Egypt is located in the North- Eastern corner of Africa and South-Western Asia and is normally known as The Motherland of the World Land of Civilizations and “ The Greatest Power in Human History ” being reputable for its 7,000-year-old record of civilisation and huge wealth of cognition ( SIS, 2011 ) . Amongst all civilisations and states, Egypt is known to be one of the universe ‘s oldest tourer finishs, possessing one tierce of the universes ‘ antediluvian memorials within its state. Besides its other archeological and cultural memorials, the find of the Pharaonic antiquities long clip ago has added a particular entreaty to Egypt, hence hiking Egypt ‘s touristry industry. However, with the flourishing addition in Egypt ‘s touristry, struggles and issues starts to come up refering the direction and preservation of the ancient Egyptian archeological sites and hoarded wealths.
What defines Egypt is it ‘s monolithic figure of archeological sites that can be found all over the state and of class, its extraordinary architectural and heritage attractive forces such as the legendary Pyramids of Giza, the world-famous Valley of the Kings and the temple at Abu Simbel. These well-known and singular sites are the lifeblood of the state ‘s touristry industry where it attracts over 2 million visitants yearly to Egypt ( Boniface and Cooper, 2001 ) .
Despite being one of the most extremely industrialised state in the Arab part, Egypt ‘s crude oil and economic system is non sufficient to supply equal sum of occupations to it ‘s population of 73 million ( e.g. : Winfred and Cooper, 2001 ; MINTEL, 2004 ) . It is besides mentioned by Weeks and Hetherington ( 2006 ) that touristry has been a cardinal factor in Egypt ‘s economic system for about the last two centuries and over the last coevals. It has become a important constituent of the economic system and is now the beginning of 45 per centum of the state ‘s one-year foreign currency net incomes. Therefore touristry in Egypt plays a critical function of support for its economic system where it benefits both the authorities and to all degrees of the society.
One of the chief constituents of the touristry industry in Egypt is heritage touristry. Heritage itself as a construct has entered on to a planetary phase and penetrated into the local, regional and national sphere ( Burnett, 2001 ) . The World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ) states that heritage and civilization have become an of import component in about 40 per cent of all international trips taken ( Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ) and despite of recession, heritage touristry still continued to turn ( Hanna, 1993, cited in Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ) . Throughout the universe, ancient locales and archeological memorials have become major touristry attractive forces ( Laws, 2011 ) and one such finish is Egypt where the impacts of booming heritage touristry on ancient archeological sites are evident through out the state.
However, in malice of the booming touristry industry in Egypt, struggles and issues starts to originate that contradicts Egypt ‘s ain touristry involvement. In order to maximise gross from the touristry industry, Egypt implemented the attack of opening more sites to visitants and advancing visits through advertisement and high profile abroad Tours of antiquities ( Weeks and Hetherington, 2006 ) . Ironically, the benefits of spread outing Egypt ‘s touristry are being out weigh by the negative facets. Lambert ( 2011 ) states that a bustling tourer industry is unhappily known to be a double-edged blade. She added that, as most archeological sites are really delicate and ancient, they were non meant to suit 1000s of visitants on a day-to-day footing. The overcrowding of tourers sing, touching and stepping onto these sites, are destructing many archeological attractive forces.
One such incident happened in February of 1988. A ball of limestone fell from the Egyptian Sphinx, the half king of beasts, half adult male relic built by the ancient Egyptians over 4,000 old ages ago. Recently on January 2011, Egypt ‘s Supreme Council of Antiquities had announced programs to shut the grave of Tutankhamen to tourers by the terminal of the twelvemonth. The grave, which was discovered some 89 old ages ago, was damaged as a consequence of the overpowering visits of tourer, peculiarly over the past three decennaries ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.redorbit.com ) .
The mass touristry in Egypt has besides impacted the Valley of the Kings, changing the physical and natural facets of the environment. Harmonizing to Gaetano Palumbo, the plan manager for North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia for the World Monuments Fund, a New York-based not-for-profit dedicated to continuing and protecting endangered historical sites around the universe:
One could state that, the heritage sites in Egypt are victims of their ain success. In the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, visitant Numberss have about doubled in the past 10 old ages, from 1.5 million to shut to 3 million, with extremums of 10,000 visitants a twenty-four hours. This creates monolithic jobs in visitant direction. … Drastic determinations may hold to be taken in order to modulate visitant Numberss, including impermanent or lasting closings of antediluvian sites.A
Due to hapless touristry and cultural heritage direction, Bindlegas ( 1997 ) states that the decay of some of the universe ‘s most fabulous antediluvian relics has been go oning at a flooring rate. These major archaeological and cultural heritage sites represent the beginnings of human civilisation and supply the best groundss of the historical and cultural development of humanity ( Global Heritage Fund, 2010 ) . If steps are non taken to get down preserving and conserving the antediluvian memorials, it will be wholly destroyed within centuries.
However, increasing the touristry receipts into Egypt and on the other manus, conserving these heritage sites is non every bit simple as it seems. Leask ( 2006 ) described that equilibrating the development of touristry chances and heritage preservation activities has been a uninterrupted battle for states with touristry and cultural heritage direction. The different parties involved are unable to make up one’s mind on the same understanding, ensuing in the deficiency of proper direction that can profit both the touristry and preservation of the ancient Egyptian archeological sites and hoarded wealths.
Therefore this paper aims to place the variables that constitute and associate to the impacts of heritage touristry on archeological sites in Egypt.
To measure the impacts of heritage touristry on archeological sites in Egypt
– To reexamine secondary literature about the environmental impacts of heritage touristry on archeological sites in Egypt.
To analyze the struggle between heritage and touristry in Egypt.
To measure the direction and preservation of archeological sites in Egypt.
Chapter Two: LITERATURE REVIEW
Harmonizing to the Advance Release of the World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ) World Tourism Barometer, international touristry showed a strong recovery of about 7 % to 935 million in 2010, from the 4 % diminution during the planetary economic crisis in 2009. Through the decennaries, touristry is now known as one of the largest industry in the universe, sing dynamic betterments and intense variegation, taking it to go one of the universe ‘s fastest turning economic sector ( e.g. : Youell, 1998 ; World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO, 2011 ) ) . Therefore, prior to measuring the impacts of heritage touristry on archeological sites in Egypt, it is first indispensable to specify and understand the term ‘tourism ‘ .
Even in early researches, the term ‘tourism ‘ had yielded, as many definitions as there were many surveies of phenomenon ( Cohen, 1974, cited in Wall and Mathieson, 2006 ) . Guyer-Feuler who concentrated on the economical and statistical facets of touristry, conceived the first definition of touristry in 1905, where it defined touristry as:
“ A phenomenon unique to modern clip which is dependent on the people ‘s increasing demand for a alteration and relaxing, the want of acknowledging the beauties of nature and art and the belief that nature gives felicity to human existences and which helps states and communities ‘ nearing to each other thanks to the developments in commercialism and industry and the communicating and transit tools ‘ going excellent. ” ( Bahar, 2005: 2, as cited in Esen and Uyar, 2010 )
The beginning of the term touristry goes back to the seventeenth century where the root word ‘tour ‘ is derived from the Hebrew word ‘torah ‘ which means acquisition and examining. Peoples who were sent on a ocean trip to research distant countries to larn the societal activities of the population life in those topographic points are known by the Hebrews as ‘tourist ‘ and the behavior as ‘touring ‘ . ( Bahar, 2005 )
Some other few innovators who attempted to specify ‘tourism ‘ were Professor Hunzikar and Krapf ( 1941, cited in Holloway, 1994:1 ) of Berne University who states that it is:
The amount of phenomena and relationships originating from the travel and stay of non-resident, in so far as they do non take to lasting abode and are non connected to any earning activity.
Holloway ( 1994 ) so continues that touristry, besides being associated as a signifier of diversion or leisure ; it might be where persons or a group of persons travel off from place. However, Holloway ( 1994 ) besides questioned the specificity of the statement on whether touristry is defined by its intent or the distance travelled. Indeed, it is a common perceptual experience and a popular understanding amongst people that the cardinal facets of touristry evolves around vacations, leisure and Tourss, prosecuting in different sorts of activities to hold a good clip and every bit long as being in a foreign land, it is considered to be touristry regardless of the distance travelled. However, touristry is more than merely a casual account of leisure, diversion and being in a foreign land.
In 1993, after much reappraisals, researches and farther analysis on bing plants of touristry definitions, the UNWTO ( 1993, cited in Youell, 1998:9 ) , with co-operations from many international organisations, eventually announced the officially recognized definition as:
“ aˆ¦the activities of individuals going to and remaining in topographic points outside their usual environment for non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents. ”
Therefore with the battalion of touristry definitions given by research workers and surveies, which of these, can academics, organisations and professionals use as an accurate guideline in the touristry industry? In malice of the being of many fluctuations of touristry definitions and the popularity of touristry surveies in recent decennaries, it has been discussed and acknowledged by academic research workers, organisations and industry professionals that there has been no specific means in specifying the chief construct of the term ‘tourism ‘ due to its big complex nature of topic, affecting diverse combinations of subjects and industry sectors ( e.g. : Morley, 1990 ; Youell, 1998 ; Goeldner, Ritchie and McIntosh, 2000 ; Dredge and Jenkins, 2007 ) .
Furthermore, irrespective of the complications of stipulating definitions for touristry, touristry is nil without the tourers. The chief factor that drives touristry is the tourers who are going and hence any attempt to understand touristry as a construct has to first understand the motives behind the tourer ‘s determination to travel. Besides, the definition of touristry is dependent on an person ‘s positions and perceptual experience of touristry and besides how it will suit into a peculiar intent or state of affairs ( Dredge and Jenkins, 2007 ) . In add-on, the alterations of the different definitions since the early 1900s till the present twenty-four hours demonstrates that touristry can no longer be associated to simply economic sciences and geographics ( Arlt, 2010 ) . As clip passes with the uninterrupted growing of the industry, researches into the constructs of touristry will prevail to spread out, finally ensuing in the creative activity of more definitions of touristry.
IMPACTS OF TOURISM
Tourism is an integrating of close interactions affecting the dynamic relationships of different variables or elements in the touristry travel procedure and therefore, it can ne’er be a standalone unit. Hence, any alterations or effects to a variable will make a ripple consequence within the whole touristry construction. With this, parts made by the growing of the touristry industry will hence take to an increased economic activity within the state. States are progressively going dependant on touristry, as it is one of the most rational and sustainable development picks that have the capableness of making employment to the communities and besides moving as a chief proviso of foreign net incomes to the economic system. ( UNWTO, 2010 – Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals )
While it is frequently the economic impacts of touristry that concerns and public organisations that are normally interested in ( Stynes, 1999 ) , the late 20th century saw the outgrowth of environmental and socio-cultural impacts of touristry being controversial and critical issues discussed in touristry survey ( Youell, 1998 ) . As the chief aim of this paper aims to concentrate on the impacts of heritage touristry on the archeological sites in Egypt, this subdivision will therefore supply an overview of the positive and negative influences that touristry, in general, have on the economic, environment and socio-culture around the universe.
It is predicted that by 2020, grosss earned from the touristry industry will be $ 1.5 trillion ( Kumar and Prasad, n.d ) . Tourism being declared as one of the universe ‘s largest industry is similar to any other concerns and industries ; impacting the economic system by bring forthing income for the state ‘s economic system, exciting occupation chances for the people from the international degree down to the local degrees. Increasing competiveness amongst states has besides pushed the concern capacity of the touristry industry to the degree of, or, sometimes even transcending trade trade goods such as oil and nutrient exports ( UNWTO, 2011 ) .
Tourism being a major participant in the service sector is of course dependent on labour hence exciting a great trade of employment chances both in developed and developing states. The fact that touristry is an intergration of many assorted single elements in a touristry travel procedure, the economic impacts from touristry will therefore affect industries in the building sector, agribusiness sector, commercial services sector such as retail and client services and besides the wellness and finance sector ( e.g. : Wall and Mathieson, 2006 ; A-nder and Durgu, 2007 ) . Tourist expenditures lending to the balance of payments through foreign exchange net incomes, and gross generated from touristry developments can stand for a important beginning of income for a state ‘s economic system ( Balaguer & A ; Cantavella-Jorda, 2002, cited in Seetanah, 2010 ) . However on a negative note, seasonal touristry besides known as induced employment, being influenced by the addition in the demand and supply of touristry causes the addition of low-paying occupations and frequently making unemployment during off-peak seasons ( Kreag, 2001 ) . Peak periods of touristry can profit the economic system of a state, nevertheless on the disbursal of the locals, who might hold to pay for the higher monetary values of goods and services in the community, therefore increasing their cost of life. However, parts of touristry to a state ‘s economic benefits is comparative to factors such as the handiness of installations and resources, the state ‘s societal and political stableness, the host communities ‘ behaviour towards tourer and the sum of investing injected by the authorities into touristry undertakings and development ( Youell, 1998 ) .
The relationship between touristry and the physical environment, natural or semisynthetic, is steadfastly interlinked and complicated. Controversial arguments of touristry and the environment have been traveling on in finding whether they are “ friends or enemies ” . The physical environment is an of import facet of touristry ; it ensures the sustainability of pulling touristry in the long tally. In fact, it is impossible to specify the different types of touristry without the inclusion of the environment ( Safakli, n.d ) . A tourer ‘s determination to go and the continuance of stay depends on the physical environment of the finish. Harmonizing to Olali ( 2000 ) , the appraisal given by faculty members provinces that in the following 100 old ages, the environment will be the lone option that will find the demand of touristry. The environmental impacts of touristry can be categorised into two classs which are postive and negative impacts, and happening a balanced relationship with the environment is uncommon, if non, there is barely a balanced relationship ( Holden, 2000 ) .
The negative impacts of touristry on the environment caused by the increased in tourer trials are seeable through the alterations, amendss and depletion of natural resources, doing the devastation of wildlife home ground, improper waste disposal, air and H2O pollutions, and besides eroding of the natural landscape such as the mountains and historical sites ( e.g. : Youell, 1998 ; Holden, 2000 ; United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) , 2001 ; Wall and Mathieson, 2006 ) . The deficiency of installations and infinite to suit the addition in tourist trials consequences in the overcrowding and the complete use of an environment, hence besides increasing improper waste disposal, loss of important attractive forces and unethical behaviours ‘ due to the deficiency of supervising over the big figure of visitants. The damaging province of the environment will so lose its beauty and attraction to these tourers hence doing a diminution in tourer trials.
Despite of the attending on the negative impacts of touristry on the environment, there are still positive impacts of touristry that benefits the environment. Contradictory to the cause of debasement of these natural resources, the motivation factor behind a tourer ‘s determination to go to these topographic points are based on the sentimental fond regard they have with the environments ( Kreag, 2001 ) . And because these environments are what attracted tourers visits in the first topographic point, saving attempts are heighened to maintain them good managed, and protected from farther impairment. The positive environmental impacts of touristry are sometimes associated to the ‘economic value ‘ of touristry earned gross ( Holden, 2000 ) . The addition of touristry travel to a finish besides increases the touristry financess fluxing into the state ‘s economic system. This extra financess allows authoritiess to utilize the added gross from its tourer industry to implement steps into proper direction and put in the Restoration of the environment such as building of new roads to suit overcrowding of vehicles, edifice and upgrading installations to pull or suit the inflow of visitants and put ining modern engineerings into the preservation and saving of sensitive countries ( e.g. : UNEP, 2001 ; Kreag, 2001 ) . And as touristry travel additions, the impacts on the environment are besides increasing. Therefore, it is of extreme importance for authorities bureaus and touristry organisations to concentrate on the saving and preservation of the environment.
When the environment is restored to its original province or even better, the flow of visitants into the finish will restart one time once more. However if there is a deficiency of proper direction or close facilitation of the state of affairs, the environment will finally return back to its damaged province. The effort to equilibrate the positive and negative facets of the impacts of touristry on the environment tends go round a barbarous rhythm. This is where the importance of strategic planning intervenes and it is a important portion of sustainable touristry of a finish.
The inclusion of societal impact surveies is an indispensable standard for any touristry industry and touristry authorities bureaus be aftering for a sustainable touristry industry as it provides an penetration of the support for touristry development within host communities ( e.g. : Nyaupane and Thapa, 2006 ; Zhang et al. , 2006 ; Tovar and Lockwood, 2008 ; Deery, Jago and Fredline, 2011 ) . Social cultural impacts on a finish ‘s society such as traditions, individuality, life style, values and imposts, are the consequences of the direct and indirect interactions between the host communities, the tourers and the touristry industry. These impacts of touristry development on the local society are identified through the rating of occupants ‘ perceptual experiences and behaviours towards touristry ( Tovar and Lockwood, 2008 ) . Regardless of the magnitude of the fluctuations of touristry demand, the impact on the host community will non merely be dependent on the figure of tourer reachings but the type of tourer ( Holloway, 2002 ) . Of which, these impacts can either hold a positive or negative influence on the society.
First, betterments of substructures resulted from touristry development such as clean H2O and stable telecommunications, improved transit and banking services, and new concern investings are positive impacts that contributes in enriching the local communities manner of life ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gawler.sa.gov.au ) . Tourism besides helps in hiking the quality of life in the society and provides chances for locals to see cultural exchange and interactions with the remainder of the universe. The accumulative experience gained from prosecuting in the cultural exchange with visitants enhances the host communities ability to interact comfortably and confidently with future possible visitants in the long tally. Having an inflow of tourer reachings to a finish can besides promote the saving and preservation of cultural values and traditional imposts which are in danger of losing its individuality. The increased involvement of tourers into the civilization and traditions of the local society besides helps to force the demand for historical and cultural instruction and local touristry bureaus will be pressured to step up on saving and preservation of possible endangered antediluvian sites, memorials or artefacts ( Kreag, 2001 ) .
Despite of the positive and inspiring socio-cultural impacts of touristry on a host environment, the negative impacts of touristry, on the other manus, can every bit do a outstanding harm on a civilization. Ironically, alternatively of riviving a lost civilization, the uninterrupted development of touristry driven by the inflow of tourist demand can really good do the same cultural individuality and value of the host communities to alter and this issue has raised concerns amongst touristry organisations. This usually happens when local communites conformed to the demands, wants and desires of tourer ‘s outlooks in the command to react to their turning demands. As such, this conformance leads to the commercialisation of local civilization into a trade good and the alteration of traditional art and trade signifiers, ensuing it to go “ reconstructed ethnicity ” which might stop up doing the obliteration of cultural goods ( www.coastlearn.org ) .
One of the negative facet on the societal position of a civilization is the societal differences between the host and the tourers. Harmonizing to Mathieson and Wall ( 2006 ) , more frequently than non, societal tensenesss between host communities and tourers happens in developing states whereby the tourer market are from a state with higher foreign currency rate than the host communities and therefore accidentally foregrounding the disparity of wealth. They besides mentioned that since the nature of touristry involves the motion of people around geographical locations, societal struggles occur as a consequence of differences in civilizations, values, life styles and linguistic communications.
Tourism AND Heritage
Specifying Heritage in Tourism
With the growing of the touristry sector, the types of tourer are besides diversified and the aggregation of single experiences of these tourers influence the different types of touristry offered today, therefore the formation of the different types of touristry ( Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ) . Heritage touristry has been one of the oldest signifiers of touristry offered since the early ages, nevertheless in recent old ages, it has grown to popularity in the industry. It is the heritage of the unquotable merchandises of life from the yesteryear that is deserving continuing for the benefits esteem and instruction of the current and future coevalss ( e.g. : Nurick, 2000 ; Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ; Sethi, 2005 ; National Trust, 2011 ) . Heritage could be anything that is touchable or intangible left buttocks by the past such as archeological or historical sites that have been preserved, natural landscapes which are of a finish ‘s significance, artefacts and paperss, civilization, values and sometimes even the people of the past such as the autochthonal people. However over the old ages, heritage has been modified and commercialized to accommodate tourers demand and outlooks, leting it to be more accessible, attractive, educational and entertaining ( Fyall and Rakic, 2006 ) . Heritage itself as a construct has entered on to a planetary phase and penetrated into the local, regional and national sphere ( Burnett, 2001 ) . The World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) states that heritage and civilization have become an of import component in about 40 per cent of all international trips taken and despite of recession, heritage touristry still continued to turn ( Hanna, 1993, cited in Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ) . The different types of heritage attractive forces offered now are varse and broad, illustrations includes natural history attractive forces, spiritual attractive forces, sociocultural attractive forces, art galaries, hereditary homes, and genocide memorials.
Fyall and Rakic ( 2006 ) adds that the demand for ‘heritage based ‘ touristry has been on the rise because Lowenthal ( 1979 ) states that people ‘s sentimental reminensce of the yesteryear is profoundly affected by the parallel on-going obliteration of historical antiquities while on the other manus, Hannabuss ( 1999 ) besides claims that heritage partisans are plunging themsevles in heritage for the intent of happening a rational account for their post-modern lives. With the controversial issues go oning in mundane life, it is no admiration that heritage behaves as a standard in reminding people the primary kernel of life. Hence, an effort to understand the demand of heritage touristry could best be determined by originating a survey on visitant psychographic features as these visitants are the primary factors forcing the demand for heritage touristry. Determining the visitant demographics can besides help in better planning and direction of visitant capacity control in relation to saving and preservation of the heritage sites which will be discussed further in the following subdivision.
Harmonizing to Hall and McArthur ( 1993a, as cited in Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ) , the significance of heritage can be categorised into four different countries in relation to its economic, societal, political and scientific significance. The economic significance of heritage refers to the value of the heritage to visitants, in footings of the sum of gross earned from trials to the sites. The societal significance refers to the personal designation that persons have to tie in themselves with ‘their ‘ heritage. In footings of its political significance, the representations of heritage can act as an assistance in pull offing political issues due to its political nature behind its existance. Finally, heritage educates visitants on its history, civilization and the population of a finish. It besides acts as a benchmark for ecological surveies on the environments and ecosystems, hence showing itself as a scientific significance to the people ( ibid. ) .
Impacts of Tourism on Heritage
Through the globalisation and increasing competiveness of the touristry industry, authoritiess, touristry organisations and bureaus are continuously pushed into the vortex of sustainable touristry development. Bramwell and Lane ( 1993 ) states that sustainable touristry development can be implemented if the balance of the economic, environmental and societal facets of the development is realised.
It is certain that every state in the universe will decidedly hold a heritage background attached to them, nevertheless, what makes heritage touristry in a state unique is the clannishness of the existent heritage merchandise itself. The features and singularity of that peculiar heritage merchandise dictates the different types of visitants and the demand of heritage touristry in the finish.
With touristry, comes impacts. As mentioned in earlier subdivisions, touristry impacts the economic system, environment and the socialcultural facets of a finish. Likewise, heritage touristry being categorised into the four different facets of significance, will therefore impact the economic system, evironment and socialcultural facets of a finish. An inflow of tourer trials can positively or negatively impact the finish in many facets. Prosperity of the economic system, occupation creative activities, improved quality of life are some of the positive impacts whilst seasonal unemployment, societal tensenesss, pollution of the environment are some of the negative impacts. However when it comes to heritage, touristry is known to be impacting the environmental and sociocultural facet of the finish more frequently than the economical facet, unless otherwise, the state ‘s touristry economic system is extremely dependent on heritage touristry. Tourism is known to hold an intitmate relationship with the affairs of heritage preservation and saving ; a important component in make up one’s minding the endurance of a state ‘s heritage
Hence, the impacts caused by touristry on heritage sites are in ways similar to that of a natural environment ( pollution, lost of home ground, lost of attraction ) , nevertheless, the consequences and reverberations are amplified due to the singularity of the heritage enviroment that can ne’er hold an exact reproduction elsewhere in the universe.
Heritage Sites in Egypt
Demand of Tourism in Egypt
IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON HERITAGE IN EGYPT
Politcal Issues in Egypt
Chapter THREE: Analysis
GROWTH OF TOURISM IN EGYPT
Tourism and Heritage in Egypt
The term “ history ” can be best epitomized by the ancient Egyptian civilisation than to any other ancient civilization ( Grimal, 1994 ) . Egypt is likely the universe ‘s oldest civilisation from theA Nile ValleyA since the 3,100 BC and is reputable for it ‘s extended aggregation of historical record on civilisation and the huge wealth of cognition ( SIS, 2011 ) . Five thousand old ages ago, a glimpse start of Egypts ‘s touristry began with the start of cruising ( Goeldner, Ritchie and McIntosh, 2000 ) . Queen Hatshepsut ‘s first sail journey is recorded on the walls of the Temple of Deit El Bahari in Luxor, where it states that the intent of cruising at that epoch was for peace and touristry ( ibid. ) .
However the generation of heritage touristry in Egypt could chiefly be attributed by the smart and advanced magnificence substructure of the Pharaonic burial graves such as the Sphinx and the other ancient Egyptian pyramids, which saw the first early reachings of tourers. The start of touristry playing as a nucleus function in the economic system of Egypt came with the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 and after being announced by Khedive ( Viceroy ) Ismail that Egypt was to be portion of Europe ( www.thelonelyplanet.com ) . The Nile, Luxor, the ancient Pyramids of Giza and temples are what defines Egypt as a heritage finish.
Egypt ‘s ancient civilisation is an grounds of the development of world from the prehistoric yearss till the present. The rich history of Egypt acts as a connexion to the distant yesteryear of humanity, which reveals world ‘s greatest glorifications and accomplishments.
Current Status of Egypt ‘s Tourism Industry
Tourism in Egypt is a immense lucrative concern that has flourish and go a major constituent in the economic development. Millions of tourers are going to Egypt each twelvemonth, for the intent of appreciating the copiousness of the natural and historical phenomenon within the state ( www.greenstarhotel.net ) . In 1995, international visitants reachings in Egypt were 3.1 million increasing to about 5.5 million in 2000, it reached 11.1 million in 2007 ( e.g. : Rady, 2002 ; Badr, Zakareya and Saleh, 2009 ; SIS, 2011 ) and in October 2010, the figure of tourer reachings to Egypt reached 14 million ( www.arabfinance.com ) .Screen changeable 2011-05-06 at PM 12.05.52.png
Harmonizing to Egypt ‘s touristry ministry, touristry grosss had besides exceeded $ 9.2 billion in the 3rd one-fourth of 2010 from the old $ 8 billion, demoing a growing of 15.8 percent year-on-year ( www.thedailynewsegypt.com ) . In fact, the touristry industry in Egypt besides represents 11.3 % of Egypt ‘s Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , 40 % of Egypt ‘s entire non-commodity exports and 19.3 % of Egypt ‘s foreign currency net incomes ( SIS, 2011 ) .
Based on the statistics from Egypt ‘s tourim industry, more than 50 % of the tourer reachings to Egypt in 2007 were from Western European states and the former Soviet Union states. In 2006, Egypt saw a leap of 51.9 % more tourist reachings coming from Russia. Despite being a new market for Egypt ‘s touristry, Russia tops the ranking of other states supplying Egypt with 1,516,561 tourer reachings, followed by Germany ranking as 2nd with 1,088,038 tourer reachings, the United Kingdom demoing a 1.8 % addition in 2007, ranking 3rd ( lesser than the 22.7 % addition in 2006 from 2005 ) and eventually, the 4th superior belongs to Italy who stayed the same in both 2006 and 2007 with 990,638 tourer reachings ( Helaly and El-Shishiny, 2008 ) .
In 2009, Russia shown an addition of 34.2 % in visitant reachings from 2007 with 2,035,330 tourers and the United Kingdom claimed intself in the 2nd rank, forcing Germany down to the 3rd place whilst Italy continues staying in the 4th position.Screen shot 2011-05-08 at AM 06.05.29.png
These figures shows the important importance of the touristry industry to Egypt ‘s economic system, therefore the demand to farther heighten its touristry development and advance its growing to go on pulling more visitants from the North America, Europe, the Middle East and from elsewhere around the universe ( Eraqi, 2007 ) .
EGYPT ‘S RESILIENCE OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Diversification of the Tourism Product
What defines Egypt is it ‘s monolithic figure of archeological sites that can be found all over the state and of class, its extraordinary architectural and heritage attractive forces such as the legendary Pyramids of Giza, the world-famous Valley of the Kings and the temple at Abu Simbel. These well-known and singular sites are the lifeblood of the state ‘s touristry industry where it attracts over 2 million visitants yearly to Egypt ( Boniface and Cooper, 2001 ) . Egypt ‘s repute as one of the “ must-see ” universe touristry finish began since the late 19th century when Thomas Cook started forming Tourss and included heritage site visits to the Middle East into the internerary of the Grand Tour for the English gentleman, or dame ( www.lonelyplanet.com ) .
By the terminal of the 20th century, besides being branded as a universe touristry finish, Egypt has diversified its touristry merchandise from being known merely for its alone archeological finish to a provider of leisure and recreation-orientated mass touristry ( Vignal, 2010 ) . Say, usually a standard travel path to Egypt would include sing Cairo, the Upper Valley of the Nile and the archeological sites in Upper Egypt, nevertheless now, in the command to pull a wider tourer market, Egypt has carried out developments along the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to offer nautical touristry. These variegation of the touristry marketed to visitants are portion of Egypt ‘s touristry strategic end to keep its fight and an border against the other planetary finishs ( e.g. : Eraqi, 2007 ; Vignal, 2010, SIS, 2011 ) . However, due to conservation ground, the intent of the variegation of Egypt ‘s touristry market is besides to administer the overpowering figure of tourers to the other countries in Egypt, alternatively of cloging celebrated heritage sites that are traveling through dismaying degredation due to hapless site direction of crowd capacity.
Harmonizing to the Eygptian Tourist Authority, the 16 classs of tourer attractive forces & A ; types of touristry are as follows ( www.thebanmappingproject.com ) :
Business and Conferences
CASE STUDY I: RESILLIENCE AGAINST THE IMPACT OF SEPTEMBER 11TH TERRORIST ATTACK
After the September 11th terrorist onslaught in the United States of America, the touristry concern in Egypt showed a drastic diminution. However, the touristry concern in Egypt started demoing marks of recovery by spring 2002. By August, authorities statistics showed that tourer reachings had addition in up to a record of 574,000. The overall Numberss of tourer reaching went up from 4.6 million in 2001 to 5.1 million in 2002 ( www.proquest.umi.com ) .
This accomplishment in the speedy recovery from the touristry slack is orchestrated by the attempts made from the crisis direction squad from Egypt. The ground behind the reslience of the touristry industry in Egypt is due to the successful strategic planning of Egypt ‘s variegation of the touristry merchandise. Egypt, being known for advancing its touristry sector entirely on its rich ancient history such as the Pyramids, and the grave and temples from Upper Egypt, has moved off from its comfort zone and is now offering an extended assortment of touristry merchandises.
The developments along the Sinai Coast and the Red Sea aims to travel the touristry concentrate off from major population metropoliss where it is less likely to be affected by political incidents. Based on the tourer reaching profiles given by Egypt ‘s Ministry of Tourism, the major figure of tourers are coming from the Western and Southern of Europe. Thus, concentrating touristry activities off from hot political musca volitanss can be of an advantage to the touristry industry in Egypt.
At the same clip due to the onset globalization of the touristry industry, the lifting addition of hotel installations built to provide to tourers, circuit operators supplying a wider scope of picks for circuit bundles and the handiness of cheaper air travel options, it has caused the inflow of demand in tourer reachings to Egypt ( Vignal, 2010 ) .
Despite of the variegation of touristry activities offered, Egypt ‘s touristry is afterall still dependent on its heritage geographical environment to pull visitants and back up its touristry activites. Therefore, more tourist reachings means there is the demand to use more infinite for the building of tourer accomodations and installations, the broadening and upgrading of roads and tracts, supplying more manners of transit and therefore altering the environment ‘s landscape ( e.g. : www.thebanmappingproject.com: Kumar and Prasad, 2010 ) . The demand to construct more encouraging substructure poses many menaces to the environing environment and the addition of touristry activity can straight take to the black debasement of the Egypt ‘s environment, sometimes, ensuing in the doomed of of import cultural heritage ( e.g. : Timothy and Boyd, 2003 ; www.jrank.org ) . However, touristry activity can besides lend to an bing state of affairs of environmental debasement such as Egypt ‘s on-going environmental issues.
Egypt ‘s Current Environmental Issue
EgyptA hasA manyA environmental jobs, which complicates the attempts to advance its economic and societal development. However, if we were to see it from another position, the emphasis placed by the monolithic economic development of Egypt could hold been the original cause of the environmental issues. The doomed of agricultural land due to urbanisation, desertification, oil pollution from floating boats on the river which has caused damaged to the coral reefs, beaches, and Marine home grounds, together with the overpopulation of Egypt and the uninterrupted investings into Egypt ‘s touristry industry, has all badly impaired the direction of H2O and effluent of the urban countries therefore making many environmental jeopardies ( e.g. : www.touregypt.net, 2011 ; Sr, 1995 ; Baran, 2009 ) . Other H2O pollutions includes the hapless direction of industrial and agricultural sewerage, and the improper disposal of solid wastes.
As a consequence from the predominating figure of environmental jobs, the Nile River being the lifeblood of Egypt and chief beginning of fresh water for families and irrigations, besides moving as manner of transit for people and goods, is now confronting jobs with holding a limited beginning of fresh water to be supplied to the people in Egypt.
With the current province of the environment and visitants ‘ negligent behaviour of littering, inordinate touching and trample of heritage memorials, graffito and hooliganism, and the remotion of objects as souveniors, it all acts as a accelerator in speed uping the debasement and sometimes, even the loss of the heritage environment in Egypt ( e.g. : Hallway and Piggin, 2003, as cited in Fyall and Rakic, 2006 ; Bindlegas, 2007 ; Timothy and Nyaupane, 2009 ) .