In this comparison paper, there are more
similarities than differences between the provinces in Pakistan while there are
more differences in the UK countries than similarities. There are also several differences
and little similarities between the two countries in regard to education
system, structure and education administration. In Pakistan, there are
similarities between the provinces in respect to the educational curricula,
structure and training since the federal government is responsible for policy
development and planning (Aslam,
M., & Kingdon, G. G., 2008). The federal
government also revises these policies and all the schools from grades 1 to 12
have a common educational plan. In the education structure and the period takes
for elementary, primary and secondary level education is similar when compared
between the provinces in Pakistan. These differences are striking in the UK
countries since policies and plan development is done at the national government
level for each country.

this far, it is also clear that among other countries in UK, Wales has close
similarities in education systems and England. Wales is also has more
similarities with other countries. They also resemble with Ireland to some
extend but largely with Scotland. It is only a few dimensions and aspects that
the countries differ with Scotland. For instance, in the education structure of
Scotland, the duration for primary level education is seven years while other
three countries have six years of primary education. Scotland also does not
have the so-called the national curriculum for its schools when the rest of the
countries it is statutory and autonomous to the teachers in some cases
regarding to assessment strategies and teaching techniques. The most striking difference
that separates North Ireland and the rest of the countries in terms of
administration is the ‘school segregation’ that is based on religion. It is not
common in Wales, England and Scotland to have schools segregated under
religious grounds even if these religions and schools exist in those other

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also have differences in the way education systems are managed in the public
and private wings. Though the private and public schools differ in Pakistan,
the schools are not segregated in any way like in North Ireland. In UK,
institutions of higher learning differ across the entire UK from one
institution to another due to different policies used within the institutional
levels. In Scotland, the differences are much pronounce making one university
completely different from the other. The Post Graduate Diploma in Education in
Scotland and Post Graduate Certificate in Education in Wales, England and
Northern Ireland are most popular for teacher education and training. This
teacher education programs are similar to what is called B. Ed. In Pakistan.
Pakistan also has a four-year B.A or B.S program while UK has an equivalent of
first degree program in B.A or B. Ed with a QTS within a duration of between
three to four years. Pakistan’s master program was introduced by HEC and is of
two years while the duration of master program in UK is only one year (Dale,
A., 2008).

has statutory national tests at different levels of education while the same
can be seen in Punjab only for the 5th and 8th grades. In
Pakistan, statutory tests and examinations are only for some selected levels
like grade 10, 11 and 12. Punjab also has similar assessment program like the
one seen in England whereby continuous assessment tests are administered to
students though in a less structured way. Therefore, Punjab province of
Pakistan can be closed compared to England country in UK. Just like other
countries in UK are different in education systems, Pakistan provinces also
have different systems for education. The only trends that cut across these two
countries and even across the world is the better performance of girls in
languages than boys and better performance of boys in Mathematics and Science
than girls.

differences are also seen in the compulsory education. For instance, the entire
system of Pakistan does not have compulsory education in any level while UK has
it compulsory for lower secondary at minimum. UK also provide a more conducive
environment for learning where students have enough resources for various
lessons as compared to Pakistan.

Ireland, Wales and Scotland all have a one year induction program for teachers
in a more structured form. It was introduced in 1999 and has been a statutory
process. Induction in Pakistan is almost lacking. England has a statutory INSET
of at least five days and it is highly encouraged in Wales, Scotland and North
Ireland. In Pakistan, the INSET program is only emphasized but not statutory in
all the provinces. INSET in Pakistan is a district or a provincial level
function while in UK it is managed by the LEA for respective country or based
on the schools. Though little structured, mentoring of teacher is common in the
UK and all its countries while teacher mentoring it is almost lacking in
Pakistan. Teacher mentoring has a few exceptions in the private sector but to
still the significance in the whole country is very minimal.

conclusion, the discussion presented in this paper provides a clear difference
between the education systems of UK and Pakistan. It can be concluded that
there are more significant inter-countries differences in UK that there are in
the inter-provincial comparison in Pakistan. There are also very many
differences between Pakistan and the UK as far as educational structure,
education authority, assessment and examinations, curriculum formulation
processes, teacher training and education and the supervision is concerned.
Since the district governments devolved in 2001, Pakistan has decentralized its
administrative control over schools to the provincial and district governments.
This decentralization can be equated to the decentralization to the country or
national governments for individual countries in UK.   A summative and formative type of assessment
is implemented in both Pakistan and UK. Generally, the education systems and
strategies in UK are more structured than those in Pakistan (Bond, S., 2003).
Pakistan has therefore had changes in the education sector to reform the
activities and education systems so as to match the international standards. UK
has also implemented several changes over the last few years and more
specifically, it has changed the first degree duration (Coleman, J., 1968).
Therefore, with these changes in each country, the differences between the
education systems of UK and Pakistan are expected to be very little.


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