In the 21st century, global agriculture faces the major challenge for supplying future sustainable food production with a growing population under worsening anthropogenic climate change. This change results in reducing available water and increasing air temperatures. Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is one of the most important leguminous staple crops because of its short life cycle (about 60 days) with wide adaptability, drought tolerance, fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N) in its root nodules in symbiosis with rhizobium (Yaqub et al., 2010) as well as its valuable nutritional and health benefits. The global annual production is 3 million tons of grain from more than 6 million hectares worldwide (Nair et al., 2013). India is the world’s largest mungbean producers followed by China, Pakistan, Taiwan, Australia, Myanmar, and Indonesia. Although Thailand is not among the major producers, mungbean is a strategic crop for local and national agribusiness, being lower northern Thailand responsible for about 0.14 million hectares. Nowadays about 4 thousand tons of the internal demand is consumed, however, the Thailand government supplied only 6 hundred tons of the total demand (Office of Agricultural Economics, 2016). Major constraints are the inherently low yielding potential of the current varieties and susceptible to destructive diseases, particularly the foliar diseases. Among them, Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora canescens Illis & Martin inflicts significantly seed yield losses in mungbean. Under the rainy season coupling with a sufficient number of fungal spores, mungbean was severely and rapidly infected in the susceptible Uthong1 (UT1) and resistant (Pagasu) varieties to 68% and 35%, respectively (AVRDC, 1984). Powdery mildew (PM) caused by another fungus Sphaerotheca phaseoli is an important foliar disease of mungbean worldwide. Its outbreak, mainly devastating in the winter season, can reduce seed yield more than 50% (Khajudparn et al., 2007) or even 100% at the seedling stage (Reddy et al., 1994). Currently, these major yield losses were recognized in all highly susceptible varieties of mungbean recommended to farmers in Thailand i.e. UT1, Kampaeng Saen 1 (KPS1), KPS2, Chai Nat (CN36), CN60, CN72, CN84-1 and Suranaree University of Technology 1 (SUT1). However, these varieties, particularly KPS2, CN36, CN72, and CN84-1 have been still cultivated together with spraying chemicals as long as no new improved varieties were developed. Chemical usage increases 

Written by

I'm Colleen!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out