homeless” includes veterans. the mentally ill. the physically handicapped or inveterate ill. the aged on fixed incomes. work forces. adult females. and households that have lost their beginning of income. individual parents. runaway kids who’ve been abused. alkies and drug nuts. immigrants. and traditional hobos. tramp. and transients ( Martin. 1999 ) . In “Helping and Hating the Homeless” . Peter Martin claims that although these people all have different backgrounds. histories. and grounds for non holding a “home” . they are categorized and stereotyped by society and all looked down upon for being “homeless” . He addresses his readers. those that base on balls by stateless work forces and adult females on the street and those who look down upon the homeless. in order to “attempt to explicate at least some of that choler and fright [ directed towards the homeless ] . to unclutter up some of the confusion. to bit off the indifference” .
In order to back up his statement. Martin uses many stateless people’s lives as illustrations for the grounds they became homeless and have stayed homeless. he besides incorporates many public policies and stateless shelter’s policies to assist depict the stateless life. By making this. he is able to give his reader’s incite on the homeless. leting them to hold a farther apprehension of how they live. Due to miss of cognition and apprehension. many stereotypes have been able to impact and impact the manner society looks at the homeless and creates stateless policies. By including multiple beginnings that reflect the positions of Martin. this essay will make a better apprehension of the homeless and how the stereotypes. although inaccurate. impact the lives of the homeless.
Martin states that “the homeless. merely because they are stateless. are aliens. alien-and therefore a threat” ( parity. 24 ) in order to assist explicate the feelings that society has towards the homeless. He so explains how he feels a sense of irritation. invasion. concern. and dismay while walking past homeless work forces and adult females on his walk place through the park. and how these feelings are non due to the menace of danger. but alternatively this is a response. “fed by a complex set of cultural attitude. wont of idea. and phantasies and fears” ( Martin. parity. 25 ) . that has become 2nd nature. In her essay “Exotic. or “What Beach Do You Hang Out On? ”” . while explicating definitions of the word exotic. Tara Masih explains how people try to look familiar in order to be viewed as safe.
She states: By covering our bodily smells with the same aromas. by following the current tendencies in hair manners. by passing all our energy/time/money to have on the same apparels during the same season. and by maintaining up with the latest profanity. we are stating to our compatriots: “Hey. I’m merely like you. therefore I’m safe and familiar” ( parity. 8 ) . Although they are discoursing two different subjects. both Martin and Masih devote clip in their essays to demo how the unfamiliar is automatically categorized as unsafe. insecure. and something to avoid. They explain how it isn’t even something people think about. it’s a response triggered by what society has taught us. Fearing the unknown is one of the grounds why many people fear the homeless ; their lives are unfamiliar to us. we don’t cognize how they ended up without a place. and they’re non clean and groomed ; because we can non associate to them they become foreign like and unpredictable.
In the recent survey. Types of Automatically Activated Prejudice: Measuring Possessor-Versus Other-Relevant Valence in the Evaluative Priming Task. Juliane Degner and Dirk Wentura tested the participants’ reactions to different scenarios to see how stereotypes affect the manner they perceive state of affairss. They contrasted the reactions to good cognize negative biass with the reaction to the positive societal groups. Within the survey. the homeless were the lone group that received both possessor-relevant and other-relevant reactions. Degner and Wentura province. “For the homeless-students comparing. we obtained the highest evaluation differences for the mark traits. The consequence size parametric quantities point at a distinct negativeness prejudice for both relevancy types” ( 199 ) .
This is the lone survey that received these consequences and explains that the homeless were scene as asocial. aggressive. weak. and contemptible. Throughout “Helping and Hating the Homeless” . Martin besides reflects how the homeless are viewed. He uses many adjectives with similar. if non indistinguishable. significances to the 1s used in the survey. He explains how the homeless are viewed as anti-social because many are seeking to avoid our universe. how they are viewed as a menace because they are non similar to us. how many of them are hungry and don’t have topographic points to kip and therefore they are weak. and many look down upon them and believe that the are acquiring what they deserve. This survey elaborates on Martin’s thoughts of how the homeless are viewed. and gives farther grounds and concluding to why these are the automatically active bias ideas. or stereotypes. projected toward the homeless.
In their survey. Positions of Employed People Experiencing Homelessness of Self and Being Homeless: Challenging Socially Constructed Percepts and Stereotypes. Michael Shier. Marion Jones. and John Graham introduce their survey with this sentence. “Negative public positions and stereotypes of homelessness is a important issue that needs to be addressed to assist extinguish the stigma attached to people who are stateless and to the shelters that provide services” ( 14 ) . The survey was conducted in order to dispute stereotypes and have a better apprehension of the tracts to and from homelessness and the positions of stateless individuals who are employed. The participants in this survey were asked four inquiries: How does being homeless impact the manner I perceive myself? How does being homeless impact my personal mentality and/or personal development? What/how strong are my hopes of acquiring out of this state of affairs? And what is my position on holding a lasting abode or place? Many participants felt like those around them were judging them. which made them embarrassed of their state of affairs. They besides expressed that they try to look at the positives of where they are and where they are traveling. Throughout their replies they discuss how the stereotypes impact they manner they perceive themselves and those around them. one participant said:
For a batch of us. it is merely that we are here. You can crush me over the caput all you want ; I have to calculate this out myself. and thank you for offering. [ Nonetheless ] you know I’m traveling to seek to be every bit nice as I can. It is non the terminal of the universe: I do non hold to be a bad individual because I am stateless. I do non hold to be average and shriek and cry and fit like a three-year-old either ( 23 ) . Many of these stateless people feel like they are wholly looked down upon and expected to move out of line because of the manner they are viewed by the populace. Another participant explained that tonss of times people will harass them on the street and handle them like they are scum. He explained how this hurt his feelings and said. “we are non all felons ; there are a batch of good. hard-working honorable people like myself that are merely seeking to get down over and construct a life for themselves the best manner they can in these yearss and times” ( 23 ) .
The participants of this research survey besides explain that they enjoy shelter services because non merely do they supply topographic points to kip. but besides they provide societal support from those in state of affairss similar to their ain. They explain that more of these services would be greatly appreciated in the homeless community. In the essay. “Helping and Hating the Homeless” . Martin discussed how he talked to many stateless work forces and adult females throughout his life. in the essay he uses their narratives of how they became homeless and their positions on being homeless as illustrations to back up his claim. This research survey elaborates on his illustrations by supplying 61 more narratives and positions. Like Martin explains throughout his essay. all of these people have narratives and grounds for going homeless. each individual has a different history and a different position of where they are. Many of them don’t suit the stereotypes that society has placed on the homeless. particularly the 1s in this instance. because this survey represents the stateless individuals who are employed.
What Martin does non show in his essay is how the media has an consequence on how society positions and stereotypes those without places. In the survey Representations of Homelessness In Four Canadian Newspapers: Regulation. Control. and Social Order. Barbara Schneider. Kerry Chamberlain. and Darrin Hodgetts explicate how the simplest acknowledgment of the homeless being a societal job instead than a personal circumstance can impact the manner society views the homeless. This is something Martin could hold used to assist foster his account on how the homeless are viewed. because this twenty-four hours in age many people receive their information from the media and are persuaded in to believing or believing a certain thing based on the diction and point of position the article is written in.
They province. “While intelligence coverage is frequently sympathetic to persons who are stateless. it tends to portray homelessness as an person instead than structural job. therefore faulting persons for their circumstances” ( Schneider. Chamberlain. & A ; Hodgetts. 150 ) . This thought straight relates to Martin’s statement. “Even more distressing is the fact that it is frequently our supposed beginnings of support-family. friends. authorities organizations-that have caused the job in the first place” ( parity. 18 ) . because it reflects that it is non the individual’s mistake. but the frequently resulting factors of jobs within the authorities. Within Schneider. Chamberlain. and Hodgetts research survey. they discuss how it is of import for the homeless to be able to pass on with those around them and the media. because it will let society to understand them farther. They province:
Homeless people find it hard to acquire their voices into the media and to impact the on-going public narrative about themselves. Assorted bookmans ( Greenberg et al. . 2006 ; Iyengar. 1991 ; Klodawsky et Al. . 2002 ) assert that bordering in media coverage informs the policy solutions that are considered ; if so. so stateless people are excluded from full engagement both in shaping and in happening solutions to their “problems” ( 168 ) .
If they were able to pass on with the media. authorities. and society. they would be able to show their chief concerns and assist their current state of affairs. This would perchance let them to spread out policies that are made to assist the homeless.
Martin explains that the three chief homeless shelters in Santa Barbara. California are private. and two of them are spiritual. Between the three shelters they provide fewer than 100 beds per dark and have strict regulations for how frequently you can remain. how long you can remain. and who gets to remain. He explains the conditions of the suites you stay in ; how crowded. muggy. and uncomfortable they are. Martin discusses how the policies toward the homeless are projected the same manner that the homeless are viewed. He explains that the policies hurt the homeless more than assist them. he does this in order to derive the audiences apprehension of the state of affairs. For illustration. Martin expounds how a recent run to make away with “sleeping ordinances” was successful ; this run made it illegal for the homeless to kip at dark in public topographic points. Stephen Lillenthal explains in his article. “The Problem Is Not The Homeless” . that many topographic points do non desire to do policies that support the homeless because they are afraid that the homeless will make a “problem” in their installations by being riotous. His article further develops what Martin explains on how the policies are non made in support of the homeless.
Lillenthal explains that by doing stateless policies in public libraries to make plans for the hapless and homeless will construct occupation experience. and societal accomplishments in order to further better the lives among the homeless. “During the visits. DPL provides direction on occupation interview techniques and how to utilize audiobooks and MP3 participants. After the category at the Gathering Place. participants receive coach items to travel to the chief library for a circuit and to acquire library cards” ( Lillenthal. 31 ) . this is another manner the library’s with the policies back uping the homeless aid acquire those in need back on their pess. Many libraries refuse to do this a policy for fright. due to stereotypes. that the homeless will destroy the entreaty of their installation. The libraries that have started plans for the homeless have said that it’s merely improved the manner the library tallies. By explicating how the homeless are able to assist work in the library. derive societal accomplishments. and receive free nutrient. Lillenthal. like Martin. promotes the thought of holding more policies in favour of the homeless.
Throughout all of these research surveies. essays. and articles. stereotypes among the homeless are discussed in order to explicate how they affect the lives of the homeless. In “Helping and Hating The Homeless” . Martin explains how the individual word “homeless” represents so many subgroups of people. These people come from many different backgrounds. and have had many different drawbacks in their lives. This one word is accompanied by many stereotypes that society has used to see the homeless. and to do policies against or for the homeless.
These stereotypes non merely impact the manner others view the homeless. but it affects the manner the stateless position themselves. Peoples frequently make snap judgements based on the things they have seen or heard about prior in their lives. that is why these stereotypes can frequently take to the disaffection of the homeless. Each text discusses a deficiency of communicating between the homeless and the remainder of society. in Martin’s essay he explains that the homeless “reduce their universe to a little country. and thereby protect themselves from a universe that might otherwise be excessively much to bear” ( parity. 22 ) . The other beginnings reflect how the remainder of society attempts to remain off from the homeless ; this helps stand for the barrier that has been created due to stereotypes. Each of these texts demonstrates the thought that it is of import to hold a better apprehension of the homeless in order to interrupt the stereotypes that have affect the lives of many people. After all of the different classs people put in. and all the different stereotypes and bias ideas. we all are human and have feelings and societal demands.
Degner. J. . Wentura. D. Types of Automatically Activated Prejudice: Measuring Possessor-Versus Other-Relevant Valence in the Evaluative Priming Task. New York. New york: Guilford Publications. Inc. 2011. 182-209. Print. Lillenthal. Stephen M. “The Problem Is Not The Homeless” . Library Journal June 2011: 30-36. EBSCOhost. Web. 6 May 2012.
Martin. Peter. “Helping and Hating the Homeless. ” Border Texts. erectile dysfunction. Randall Bass. Houghton Mifflin. 1999. 228-238. Print.
Masih. Tara. “Exotic. or “What Beach Do You Hang Out On? ”” Beyond Boarders. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Boston. New york: Houghton Mifflin. 2003. 79-83. Print.
Schneider. B. . Chamberlain. K. . Hodgetts. D. Journal of Sociology & A ; Social Welfare. In Representations of Homelessness in Four Canadian Newspapers: Regulation. Control. and Social Order. Western Michigan University. 2010. 147-173. Print. Shier. M. . Jones. M. . Graham. J. Journal of Sociology & A ; Social Welfare. In Positions of Employed People Experiencing Homelessness of Self and Being Homeless: Challenging Socially Constructed Percepts and Stereotypes. Western Michigan University. 2010. 13-38. Print.