Humankind has from the very
beginning learned to gather natural resources for their survival. It is not
until the 21st century that they have understood the importance of managing
these resources and issues that arise with it. With the dwindling number of resources
and depleting spots for harvesting resource, sustainability has become the
trending issue to manage these resources including water resource. One of the
sustainability goals of the United Nations is to support developing countries
in water and sanitary activities including water harvesting (Jansen, 2017).
From the Food and Agriculture
Organization (2015), it is known that population has since been growing rapidly
from 2 billion people in 2005 and projected to have grown to 3.5 billion people
by 2025. With this rise of population, 1.8 billion people will be living in
conditions where water is scarce and about two-thrids of the world’s population
could be experiencing water-stressed conditions (United Nations, 2014).
Therefore, an alternative
solution is needed to overcome this problem of water shortage with the growing
population. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the known ways to achieve
sustainable water resource management. Essentially, it is a system that
gathers, filters, and stores natural rainwater. By preventing the waste of
rainwater flowing into the drain, it can be collected along with greywater to
be used for non-drinking purposes such as flushing urinals and toilets without
depending much on domestic water supply.
Being in a tropical climate,
Malaysia has even more reason to engage in the rainwater harvesting practice
and fully utilize this natural resource. It is not until the late 90s where the
government starts to promote the use of the RWH system due to the climate
change events, where some areas experience water shortages. The RWH system has
the potential and reliability to cover some of the water supply demand.
However, it does depend on a number of factors including climatic conditions,
roof areas, tank volumes, water usage, and total water demand (Imteaz et al.,
This article is done
as a part of an investigation on the design of the RWH system and how does it
support sustainable development. An in-depth probe of the RWH system includes
the problem statement as well as the methodology. The functionality and
features will be discussed and finally, a conclusion of the system will be met.