IGNEOUS ROCKS1. Granite Location: Mountain rangesComposition: Quartz, Alkali Feldspar, Plagioclase, Hornblende, Biotite MicaStrengths: • Very durable• Can be polished easily• Damage resistant• Beautiful• Chemical resistantWeaknesses:• Prone to staining• PorousAesthetics: • Texture is course to very course grained.• Colors vary from white, light grey, pink/red, grey, or black grained.  Used for (in construction):• Interior: kitchen countertops, tiles (flooring), stair treads• Exterior: bridges, monuments, pavers, curbing, buildings 2. Basalt Location: • Ocean floor• Around volcanic arcsComposition: Plagioclase, Pyroxene mineralsStrengths: • Highly resistant to Alkaline, chemicals, and abrasion. • Also has high compressive strength.  Weaknesses: • Porous Aesthetics: • Fine-grained. • Dark-colored (usually black). Used for (in construction): • Concrete aggregates• Road base• Railroad ballast• Filter stone• Floor tiles• Building veneer 3. Pumice Location: • Ocean floor • Italy (largest Pumice producer in the world).Composition: Silicon Dioxide, Feldspar, Augite, Hornblende, ZirconStrengths: • Abrasive material • Resistant to extreme weather conditions• LightweightWeaknesses: • Very porous • Brittle Aesthetics: • Highly rough texture. • Light-colored (color varies from white, gray, green, brown).Used for (in construction):• Lightweight concrete• Insulative low-density cinder blocks• Cement additive• Concrete aggregate SEDIMENTARY ROCKS1. Sandstone  Location: • River deltas• Sand dunes• BeachesComposition: Quartz, FeldsparStrengths: • Can be carved, cut, and shaped easily. • Durable• Affordable• Easy installationWeaknesses: • Porous• Easily absorbs water. • Prone to staining.Aesthetics: • Texture is clastic. • Color varies from red, white, yellow, or grey. Used for (in construction):• Ornaments• Pillars• Monuments• Buildings• Driveways• Roads• Tile works• Pavements 2. Limestone Location: Shallow waters Composition: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), AragoniteStrengths: • Hard• Durable• Only has a few poresWeaknesses: • Prone to chemical weathering and corrosion. • Acid rain may dissolve the rock. • Heavy • ExpensiveAesthetics: • Texture is clastic or non-clastic. • It is also light-colored (white/grey to yellow).Used for (in construction):• Portland cement concrete aggregate• Asphalt pavement aggregate• Road construction• Structural fill• Rip Rap• Stone cladding on walls• Floor paving and tiles 3. Shale  Location: • Oceans• Lagoons, • Lakes, • Swamps (where water is calm/still)Composition: Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite Quartz, Chert, FeldsparStrengths: • Useful additive to cement or clay products.Weaknesses: • Splits unevenly. • Fragile.Aesthetics: • Fine-grained. • Mix of clay flakes and tiny fragments. • Color ranges from red, brown, green, gray, and black.Used for (in construction):• Cement and clay additive• Bricks• Tile roofs METAMORPHIC ROCKS1. Slate  Location: • Cliff sides• Underground• Pits• Spain (largest producer and exporter)Composition: Quartz, Muscovite, Biotite, Chlorite, Hematite, PyriteStrengths: • Can be cut and split into layers easily• Low water absorption• Highly durable• Low maintenance material• Fireproof• Long-lastingWeaknesses: • Very expensive• Extremely heavyAesthetics: • Finest grained foliated metamorphic rock. • Can vary in shade in color but it is usually dark grey.Used for (in construction):• Roofing• Flooring• Paving• Decorative aggregate 2. Marble Location: • Carrara, Italy; • China; • India; • Spain. (these countries quarry half of the world’s marbles)Composition: Calcite (CaCO3), Micas, Quartz, Pyrite, Iron Oxide, GraphiteStrengths: • Stronger than Limestone. • Easy to work with. • Can maintain its polish. • HardwearingWeaknesses: • Less durable than Granite. • Can be badly affected by acid rain and pollution.Aesthetics: • Color is usually white.Used for (in construction):• Monuments• Stairs (risers and treads)• Tiles 3. Schist Location: Near mountainComposition: Chlorite, Muscovite, and, BiotiteStrengths: • Used for decorations/ornaments. Weaknesses:• Low physical strength. Aesthetics: • Texture is medium to course grained.• Colors vary from white, silver, and grey. • Has yellow to brown tones.Used for (in construction):• Decorative stone• Veneers 

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