I have
decided to study Ebola because it’s one the largest outbreak in modern history
and that there has been a 50% mortality rate. The Ebola virus can lead to
serious illness that is fatal if untreated. Ebola first appeared in 1976 and in
the 2014 outbreak in West Africa was the largest Ebola outbreak ever. There
were more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It spread
across countries starting in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Ebola is infectious disease that
is prevalent in west African region that cause the organ failure, destroys the
immune system and other fatal illness in humans. In the West African region
countries that are mainly affected are guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia. The
number of total case confirmed are 28616 and the death toll is 11310.

 

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium
parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected
female mosquitoes. There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans.
Malaria in prevalent in poor and warms climate in continent such as Africa and
Asia

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In 2015, there are roughly
212 million malaria cases and estimated 429
000 malaria deaths.

 

Lassa fever is a disease
that caused by Lassa virus,
transmitted to humans by contacts with rodent excreta form food or household
items that are contaminated. The disease is endemic in the rodent population in
parts of West Africa. In Nigeria, the total number of
reported cases is 254 and the total number of deaths is 137, with a Case
Fatality Rate 53.9%.

 

I have
decided to study Ebola because it’s one the largest outbreak in modern history.
Studying the Ebola virus factor such as symptoms, transmission and how its
develop and condition to see why this disease spread so fast. I am studying 2
more diseases to compare the factors stated before and how Ebola could mistake
for other disease such malaria and Lassa fever.

 

Transmission:

 

The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals (bush animal
such bats and monkey) and spreads in the human population through
human-to-human transmission. Bush animal are local delicacy in many west
African countries and easy source of protein for remote village. Ebola spread was due low level
of hygiene and sanitation in the region that infected, another cause was large
group of people living in cramped condition with those affected. Ebola then spreads through
human-to-human transmission direct contact through broken skin and direct
contact with other bodily fluids of infected people. The virus is prevalent in
area of no sanitation and education about the disease and many of affected live
in small cramped rooms with large number of people making it easier for the
disease to spread. Ebola virus is transmitted among humans through close and direct
physical contact of an infected person bodily fluids such as vomit, blood and
faeces and has been detected in urine, breast milk and semen for up to 70 days.
Transmission can occur indirectly by touching contaminated surfaces and objects
such as beds. The virus can’t be transmitted from surface contact such as skin
to skin contact. Ebola virus is not an airborne infection however can spread
through direct of inhalation of an infected person chough into the respiratory
track.

 

Malaria is transmitted by the bites of female mosquitoes. There
are 30 species that are malaria vectors that bite between dusk and dawn
transmission depends on factors such the parasite, the vector, the human host,
and the environment. Transmission of malaria is intense in places where the
mosquito lifespan is longer if prefers to bite humans rather than other animals
these African vector species is why 90% of malaria cases are in Africa. Climate conditions affect transmission of malaria rainfall patterns
and temperature. transmission is seasonal, with the highest during rainy season
because female mosquitoes lay the eggs. mosquitoes lay their eggs in water The
female mosquitoes seek a blood meal to nurture their eggs. Transmission can
through human to human contact this occur through contact of an infected person
fluid a common example is used needle and in areas with sanitation where people
are in directs contact with an infected person fluid.

 

Lassa fever is a virus Humans become infected with the Lassa virus
by being exposed to urine or faeces of infected rats which then spread
between humans through direct contact of blood, urine, faeces and other bodily
fluids of a person infected. Person-to-person transmission can spread the virus
this can happens in homes and hospitals, the virus spread by used needles,
sexual transmission and contaminated medical equipment. Communities with poor
sanitation and crowded living conditions are highest at risk of transmission.

 

Knowing how the disease is transmitted help to isolate the disease
and find ways to prevent of getting affected. Ebola and Lassa fever are the
only disease that are transmitted from animal to human contact then transmitted
by human to human contact. Malaria is also transmitted by animal to human
contact but not humans. This help to Isolate those that are infected and those
in contact with the vitamin so we can isolate the disease and prevent an
epidemic.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of Ebola include Very High Fever Severe headache,
Muscle pain, Fatigue, Diarrhoea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain and Unexplained
haemorrhage (bleeding or bruising) Symptoms
may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola, but the average
is 8 to 10 days.

 

Malaria symptoms appear 10–15
days after a mosquito bite these symptoms are fever, headache, chills Sweating, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and
diarrhoea. Children with malaria
frequently develop symptoms such as severe anaemia, respiratory distress. In most
fatal case multi-organ fail leading to death.

Lassa
fever symptoms show 2–21 days after infection, symptoms are fever, general
weakness, and malaise. After a few days, headache, sore throat, muscle pain,
chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, cough, and abdominal pain. In the
worst cases facial swelling, fluid in the lung cavity, bleeding from the mouth,
nose. Shocks, seizures, tremor, disorientation, and coma may be seen in the
later stages. Death happens 14 days if not treated.

 

When
I am looking to diagnose people suffering from symptoms I must look are look at
the difference and common symptoms of disease that prevalent in the west
African region to identify if the person has disease like Ebola, malaria and
Lassa fever. Both Ebola and Lassa fever show sign and symptoms after 2 to 21
days after being infected but malaria show symptoms after 10 to 15 days after
infection. To identify the disease looking at the difference between the
symptoms Ebola is the diseases to have very high fevers that reach temperature
of 400c and cause unexplained haemorrhage that is only seen in
Ebola, abdominal pains is another symptom that is both seen of malaria and Lassa
fever.

Development and environmental condition:

The virus
starts to targets your immune system by attacking the cells that are the first
line of defence against invasion. It infects dendritic cells that gives off a
signal of an infection that simulates t lymphocytes so t lymphocytes don’t
respond which is the only thing that stops the virus for replicating further.
dendritic cells failing to give the right signal T cells don’t respond to
infection, and neither do the antibodies that depend on them for activation.
The virus can start replicating immediately and very quickly. The virus
cripples the cells that make steroids in the adrenal gland that regulate blood
pressure and causes circulatory failure that can starve organs of oxygen. Ebola
patients cause Damage to blood vessels leads to a drop in blood pressure, and
patients die from shock and multiple organ failure.

The West
African Ebola outbreak that has killed many people than all other recorded
Ebola outbreaks due slow and insufficient response from the international
community. Also the result of decades of underfunded healthcare systems with no
governance, poverty, war, corruption and political instability. All these
factors prevented a quick response that would have been able to control the
disease such as in developed countries they are were able to rapidly identify,
isolate and monitor suspected cases and safely treat sick cases preventing from
spreading.

When female mosquito containing malaria bite
you the parasites is released into
your blood and infect your liver cells. The parasite
reproduces in the liver cells and burst
open. This allows thousands of new parasites to enter the bloodstream and
infect red blood cells. The parasites reproduce
again in the blood cells, kill the blood cells and
moves to infected other blood cells.

Malaria to thrive depends on climate mosquitoes thrive in areas with
warm and humid temperatures conditions and lots of rainfall such as tropical
and subtropical areas. These warm temperatures are required for malaria
parasites to complete their growth cycle within the mosquitoes. If the
temperature is below 20°C the parasite cannot complete its growth cycle in the
mosquitoes so it cannot be transmitted. Malaria may expand into new regions because
of climate change such as in Sub-Saharan Africa, where climate change is decreasing
rainfall so the number of mosquitoes may decrease and malaria transmission
rates will fall.

 

 

Assess the
importance of human and/or physical environmental conditions in explaining the
development of these diseases and infections

The human and
physical environmental conditions are the main factors in the development of
these diseases. The Ebola outbreak was a cause of many factors that caused the exaltation
of the disease into an epidemic through the West African region. I am studding this
disease to see what caused this outbreak and how other different disease
compare in transmission and symptoms the other disease I compares were malaria
and Lassa fever as they major outbreak in the west African regions also. Ebola
is a virus that is spread from animal to human contact and human to human contact
Lassa fever is also transmitted the same way. However malaria is from an animal
vector to human it cannot be spread to human to human through contact. The
environmental condition and economic condition play a key role in the
development and spreading of these disease. If the countries health system is
able handle epidemics and isolate the disease as early as possible, how educated
the people are about the disease and now what to do if someone they know catches
the disease. 

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