Advertisers have responded to this challenge by creating more types of ads online. Today, a variety of advertising formats co-exist on the Internet. Six most recognized formats are banners, pop-ups,floating ads, skyscrapers, large rectangles, and interstitial (Burns & Lutz, 2006). Although each online ad format possesses distinctive features, they could generally be categorized into two groups, using the level of exposure condition as the criterion. 1 . One group, unforced-exposure ads, includes banner ads, skyscrapers, and large rectangles.
These types of ads generally re displayed on the peripheries of a Web page, and they do not interrupt Web users’ surfing. Therefore, Web users’ exposure to such ads is mostly incidental, and not forced. 2. However, the other group of ads, such as pop-up ads, floating ads, and interstitial, always appear automatically and unexpectedly, interrupting Web users’ planned activities and forcing them to notice unrequited commercial messages. These types of ads could be considered forced-exposure ads. This paper identifies the different mechanisms underneath these two groups of ads and discusses their advertising effectiveness. Banner ads and pop-up ads are chosen to represent unforced-exposure ads and forced-exposure ads respectively because these two formats are the most recognized by Web users (Burns ; Lutz, 2006). The author explores the applicability of the well-known advertising framework, hierarchy of effects models, to Internet advertising.
The proposed model incorporates both unforced-exposure ads and forced-exposure ads. The effects of both types of ads, as well as the moderating effect of product involvement, are discussed for each stage of the hierarchical model. In the following sections, the author first provides an overview of the hierarchy of tests models. Then, the applicability tot the hierarchical model to Internet advertising is discussed. The author examines effects of pop-up ads and banner ads for each stage of the hierarchical model.
Moderating effect of product involvement is also addressed. Finally, the author presents a new Internet advertising message processing model, incorporating both types of ads. Hierarchy of Effects Models Basic Idea of the Hierarchical Models _(
This model became to be known as AID (Attention Interest Desire Action). It is still one of the most referred hierarchical models in advertising and personal selling literature. Many researchers proposed models similar to AID later, and the most classic one among them was posited by Leaving and Steiner (1961). Those two researchers believed that advertising was an investment in a long-term process that moved nonusers over time through seven stages, beginning with product unawareness and moving ultimately to actual purchase.
They emphasized that consumers did not jump from a stage of disinterest to that of convinced purchasers. Rather, they went through a series of steps to that threshold of purchase. Based on the work of Leaving and Steiner (1961), the popular terms for the hierarchical models, “cognition”, “affect”, and “conation” were generated. Cognition refers to mental or rational states. Affect refers to feeling or emotionality’s. And, conation refers to striving or behavioral states.