Worlds could be doing the 6th mass extinction of the universe through the consequence the human species has on the planet Earth.
Human population denseness additions, clime alteration due to human activities and increased human geographic expedition and intervention of nature are some of the ways worlds are on their manner to doing the 6th mass extinction. A mass extinction refers to “ the extinction of a important proportion of the universe ‘s biology in a geologically undistinguished period of clip ” ( Hallam & A ; Wignall, 2002, p. 2 ) . Put merely this means a big sum of species die out a small sum of clip.
Raup ( 1992 ) suggests that about half the Earth ‘s surface must be environmentally affected in order for a mass extinction, on par with old mass extinctions, to happen ( Hallam & A ; Wignall, 2002 ) .Previous mass extinctions have occurred towards the terminals of the Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous epochs ( Mader, 2008 ) . These clip periods show a sudden pronounced lessening in biodiversity. Towards the terminal of the Ordovician period, the clime turned cold and it is believed up to 85 % of the Earth ‘s species disappeared.
These species would hold consisted of trilobites and lamp shells. The late Devonian mass extinction which was merely late recognised as a mass extinction in the late 1960 ‘s, continued for 20-25 million old ages with several extinction events such as the Kellwasser and Hangenberg ( Hallam & A ; Wignall, 2002 ) . Species including sponges, chalky algae, Foraminifera and pelecypods suffered extinction within this period ( Hallam & A ; Wignall, 2002 ) .
The mass extinction of the late Permian epoch over 250 million old ages ago is known to be the most terrible with extinction of 54 % of marine households and 96 % of all marine species ( Erwin, 1990 ) . During the Triassic period, works life consisted chiefly of confiers and cycads. It was during this clip period the first dinosaurs appeared and continued to last despite a important lessening in biology towards the terminal of this epoch. It is believed that the Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by meteorites that fell to the Earth doing a dust cloud. This dust cloud so blocked out the Sun, doing atmospheric temperatures to drop and the bulk of life on Earth to discontinue. The Creataceous mass extinction marked the extinction of the dinosaurs ( Mader, 2008 ) .
The sheer addition in human population and denseness has affected the Earth ‘s animate beings. It is estimated that the universe population grows at about 1.15 % per twelvemonth. Within the 40 old ages between 1959 and 1999, the universe population doubled from 3 billion to 6 billion ( Worldometers.info, 2009 ) . This translates to non merely an increased strain on natural resources such as H2O but besides increased competition for resources amongst all living things. Human activity has had a enormous impact on the planet Earth.
It is estimated between one tierce and one half of the Earth ‘s surface has been altered by human activities such as deforestation, forestry and development ( Vitousek, Mooney, Lubchenco, & A ; Melillo, 1997 ) . These patterns alter the Earth ‘s biodiversity and drive clime alteration impacting ecosystems which accordingly causes break to the carnal land. Land transmutation besides straight contributes to climate alteration with an approximative 20 % increased concentration of nursery gases and air pollution ( Vitousek, Mooney, Lubchenco, & A ; Melillo, 1997 ) .
Within the oceans, although the impact of human activity can be hard to mensurate, there is important harm. It is estimated 50 % of the universe ‘s Rhizophora mangles have been destroyed or badly affected by worlds ( Vitousek, Mooney, Lubchenco, & A ; Melillo, 1997 ) . Gratuitous to state, every country of the planet that is affected by worlds, affects every populating thing lasting within that country.There have been many animate beings that have existed and become nonextant before worlds have even discovered they may hold one time existed at all ( Jefferson & A ; Zuckerman, 1993 ) . Coupled with the reaching of the first British colonists to Australia came the disappearing of about all big mammals and flightless birds ( Jefferson & A ; Zuckerman, 1993 ) . The largest animate being types have suffered extinction such as the Dodo, the elephant birds of Madagascar and the polo-necks of Galapagos. A predicted 13 000 polo-necks disappeared within the Galapagos islands between 1838 and 1888 due to their demand as a nutrient supply on crew ships traversing the country ( Jefferson & A ; Zuckerman, 1993 ) .
Such cases of carnal extinction due to worlds are progressively common. Recent computations show that carnal extinction has increased by 100 to 1000 times since human domination of the planet ( Jefferson & A ; Zuckerman, 1993 ) . This translates into about 18 % of mammals, 11 % of birds, 5 % of fish and 8 % of vegetation on Earth threatened with extinction due to human domination ( Jefferson & A ; Zuckerman, 1993 ) .Although there are infinite specific illustrations of peculiar species that have become nonextant due to grounds straight related to human activity, the extinction of Earth ‘s megafauna is the most affecting. The extinction of the megafauna, land animate beings weighing up to 45kg, has been attributed to human colonization ( Roberts, et al. , 2001 ) .
Megafauna extinction in Australia occurred within the last million old ages, straight after known human colony. This extinction form continued for North so South America, Madagascar and New Zealand supplying grounds to propose human colonization could hold contributed to the extinction of the megafauna ( Roberts, et al. , 2001 ) .Worlds are doing the 6th mass extinction through continued development to progress the human race without consideration of the environmental impact ( Eldredge, 2001 ) . It is predicted three major causes of carnal extinction are direct home ground devastation, over development and introduced species. Human ingestion and development of natural resources causes alterations in the Earth ‘s ambiance such as an addition in nursery gases taking to increased temperatures on Earth.
Worlds are doing the 6th mass extinction through ingestion of natural resources that has a important impact on the Earth ‘s vegetations and zoologies. Extinction rates of animate beings have dramatically increased since human colonization and will go on to diminish without rigorous steps of preservation by all.