The aim of this paper is to shed some light on how
far the automation industry has come and how much it has progressed. In this
paper we will see some of the many improvements to the automation sector of the
world and also see what can be considered the future of the automation sector
with the improvements of engine technology and design and also on the impact of
the introduction of the hybrid engines and the introduction of electric and
battery powered cars to this era. In this paper we will mainly focus on the
development of the induction motors and how it can affect the future of
automation and also discuss ‘will it be successful in replacing the traditional
engine’. We will also the advantages and the disadvantages of using these



What is Automobile Engineering?

Automobile Engineering is a branch of engineering
which deals with designing, manufacturing and operating automobiles. It is a
segment of vehicle engineering which deals with motorcycles, buses, trucks,
etc. It includes mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety
elements. The skills required to be mastered are as follows – Artistic, Creative,
Technical knowledge, Effective planner, Precision, Meticulous, Systematic, Punctual,
Team worker

To comprehend the future we need to understand the
past and take a quick look at the history of automation.

 Let’s start
with the introduction of the internal combustion engine.

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine
where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a
combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and
high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some
component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine
blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance,
transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.


The first commercially successful internal
combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 18591 and the first
modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see
Otto engine). This engine was used throughout the timeline for automation and
was continuously and vigorously.



of the Hybrid Engine –

As we know the ICE went through updates and
improvements until the 1990s when the engine was combined with an electric
motor and therefore using more than one sources of power and reducing the fuel
consumption and providing more mileage per gallon.

 Some other developments include –

Stroke Engine – Four-stroke engines
were one of the earliest improvements made to internal combustion engines in
the late 1800s. On a four-stroke engine, there are four steps the engine takes
as it burns gasoline: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. These steps all
occur when as piston moves up and down two times.

Injection – In a forced induction engine, air is forced into the
combustion chamber at a higher pressure than usual, creating a higher
compression and more power from each stroke of the engine. Turbochargers and
superchargers are essentially air compressors that shove more air into the

Injection – Direct injection is a further refinement of the improvements
made by fuel injection. As
you may have guessed from its name, it allows fuel injection to “skip a
step,” which adds efficiency to the engine, and more power and improved fuel economy as a

Injection – Carburetors have been almost completely replaced by fuel
injection, a far more sophisticated and effective system of mixing fuel and
air. Fuel injectors spray gasoline into the air intake manifold, where fuel
and air mix together into a fine mist. That mix is brought into the combustion
chamber by valves on each cylinder during the intake process.

Dual cam
shaft – Camshafts are
part of your car’s valvetrain,
which is a system that controls the flow of fuel and air into the cylinders.
For many decades cars primarily had OHV engines, meaning overhead valves, also
called “pushrods.” Pushrods are driven by camshafts inside the engine
block. This setup adds mass to the engine and can limit its overall speed. On
an overhead cam setup, the camshaft is much smaller and is inserted above the
cylinder head itself, rather than in the engine block. There’s one on a single
overhead cam (SOHC) engine, while a DOHC engine has two. The benefit to the
overhead cam setup is that it allows for more intake and exhaust valves,
meaning fuel, air and exhaust can move more freely through the engine, adding


These are some small examples.















Future of Automobiles

Ever since the
introduction of the hybrid motor there have been continuous advances in terms
of automation technology and it is still advancing to this date and will
continue to throughout the future of automobiles can be seen and is very clear
and right around the corner right about now. Introduction of driver aid
features have taken up and most manufactures are also more focused on how to
make the drive and the engine along with all other components of the car more
reliable and efficient. Autonomous driving is also one of the most desired
features and sought after feature the general public has wanted and
manufacturers look towards developing and introducing it in their cars.













of Induction Motor

The introduction of electric vehicles have led into
a revolutionary chapter in the history of the automobile industry. These
vehicles have gained popularity fast because of the fact that they use electric
motor instead of a traditional petrol or diesel engine found in most cars ever
since the beginning and that plays a factor in helping the environment reducing
consumption of fuel and also helps the people reduce the cost of refueling
their cars. The introduction of the induction motor as a “replacement engine”
was a revolutionary step. This tactic was first introduced by tesla in its
Model S and Model X electric vehicles that are operated on a rechargeable
Lithium battery and a Powerful Induction Motor. 




The working of an induction motor is based on
Faradays law of Electromagnetic Induction i.e. alternating flux revolves with synchronous speed. The
revolving flux is called as “Rotating Magnetic Field” (RMF).

The relative speed
between stator RMF and rotor conductors causes an induced emf in the rotor

In this figure we can see how both the red
electromagnetic coils are energized and and both the blue coils are energized
together. Since AC currents dose not switch on and off abruptly rather rises
and falls therefore allowing the red coils to be active while the blue are not
and vice versa and they maintain a constant 90o phase difference. As
the coils are energized they produce a magnetic field between them that induces
an electric current in the rotor. This current produces its own magnetic field
that tries to oppose the thing that caused it (the magnetic field from the
outer coils). The interaction between the two fields causes the rotor to turn. As
the magnetic field alternates between the red and blue coils, it effectively
rotates around the motor. The rotating magnetic field makes the rotor spin in
the same direction and (in theory) at almost the same speed.



Advantages of AC

Using the Ac motor has a lot of advantages, some of
which are as follows –

Their voltages can be stepped up and
stepped down

They lose very less energy in

They are cheaper to maintain because
they have very less moving parts

They produce less heat and friction.

They are light in weight and are more
efficient than their DC counterparts.

High torque

High durability

Regenerative Breaking is possible

VII.  Disadvantages

They need to be
insulated because of the EMR produced

Production of
Eddy current due to back EMF










DC electric motors are
powered from direct current (DC) power and are mechanically commutated
machines. DC electric motors have a voltage induced rotating armature winding,
and a non-rotating armature field frame winding that is a static field, or
permanent magnet.

DC electric motors use
different motor connections of the field and armature winding to produce
different speed and torque regulation. Unlike AC electric motors, DC electric
motor speed can be controlled within the winding by changing the voltage
applied to the DC motor armature, or by adjusting the field frame current.



Advantages of DC

Does not need
heavy insulation like its counterpart

Transmission has
no energy loss due to induction of metal parts

Disadvantages of DC Motor

Very hard to

They cannot be
transformed(Stepped up or Stepped down)

They are not
reliable due to warping under high temperatures and pressure

Vulnerable to
dust that can cause decreased performance.











XI.      AC
Motor vs DC Motor

As seen in the above
comparison between AC and DC motors that AC motors are more reliable and are
very easy to maintain and can provide better performance and are also cost

XII.   Advancements of AC Motors

Advancements in the induction motor
technology are continuously being made to make it more efficient and to make it
more powerful.

Some researches are being held to
reduce the size of the motor and air cooling it to make it more efficient

Regenerating power from braking is
also one of the advancements that is possible only by the use of induction

Demand and Popularity

Electric vehicles
continue to grow in popularity and the demand of people because of their high
reliability, power and low maintenance cost and come in an eco-friendly and
completely featured packed package

After the launch of the
revolutionary vehicles from Tesla i.e. the Model S and the Model X and the
response they have got from public has encouraged many other automobile
manufacturers to start developing such cars and integrate features such as
autonomous driving and etc.

As we can see from the
chart, there is a gradual increase in the plan of automakers to introduce
electric powered vehicles in the future to come.



Developments for the Future

Automakers have started
developing their cars for the future by introducing new technology that appeals
to the public and can revolutionize the automobile segment.

Some of these are

Autonomous Driving – Automakers are constantly trying to develop
autonomous driving in their vehicle to appeal to the public and making it safer
for people on the road and reduce accident

Communicating Cars – A developing
technology called Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication, or V2V, is being tested by automotive
manufacturers like Ford as a way to help reduce the amount of accidents on the
road.V2V works by using wireless signals to send information back and forth
between cars about their location, speed and direction. The information is then
communicated to the cars around it in order to provide information on how to
keep the vehicles safe distances from each other.

Energy Storing Body Panels – The panels would capture energy produced by
technologies like regenerative braking or when the car is plugged in overnight
and then feed that energy back to the car when it’s needed. Not only would this
help reduce the size of hybrid batteries, but the extra savings in weight would
eliminate wasted energy used to move the weight from the batteries. Toyota is
also looking into lightweight energy storing panels, but they’re taking it one
step further and researching body panels that would actually capture solar
energy and store it in a lightweight panel.

Regenerating Braking –
In a battery-powered electric vehicle, regenerative braking (also called
Regen) is the conversion of the vehicle’s kinetic energy into chemical energy
stored in the battery, where it can be used later to drive the vehicle. It
is braking because it
also serves to slow the vehicle



XV. Conclusion

In conclusion I would
like to close this topic by saying that the future of the automobile industry
is very bright with the continuous development of the induction motor as the
Engine Replacement and other advancements and the future will not be far when
we might see cars that drive them self without any human interaction or cars
that might fly. This breakthrough will be the next huge step in the development
of the Automobile Industry.

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