In conclusion, the human body is a complex
and sophisticated machine. There is a lot of process continually and
successfully going on inside our bodies without our knowledge. Individual
systems achieve a great deal in maintain homeostasis but achieve better
outcomes working in synergy.  Each cell,
organ and system are always at work with other systems to accomplish a stable
environment. One can appreciate that homeostasis is one of the most important
mechanisms that are keeping us alive.

Despite, the endocrine and nervous system
working together to achieve a homeostatic environment, they diverge in terms of
how they function. The nervous system uses neurotransmitters to signal while
the endocrine system uses hormones release by glands to do so. Other
differences is the response rate of each system. For instance, the nervous
systems has a faster response rate when compared to the endocrine system. This
is due to the nervous system having neurotransmitters which only travel across
small synaptic distances. However, in the endocrine system, the hormones travel
over longer distance in the bloodstream before reaching the target organ.   Furthermore, the hormones from the endocrine
require targeting and binding to the respective receptor.  Although, the endocrine system sustains longer
response than the nervous system due to the secreted hormone continuing to
circulate in the bloodstream and has a variable time of inactivation following
its metabolisation.   For example, specific hormones can last for
few minutes while others can last up to a whole week.


The nervous and endocrine systems are organ systems that
work in synergy to maintain homeostasis.  These systems regulate bodily functions and
relay information. Both are key systems in carrying out autonomic process of
the body. The nervous system mediates information regarding external stimuli,
while the endocrine system releases hormone in response to the external
stimuli. The hypothalamus is the connection between the nervous and endocrine
system.  Accordingly, the nervous system
can send and receive information from the endocrine.  The endocrine system then regulates activities
throughout the body.  Regularly, external
stimulus received by the nervous system have effect on the endocrine system
which induces a hormone response which targets specific organs. 


The endocrine system is a collection of glands that
secrete hormones that target distant organs. The endocrine system is recognized
to have a key role in maintain body homeostasis by using chemical signals
(hormones).  The hormones are released by
the cell into the blood stream and travel throughout the body. These hormones directly
influence organs to function or they influence those organs to produce other
hormones that target secondary organs. The endocrine system helps to control
growth and development, maintain the body’s homeostasis, metabolism (body
energy levels) reproduction, response to stimuli (stress and /or injury).

In situations such as starvation or all the
absorbed nutrients being used by the cells, the glucose levels in the blood
decrease. To elevate the blood glucose levels to normal, insulin is inhibited
which prompt the alpha cells in the pancreas to release glucagon. Glycogen
initiates a cascade of reaction to produce more glucose.  For instance, the glycogen store in liver
cells are broken down to glucose molecules, the adipose tissue is broken down
to glycerol and fatty acids. This is followed by stimulation of liver cells to
synthesize glucose from glycerol absorbed from the blood. The liver produced
glucose is then returned to the blood and glucose levels are increased to
optimal setpoints. 


The blood glucose level rises after we consume
food  which is digested and the nutrients
are absorbed. The beta cells of pancreas respond to the rise in glucose level
and secrete a  Insulin promoted the cells
to increase their glucose intake and increase the cellular rate to breakdown
glucose to produce ATP. However, In liver and muscle cells, the formation of
glycogen from glucose is increased. Furthermore, insulin stimulates the
synthesis of fats in adipose tissue. All these activities would cause the
glucose level to fall back into the normal level.

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