There are many cultural-led urban renovation undertakings all over the universe. These undertakings make good usage of three policy tools in urban reclamation. These three policy tools are cultural heritage saving, harbour-front cultural renovation and big scale cultural territory development.
First illustration is the Pompidou Centre in the Paris. Through well-established construction of the country, like Topographic points Georges Pompidou, a celebrated topographic point for street performing artists, Stravinsky Fountain, a popular public topographic point for people to remain, besides the Public Information Library and the National Museum of Modern Art are located inside the country. Peoples are able to make all their cultural ingestion and cultural production in this country.
The 3rd and 4th illustrations are in Japan. These show good illustrations of cultural heritage saving. In Roppongi Hill of Tokyo, there are shopping promenades, hotels, offices with public sculpture, street furniture and sky-high museum at the top portion of these edifices. This attracts many tourers and shoppers to come and see these topographic points. In Kanazawa, museum is built and developed with communicating and concerted battle with people and industries. Peoples can bask their clip in the museum to see the universe ‘s first modern-day art without barriers of clip and infinite.
In Baltimore, under elect concern pool led by developers, the metropolis is developed with immense adaptative re-use zones, combination of tourist-based activities like diversion, civilization, shopping, mixed-income lodging, rehabilitation, recycling etc. through monitoring of democratic and elective metropolis city managers and council members, the metropolis develops good links to neighbourhood communities. This metropolis shows a good illustration of culture-led harbour-front cultural renovation.
There are some suggested cultural policies and be aftering rules in the universe to be implemented in the redevelopment undertakings. These rules are suited for touchable and intangible cultural assets in long term sustainability. Harmonizing to the “ Management of universe cultural heritage metropoliss: germinating construct, new schemes ” written by Engelhardt, “ For genuinely sustainable long-run economic and societal development, we must turn our attending to issues of resource sustainability and public engagement and authorization. ” ( Engelhardt 2 ) . This reflect two of import elements in urban renovation, community based direction and cultural endeavors. These cultural assets are good beginnings of cultural capital as these sites contain historic and cultural value of the metropolis.
For the first component, community-based direction, it involves a direct nexus between heritage protection and social-economic development. Through active engagement inside the community and in the subject of heritage saving, they become a prima function and long-run sustainability of the heritage can be achieved. For illustration, in Hong Kong, there is a group of occupants called Blue House Resident Group. These occupants commit themselves to guarantee collaborative direction in the Blue House Preservation Project. They participate in meetings with professionals and societal workers to raise their sentiments in be aftering design of the undertaking.
For the 2nd component, cultural endeavors, these endeavors promote local community stewardship and this can profit for the whole community in societal and economic ways. These endeavors normally have some features, “ Furthermore, cultural endeavors tend to be rural-based, favour adult females as manufacturers, require comparatively small capital investing, and bring forth high employment rates – all factors which make them an ideal development scheme for what today remain the poorer parts of development. ” By the definition of UNESCO, a cultural endeavor can be defined as a commercial company that set up a relationship between 1 ) Godheads and creative persons and 2 ) markets and consumers, supplying these creative persons with acknowledgment and income. For illustration, in Hong Kong, there are many drama organisations that are running themselves to go on their concern. They organize play for the public and promote theatre grasp among audiences.
Besides, Engelhardt suggests that there is a strategic attack to self-develop these heritage sites. “ We have identified an emerging form to this scheme and hold modelled this into a model which we call the LEAP 10 Step Action Programme ” ( Engelhardt 9 ) . The chief aims of this programme are to convey up some particular activities which are sustainable and profit the society economically. These activities will be “ self-running ” and non required any fiscal uninterrupted aid to keep the concern.
LEAP 10 Step Action Programme:
Activities promoting local engagement
Mobilization of local authorities sections
Pilot undertakings and research work
Techniques for edifices ‘ care
Traditional, reliable building stuff
Development of intangible cultural activities
Training in touristry
Formal and informal instruction in local history
Fiscal support, for illustration loans
Link communities through sharing seminars, workshops
Furthermore, harmonizing to David Harvey ‘s thought in “ From managerialism to entrepreneurialism ” , uniting the touristry with urban renovation is his thought in be aftering rules. “ Facelifts and installations designed to pull more tourers besides improve the quality of life for those who live at that place, even luring new industries. ” ( Harvey 53 ) . These aid to make a harmoniousness ambiance of optimism. By this ambiance, people in the community can increase their sense of properties to the community. Government can make festivals and cultural events to advance the civilization of the metropolis to tourers. For case, Cheung Chau Bun Festival in May is a good illustration exemplifying how a cultural event is able to advance its civilization and positive image to the tourers. Bun-snatching and cultural parades inside streets are the two chief events in the festival. Many tourers will take ferries to see Cheung Chau at that clip.
In add-on to touristry, ICOMOS suggests some rules in pull offing touristry in heritage so that poorly-managed touristry may non harm the significance and nature of the cultural heritage. Harmonizing to the six rules of International Cultural Tourism Chapter, “ preservation should supply responsible and good managed chances for members of the host community and visitants to see and understand that community ‘s heritage and civilization at first manus. ” ( ICOMOS 1999 ) Besides, “ Visitor experience in the heritage will be fulfilling and gratifying. ” ( ICOMOS 1999 ) “ Host communities should be involved in be aftering for preservation and touristry. ” ( ICOMOS 1999 ) “ These preservation activities should profit the host community ” ( ICOMOS 1999 ) “ Tourism publicity programme should protect and heighten Natural and Cultural Heritage features ” ( ICOMOS 1999 )
Last but non least, harmonizing to the Chapter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas, some planning rules should be achieved. Multidisciplinary surveies should be carried out in be aftering for preservation of these countries. The preservation program should see many relevant factors like history, architecture, economic sciences etc. It is to guarantee a good relationship between historic countries and the town as a whole. “ The betterment of lodging should be one of the basic aims of conservation. “ ( ICOMOS 1987 ) Besides, careful planning of traffic should be considered and controlled. Expresswaies should non perforate the countries but these should better entree to the countries. A general information programme should be established to roll up sentiments from all occupants including kids to promote active engagement.
Is West Kowloon Cultural District ( WKCD ) able to do good usage of these policy and planning rules?
WKCD is a large-scale cultural territory development undertaking which wants to incorporate this art and cultural territory through well-established installations, architecture, programmes. Now, the conceptual program of “ City Park ” made by Forster and Partners is selected as maestro program of the undertaking. The program contains some utile planning rules mentioned before but the undertaking itself contains some jobs that need betterment in order to win.
First, conveyance and services are located belowground. These expresswaies will non perforate the nucleus portion of the territory. The thought of this is to make zero-carbon environment inside the park. Many green Bridgess will be built to link to different parts of Kowloon like Austin and Kowloon Stations, Kowloon Park etc. Public can bask their leisure clip in walking through these green populace infinite which is 230,000 square metres including a 19 hectare park with over 5,000 trees.
Besides, there is certain connexion to the touristry as the cultural territory is built for everyone to bask. There is a shaded avenue running from E to west and lined with colonnades. Strolling down it, tourers will happen a assortment of topographic points to shop, dine and have fun. The undertaking besides has some little residential adjustments and tourers can bask the Victoria Harbour and the cultural territory in a really good position. Besides, as Hong Kong is a celebrated topographic point for touristry, I have assurance that be aftering for pulling tourers will be successful through well-managed programs. Tourists can bask and hold a worthwhile experience in WKCD.
Cultural endeavors can besides be located inside the country as there are many cultural installations inside the country. The undertaking proposes low-cost, flexible dry run infinites and exhibition locales. Artistic communities and originative professionals will be supported inside the country and they can portion any sort of art to the populace.
However, the public battle programme in proposing how the territory is developed has jobs. First, they invite stakeholders of different groups in the society to raise their sentiments. The general populace can merely compose the questionnaire prepared by the authorization to voice out their concerns and sentiment about the designing and planning of the undertaking. Besides, these stakeholder groups voice out their sentiments with guidelines provided by the authorization. These can non voice out their coveted programs for the undertaking.
Besides, the authorities still does non implement long-run cultural policy to back up the development of the undertaking. Hong Kong is ever regarded as “ cultural desert ” by creative persons as they do non hold much support from the authorities like locales for practising and executing their productions. In the undertaking, the authorities does non actively take part and organize in the undertaking. They appoint some commissions into the authorization of WKCD. The authorization is criticized non runing in a crystalline manner. The assessment panel for choosing the maestro program is a 7 people group that recommends the program to the authorization. Although the appraisal standards are stated to the populace, the elaborate consequence of each design is non shown to the populace. Besides, the authorization is lack of public monitoring. As the community can non actively take part and pull off inside the authorization, it can non run into the rule of public engagement.
Although the maestro program of WKCD has good connexion between the country and to other parts of Kowloon, residential country near WKCD has many epicurean edifices. I am concerned about how these countries can be integrated with WKCD swimmingly and poorer populace will non hold difficult feeling when they walk through two different sorts of countries, WKCD and residential country around Kowloon Station. Besides, the program should be ensured WKCD will non be isolated by these high edifices and public can easy come in WKCD through public conveyances.
To reason, WKCD is a large-scale undertaking that should supply gratifying minutes to all of us. However, the authorization should work out the jobs mentioned above in planning and designing of WKCD, like non-transparency of the authorization, new long-run cultural policy, deficiency of public engagement etc. the authorization should follow more on the planning rules in the universe and have some alterations to allow WKCD incorporate as a fantastic cultural city in the universe.