The individual of the Spirit is mentioned 12 times in Matthew’s Gospel Ghost. 6 times in Mark. Luke refers to him15 times but John does so 17 times. With these comparatively little differences why is John’s Gospel considered to be in somehow more Spirit orientated than the Hagiographas of the revivalists?
The reply lies in portion in the ‘Signs’ . events which the Synoptics refer to as ‘might works’ . Each of these ‘Signs’ is accompanied by an explanatory word. There are none of the long references to the crowds found in the other Gospels such as the Sermon on the Mount [ 1 ] . nor is there a individual fable. There are nevertheless discourses on the topics of life. visible radiation. truth. judgement. Christ’s individual and his relationship to his male parent. John follows his ain chronology and description of the Incarnate Christ.
He records stuff non found elsewhere such as the Spirit’s work in regeneration as in the brush and duologue with Nicodemus [ 2 ] in which the demand for a religious metempsychosis is carefully explained and his meeting with the Samaritan adult female [ 3 ] in which Jesus stresses the demand for true worship
In 7 V 37 as pointed out by Donald Gurthrie [ 5 ] he refers early on to the promised spring of the spirit after the glory of the Messiah every bit good as including 5 expressions about the Spirit non mentioned elsewhere. [ 6 ] It is unsure as to whether the epistles of John were written before or after the Gospel. though Leon Morris cites J. A. T Robinson as reasoning for a day of the month every bit early as 60 -65 C. E. [ 7 ] . but in both similar thoughts come through. In 1 John 2 V 20 there can be seen the fulfilment of the promise of the Spirit outlined so strongly in John. In composing to the church he declares as fact: – [ 8 ]
You have an anointment from the Holy One. and all of you know the truth. John omits much that the other revivalists felt ought to be included such as the baptism of Jesus. the enticements and the Transfiguration. This may in portion be due to clocking – John is thought to hold written his Gospel long after the other three. so these narratives would hold already been good known. John is seeking to spread out on what was already known.
R. G. V. Tasker in his commentary [ 9 ] quotation marks Clement of Alexandria: – Last of all John. comprehending that all the external facts had been made field in the Gospels. being urged by his friends and inspired by the Spirit. composed a religious Gospel.
R. G. V. Tasker points out that this is normally interpreted as significance that while the others recorded the bare facts the value of John’s Gospel lies non in the facts recorded. but in the reading of them. and. as can be seen organize his epistle. but besides elsewhere in the New Testament the promises sing the Spirit related in John were manifested within the infant church.
R. H Lightfoot in his commentary [ 10 ] points how each subdivision of the Gospel is connected in some manner to one of the great Judaic banquets and so John is inquiring his readers to see Jesus as being linked to these festivals. and in peculiar. as the Lamb of God. [ 11 ] connected with the thought of Passover. He claims [ 12 ] that in John’s position all the banquets point towards the coming of God and in the ‘coming’ they are fulfilled.
The Presence and Promise of the Spirit
The Spirit becomes easier for humanity to understand. It is seeable in the signifier of a dove that can be seen by all as witnessed to by John the Baptist: – I saw the Spirit descend as a dove from Eden and it remained on him. I myself did non cognize him ; but he who sent me to baptise with H2O said to me. ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain’ this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit. ’ And I have seen and borne informant that this is the Son of God. [ 18 ]
Metzger and Coogan [ 19 ] point out that this does non intend that the association of Jesus and the Holy Spirit began at this point. a kind of acceptance by God. but province that it was instead that John ‘saw in the baptism the epiphany of the preexisting Son’ as is clear if on ereads the introductory words to the Gospel ‘In the beginning was the Word …the Word became flesh and made his home among us’ . [ 20 ]
John sees the Spirit as in some manner authenticating Jesus. once more as pointed out by Metzger and Coogan. this clip utilizing the grounds from John’s foremost epistle [ 21 ] . which after all can non be wholly separated from this Gospel. holding been written by the same writer and incorporating similar thoughts. and where we are told that the Spirit testifies.
Then there is the power of the Spirit manifested in many miracles as at the nuptials in Cana. [ 22 ] . as had long been promised by the Old Testament Prophetss. such as Isaiah [ 23 ] but besides explained on many occasions. and utilizing assorted analogies. by Jesus himself.
In John 14 V 26 he is promised as a ‘Comforter. Counselor. Helper. Intercessor. Advocate. Strengthener. Standby’ . [ 24 ] In John this Spirit. like God in the Old Testament. is illimitable. [ 25 ]
In John 16 V 13 he is described as a usher into truth or the Spirit of Truth. Earlier. in 6 V 63. the Spirit is described as the giver of life. which links back to John 3. particularly verse 8 which references those Borns of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit. his work and power. is interrelated with both the Father and the Son in the work of redemption and the delivery into being of the land of God. Although the phrase ‘The Holy Trinity’ was a long manner in the hereafter. this is a instead different thought about God than was traditional in Judaism.
Possibly here is the really beginnings of the church as a separate entity instead than as a religious order of Judaism. This is shown clearly in the synoptic descriptions of the baptism of Christ where the voice of the Father is mentioned. as is the presence of Jesus and the descent of the Spirit [ 26 ] . but is besides present in John’s narrative. The Father loves the Son in Communion with the Holy Spirit and the Son loves the Father in Communion with the Holy Spirit as in John the Baptist’s description [ 27 ] . but besides John 16 V 5-8 where he explains to the adherents that he is shortly returning to his male parent. but that the Holy Spirit will come: –
If I go I will direct him to you. And when he comes he will convert the universe refering wickedness and righteousness and judgement: concerning sin……because they do non believe in me ; refering righteousness. because I go to the Father [ 28 ]
Tasker in his commentary comes to the decision that though it is hard to divide history and philosophy in any of the Gospels if one compares John with the synoptic Gospels. and particularly possibly with that of Luke. the professed intent of the authors of the first three is historical and that of John doctrinal. [ 29 ] The ground for this is that the earlier authors included facts which were subsequently interpreted by the church. whereas John. composing so much later. can be said to ‘review the facts in the visible radiation of their interpretation’ .
Hunter points out for case how. with respect to the Holy Spirit. John seems to magnify what the others have already said on the same topic. [ 30 ] In other words John was seeking to demo the ageless value of what had occurred when the historic Jesus. the Word of God. stepped out on the human phase. He states his purpose clearly in chapter 20 V 30. 31: – The nazarene did many other marvelous marks in the presence of his adherents. which are non recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ. the Son of God. and that by believing you may hold life in his name. [ 31 ]
One of import doctrinal point he included was that the Holy Spirit. the Spirit of God. given to Jesus at the really beginning of his ministry. was besides given to the adherents. a Spirit that would rest non on one person as in the Old Testament. but on all true followings of Christ. John 14 V 15. 16. 17a: – [ 32 ]
If you love me. you will obey what I command. and I will inquire the Father. and he will give you another Counsellor to be with you for of all time – the Spirit of Truth.
The Grecian word for ‘another’ here is ‘Allos’ which can intend a numerical difference and another of the same kind. Lightfoot [ 33 ] points out that this means person who is no less a helper than Christ had been to them. The analogy is from the jurisprudence tribunals and refers to a supporting council. an lawyer. as opposed to the accuser. But this is to be a lasting presence – non merely for a short period when in problem or even for a few old ages. Compare this with John 13 V 33: – ‘My kids. I will be with you merely a small longer. ’ [ 34 ] .
The presence of the Spirit with them will give them the same relationship with the Father that Jesus has. as R Alastair Campbell points out in his overview of the New Testament. [ 35 ] Hunter in his commentary describes him as the Spirit who gives cognition of Godhead world. [ 36 ] So of import was this learning about the Spirit that it may hold been in circulation as a separate papers before John included it in his Gospel as suggested by Metzger and Coogan. [ 37 ]
The Grecian word ‘Parakeltos’ is one who is called aboard as in Job where it is used to depict his sympathizers. Among Judaic authors. harmonizing to NetBible a good title was called a Holy Ghost as was the wickedness offering. [ 38 ] It was used by Philo in his ‘Life of Moses’ of Joseph when he forgives his brothers ‘they had no 1 else as Holy Ghost or mediator. ’ [ 39 ] Net Bible besides quotes Dr. J. Hastings who thought that ‘the Paraclete was sent to bring around the unbelief or half-belief of the adherents. ’ [ 40 ]
The decision of the Net Bible author is that there seems to be no English word that truly covers the full significance of ‘Paraklete’ which is why the Amplified Bible poetry already quoted uses non one word but 7. These were new thoughts. Hebraism was so centered upon the unity of God that God in three individuals. yet all every bit God. was. and is. hard to depict. His function is about as hard for authors and observers to set into words.
The Net Bible asks if the Paraclete is the replacement or the replacement for Christ. and concludes that He is both and neither because. although the historic replacement in the sense that he came after him chronologically. he was non his replacement in the sense that Christ ceased to move in the church. He is the religious replacement for Christ’s physical presence. but merely so that He can uncover the existent presence of Christ in Spirit. John makes it clear that his work will be centered upon Jesus and his instruction: – [ 41 ]