In this comparison paper, there are moresimilarities than differences between the provinces in Pakistan while there aremore differences in the UK countries than similarities. There are also several differencesand little similarities between the two countries in regard to educationsystem, structure and education administration.
In Pakistan, there aresimilarities between the provinces in respect to the educational curricula,structure and training since the federal government is responsible for policydevelopment and planning (Aslam,M., & Kingdon, G. G., 2008). The federalgovernment also revises these policies and all the schools from grades 1 to 12have a common educational plan. In the education structure and the period takesfor elementary, primary and secondary level education is similar when comparedbetween the provinces in Pakistan.
These differences are striking in the UKcountries since policies and plan development is done at the national governmentlevel for each country.Tothis far, it is also clear that among other countries in UK, Wales has closesimilarities in education systems and England. Wales is also has moresimilarities with other countries. They also resemble with Ireland to someextend but largely with Scotland. It is only a few dimensions and aspects thatthe countries differ with Scotland.
For instance, in the education structure ofScotland, the duration for primary level education is seven years while otherthree countries have six years of primary education. Scotland also does nothave the so-called the national curriculum for its schools when the rest of thecountries it is statutory and autonomous to the teachers in some casesregarding to assessment strategies and teaching techniques. The most striking differencethat separates North Ireland and the rest of the countries in terms ofadministration is the ‘school segregation’ that is based on religion.
It is notcommon in Wales, England and Scotland to have schools segregated underreligious grounds even if these religions and schools exist in those othercountries. Pakistanalso have differences in the way education systems are managed in the publicand private wings. Though the private and public schools differ in Pakistan,the schools are not segregated in any way like in North Ireland. In UK,institutions of higher learning differ across the entire UK from oneinstitution to another due to different policies used within the institutionallevels. In Scotland, the differences are much pronounce making one universitycompletely different from the other. The Post Graduate Diploma in Education inScotland and Post Graduate Certificate in Education in Wales, England andNorthern Ireland are most popular for teacher education and training. Thisteacher education programs are similar to what is called B.
Ed. In Pakistan.Pakistan also has a four-year B.A or B.S program while UK has an equivalent offirst degree program in B.A or B.
Ed with a QTS within a duration of betweenthree to four years. Pakistan’s master program was introduced by HEC and is oftwo years while the duration of master program in UK is only one year (Dale,A., 2008).Englandhas statutory national tests at different levels of education while the samecan be seen in Punjab only for the 5th and 8th grades. InPakistan, statutory tests and examinations are only for some selected levelslike grade 10, 11 and 12. Punjab also has similar assessment program like theone seen in England whereby continuous assessment tests are administered tostudents though in a less structured way. Therefore, Punjab province ofPakistan can be closed compared to England country in UK. Just like othercountries in UK are different in education systems, Pakistan provinces alsohave different systems for education.
The only trends that cut across these twocountries and even across the world is the better performance of girls inlanguages than boys and better performance of boys in Mathematics and Sciencethan girls.Strikingdifferences are also seen in the compulsory education. For instance, the entiresystem of Pakistan does not have compulsory education in any level while UK hasit compulsory for lower secondary at minimum. UK also provide a more conduciveenvironment for learning where students have enough resources for variouslessons as compared to Pakistan. England,Ireland, Wales and Scotland all have a one year induction program for teachersin a more structured form. It was introduced in 1999 and has been a statutoryprocess.
Induction in Pakistan is almost lacking. England has a statutory INSETof at least five days and it is highly encouraged in Wales, Scotland and NorthIreland. In Pakistan, the INSET program is only emphasized but not statutory inall the provinces. INSET in Pakistan is a district or a provincial levelfunction while in UK it is managed by the LEA for respective country or basedon the schools. Though little structured, mentoring of teacher is common in theUK and all its countries while teacher mentoring it is almost lacking inPakistan. Teacher mentoring has a few exceptions in the private sector but tostill the significance in the whole country is very minimal.
Inconclusion, the discussion presented in this paper provides a clear differencebetween the education systems of UK and Pakistan. It can be concluded thatthere are more significant inter-countries differences in UK that there are inthe inter-provincial comparison in Pakistan. There are also very manydifferences between Pakistan and the UK as far as educational structure,education authority, assessment and examinations, curriculum formulationprocesses, teacher training and education and the supervision is concerned.Since the district governments devolved in 2001, Pakistan has decentralized itsadministrative control over schools to the provincial and district governments.
This decentralization can be equated to the decentralization to the country ornational governments for individual countries in UK. A summative and formative type of assessmentis implemented in both Pakistan and UK. Generally, the education systems andstrategies in UK are more structured than those in Pakistan (Bond, S., 2003).Pakistan has therefore had changes in the education sector to reform theactivities and education systems so as to match the international standards. UKhas also implemented several changes over the last few years and morespecifically, it has changed the first degree duration (Coleman, J., 1968).
Therefore, with these changes in each country, the differences between theeducation systems of UK and Pakistan are expected to be very little.