Indo-Israel Agriculture ProjectIn 2006, India and Israel signed theAgreement for Agricultural Cooperation in 2008, eventually leading to Indo-IsraelAgriculture Project (IIAP) in 2008, inpartnership with (Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture) and MASHAV -Israel’s Agency for International Development Cooperationunder the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. IIAP’s primary objectives include :Increasing the diversity of cropsIncreasing the efficiency ofresource useRise in productivity The State of Israel was requested toshare it expertise on the same including best known practices and technologybased on its capacity. To achieve the goals of the cooperation agreement, itwas decided to establish “Agricultural Centers of Excellence”(CoE), funded by both the Federal Government NHM and by individual StateGovernments, that are also responsible to allocate land and professionalmanpower. Agricultural Centers of ExcellenceThe Agricultural Center ofExcellence was established to achieve the objectives and serves to be asuitable platform for a rapid transfer of technology to the farmers. Knowledgeof practices such as protected cultivation, drip irrigation and fertigation,canopy management, nursery production, Integrated Pest Management technologiesare imparted to farmers at these centers and later adopted by the farmers to increasetheir yields and income and thereby, it helps in achieving the goals set out bythe framework of the agreement.

 AppliedResearch servesadjust the technology to suit the local environment and delivers solutions tothe farmers. ·        Field Extension Officers are governmentextension officers who tend to be the middle men between the applied research and the farmers. ·         Progressive Farmers are implementing the technologies demonstrated at theCenters.·        Onecan’t question the sustainability of IIAP as it acts as a self-sufficient platform in theaspect of Human Resource and operating capabilities.foundedon the basic understanding  thatenhancing people’s livelihood is paramount to sustainable economic growth, itwas decided that MASHAV’s professional activities in India, will focus mainlyon human capacity building (by empowering farmers), the transfer of knowledge(by exposing Indian farmers to technologies tailor cut to suit the localneeds), and professional support to the agricultural development projects.    FarmTo Fork and Co-operativesFarm to Fork as a concept revolves around primarilythe community food system. In a community food system, the primary endeavor isto benefit the social, economic and heath aspects of a particular place throughfood production, processing, distribution and consumption.

Farm to work wouldenable the nation to be self-reliant, i.e. it would be sufficient to meet itsown food needs. Farm to fork also helps build sustainability, i.

e. theavailability of food for future generations, to meet their needs. Itencompasses environmental protection, profitability, ethical treatment of foodsystem workers, and community development.

The sustainability is proportionalto the availability of diversified agriculture exists near strong and thrivingmarkets. Farmers’ markets enables transparency in the relationship between theconsumer and the producer. It gives way for direct communication and brings outthe symbiotic relationship i.e. both are dependent on each other. The farmercan learn more about what their consumers demand and consumers can be moreaware about what they actually eat. In India multiple restaurants are adopting thispractice. The Table (Colaba, Mumbai) and Caara Café (Kasturba Gandhi Marg, NewDelhi) are two such restaurants.

According to Alice Helme (owner of CaaraCafé), “Eventually, we would like totake this model into contract farming — teaching, guiding and empoweringfarmers to grow chemical-free produce on their own land and then assist inmaking the market linkages and getting rates they deserve for class produce,”.Farmers can be given economic incentives to increasethe quantity produced by them, caused by a rise in quantity of produce. Thecurrent Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi had also expressed thegovernment’s desire to urge cooperatives to venture into sea weed farming tohelp farmers double their income by 2022. The farmers may be enabled to buy rawmaterials at whole sale rates and sell them at retail rates. The cooperative can eliminate the need for a middlemanand help farmers increase their income. Amul, an Indian cooperative dairy modelwas started as an attempt to free milk farmers from being paid the rates fixedby their contractors. It eliminated the need for middleman and hence, caused ahike in the incomes of the farmers.  MODELBASED ON THE “ANAND PATTERN”                       Farming in India is considered to be the most importantoccupation.

It is said that 52% of people in India rely on agriculture. Butbased on a Hindustan Times report, the percentage of people employed in thefarming sector in 2011 was 24.6%. But where does the number 52 come from?  Agricultural sector not only involves the farmers, but alsoconsists of people with indirect jobs in the agricultural sector, liketransportation, seeds sale and many more.

These are known as Agri-labor. Withevery direct job on the farm comes other indirect which are mostly ignored. These labourers are also supposed to be considered in theagricultural sector.

However, even after including them, the number 52 is toughto make. Though the percentage can be relative. In India, a lot of population is dependant. Only the people in theworkforce- age 15-59, should be considered.

The structure of these is describedin the table below.  Based on this a consensus can be generated depicting thepercentage of people in the agricultural sector.  Hence as a percentage of total workforce, there are 52% people inthe agricultural sector, which shows the importance of agriculture in india. Italso has a major impact of the country’s economy and directly affects a lot ofpeople.  In India, a lot of land is either fallow or currently fallow. Inrajasthan about 10% of land is fallow, in Maharashtra about 8%, in haryanaabout 2.

5% and a lot more. If this land is put to use the country can flourishto a great extend. It will create even more employment opportunities anddecrease the unemployment rate.  Attaching this link for the percentage of fallow land in varioustates.

https://data.gov.in/catalog/land-use-pattern  Fallow is the stage of crop rotation in which the landis deliberately not used to raise a crop. India, being a predominantlyagricultural society, puts forward the the fact that close to 70 % of thepopulation is dependent on land, either as farmers or farm laborers. Thisimplies that it is imperative to address the issue of land in such manner thatit provides livelihood, dignity and food security to millions of Indians.

“A lot of land is left fallow and uncultivatedbecause the owner does not want to lease it and there is no proper guarantee oftitle,” a Planning Commission official told ET.  The wasteland/ fallow land estimate (this termalthough needs to be redefined), is to be around 63.85 million hectares (20.17per cent of the geographical area) in India.

There shall be an exerciseundertaken by the Wastelands Division of State with the support of the Ministryof Rural Development to identify and quantify these lands in terms of thesustenance they provide to populations in non-cultivable manner. Successive governments have taken steps toreduce the risk faced by farmers., and last year prime minister Narendra Modihad set the target of doubling their income by 2022. The agriculture ministryworked on a seven-point strategy towards this end. Since India has 142 millionhectares agriculture land, out of which only 48% is under institutionalirrigation, indian farmers nowadays already swim in a turbulent sea of risksagainst which they have almost no protection, and the fallow land estimate hasgrown largely, farmers face more issues to cultivate and buy the unused landthat the owners don’t wish to utilize or even sell.With the objective of providing water toevery field, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana was launched on July 1, 2015,and, to provide an end-to-end solution in irrigation supply chains, waterresources, network distribution as well as farm level application.

One of the biggest problems of farmers isstorage after harvesting; as a result, they are forced to sell their productsat a lower cost. Therefore, the government is encouraging farmers to usewarehouses and avoid distress sales.Land is the most vitalresource of a country. It is a fixed asset and cannot be expanded to meet theneeds of an increasing population. Therefore, it must be used carefully and inthe best possible manner.   Fallow Lands: Cropland that is not seeded for aseason; it may or may not be plowed.The land maybe cultivated or chemically treated for controlof weeds and otherpests or may be left unaltered or to checkweeds and plantdiseases.

It can be classified into two categories·       CurrentFallow:  land is cropped area that is kept fallow forthe less than a year.·       FallowLands other than Current Fallows:  This includes all landwhich was taken up for cultivation but is temporarily out of cultivation for aperiod of not less than one year and not more than five years.  A major handicap of Indianagriculture is the unproductivity of the fallow lands. The untapped potentialof the fallow areas if harnessed would enhance food production and providegreater benefits to the poor and marginal farmers.

There are various factors prominent inexplaining conversion from cropland to fallow land·       Availability of tube welland well irrigation with electricity ·       Higher monsoon andpost-monsoonal rainfall·       Increased market frequency·       Availability of power supplyfor agriculture ·       Density of community workers(proxy for technical assistance and incentives for agriculture) ·       Availability ofcommunication facility (e.g., bus, trains; proxy for connectivity to markets)·       Availability of agriculturalcredit institutions·       Higher average income percapita (both indicating access to capital and ability to invest) India accounts for 79% (11.65 million ha) of the totalrice fallows of South-Asia (15.

0million ha) (NAAS,2013)Rice-fallow croplandareas are those areas where rice is grown during the kharif growingseason (June–October), followed by a fallow during the rabi season(November–February). These cropland areas are not suitable for growing rabi-seasonrice due to their high-water needs. The estimated area under rice fallows was29% of kharif rice areas    Initiatives takenby Government of India ·       Mappingof potential districts for cultivation of oilseeds and pulses·       Creationof water harvesting structure, supply of sprinklers for live saving irrigation,water carrying pipes·       Supplyof seed mini kits for pulses and oilseeds to promote high yielding varieties·       Creationof seed hubs by ICAR-KVKs·       Clusterdemonstrations on oilseeds and pulses in selected districts and villages forcontinuous period of three years·       Coordinationand collaboration with international organizations for developingvarieties/technologies·       Ascheme has been launched in rabi 2026-17 for targeting 30 lakh ha of ricefallow under oilseeds and pulses by next three years

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