The outgrowth of intelligent edifices is founded on the rapid development of personal computer and cyberspace engineering every bit good as the progress of information and communicating engineering. With the aid of these engineerings. office personal businesss have shifted from the traditional form of labour intense and big volume to the flexible. diverse. efficient. user-friendly. and extremely dependable operations. Meanwhile the turning popularity of broadband webs has brought the Evernet system into residential edifices earlier than expected. As a consequence. the epoch of information contraptions ( IA ) has become world. The IA is bit by bit suiting in our mundane life. The machine-controlled equipments which were originally used in the intelligent office edifices are being installed in the residential edifices and houses every bit good. The intelligent houses and the intelligent communities are taking form. To cut down the energy ingestion. the development of “green buildings” has become a planetary motion of the edifice industry to conserve energy. to efficaciously use resource. and to better the indoor environment control. To minimise energy ingestion and to increase equipment efficiency are the aims in the development of intelligent edifices. By put ining mini detectors and mechanization clime control installations in the edifice. the energy ingestion can be significantly reduced and the quality of indoor environment can be improved besides. Uniting the construct of green edifice and the engineerings used in the intelligent edifice. an intelligent viridity edifice which is safe. healthy. convenient. comfy. efficient. and energy conserving can be built.
In add-on to the history and the chances of the development of intelligent edifice. this article besides surveies the rating systems and the design guidelines adopted by states such as Japan. Taiwan. and Hong Kong. to rate the degree of edifice intelligence and to plan the intelligent edifices severally. The design guidelines and rating systems of the intelligent edifice from different states are compared. The excess cost needed to put in the mechanization equipments and direction systems is estimated in footings of life rhythm cost of the edifice besides. Intelligent edifice is an of import component in the hi-tech information society. The inter-connected information web can let go of the job of over population in urban country and overload of the substructures as good. Through the building of urban substructure and the inter- and intra-city information systems. the intelligent metropolis will go world in the close hereafter.
The stage of “intelligent building” means many things to many different people ( Duffy. 1988 ) . However. an intelligent edifice is by and large expected to be adaptable for the alterations of occupants’ demands and besides the progress of information engineering and computing machine engineering. The rapid growing of personal computer engineering over the last 10 old ages has spurned the unmitigated execution of computing machine engineering in office concern systems. The development and liberalisation of the telecommunication engineering have. likewise. fostered internationalisation and efficiency of office concern systems. Computer webs have led to shared resources within the company. The usage of illumination and high-performance detectors make the office workspace more user-friendly. Office personal businesss have shifted from the traditional on the job form of labour intense and big volume to the flexible. diverse. efficient. user-friendly. and extremely dependable operations.
As more information and communicating equipments installed in the edifice. the needed power supply has increased with the addition in electrical overseas telegram capacity and complexness. Computer engineering has improved the maps and controllability of machines. while the direction of edifice has become more user-friendly. energy-efficient. and dependable by incorporating with computing machine systems. Intelligent constructing so is the type of edifice which is designed to ease the execution of high-capacity information and communicating systems to the edifices.
The first energy crisis in 1973 led people to re-examine the ways of energy being used and generated consciousness on energy preservation. Energy experts point out that up to 14 % of the planetary energy ingestion is spent in operating edifices ( ABRI. 2001 ) and there is tendency that the per centum will go on to increase. To cut down the energy ingestion. the development of “green buildings” has become a planetary motion of the edifice industry to conserve energy. to efficaciously use resource. and to better the indoor environment control. Through the efficient usage of energy and resources. the ultimate aim of the green edifice is to build edifices which have low environmental impact and are besides safe. healthy. environmentally sound. and comfy to populate and work. It is besides the basic end of high-tech edifices with environmental mutualism to accomplish equilibrium among adult male. edifice. and the environment.
To accomplish the above ends. it is needed to spread out and incorporate the direction systems of intelligent edifice to green edifice. So the benefits of different engineerings used in the green edifices can be maximized. In other words. implementing the intelligent edifice systems to green edifices is the key to the go oning development of green edifices. Buildings without appropriate flexibleness and enlargement capablenesss to run into the demands of environment will be easy phased out by the tendency of information and energy preservation. So. to minimise the energy ingestion and to increase the equipment efficiency are the aims in the development of intelligent edifices.
By put ining detectors and mechanization installations. the energy ingestion can be significantly reduced and the quality of indoor environment can be improved besides. As a consequence. edifices which are safe. healthy. convenient. comfy. efficient. and energy conserving can be built. Due to the rapid advancement in web engineering and the information system. the ways of life and working have been straight and indirectly affected. Traditional residential edifices are no longer capable to satisfactorily suit the impact brought approximately by the developing engineering. So. the range of intelligent edifices has bit by bit extended from office edifice mechanization to residential edifice mechanization. The construct of intelligent houses and intelligent communities will be the future tendency of the edifice industry.
In add-on. due to the turning popularity of broadband webs. the Evernet system has been brought into residential edifices earlier than expected. The epoch of information contraptions ( IA ) has become world. The IA is bit by bit suiting in our mundane life. So. the primary issue in planing the intelligent residential edifices is to link. through a networked system. the place information system and machine-controlled equipments into a “home web system. ” This will enable all the affiliated devices to supply incorporate services to better the safety. convenience. and efficiency of mundane life. As a consequence. a comfy and healthy quality of life can be provided.
However. the office mechanization and the place mechanization have besides brought approximately jobs on adaptability of occupants. information security. and systems integrating. So. how to implement appropriate information and communicating systems. mechanization equipments. and unfastened system platforms to the edifice and besides see the edifice maps. available infinite. and single user demands are of import issues in planing intelligent edifices. By making so. a user-friendly. information-oriented environment that is safe and convenient may be created to fulfill the diverse and personal demands of the residents.
Intelligent edifice ( IB ) was advocated by UTBS ( United Technology Building Systems ) Corporation in the U. S. A. in 1981 and became a world in July. 1983 with the startup of the City Place Building in Hartford. Connecticut. U. S. A. ( So & A ; Chan. 1999 ) . Although communicating and automated installations might hold been used to certain grade in other edifices prior to the City Place Building. the term of “intelligent building” was non used. Even the investors and the interior decorators of the City Place Building did non expect that they would construct such a edifice that would sufficiently reflect the progress of engineering and the emerging of information society. The United Technologies Buildings System ( UTBS ) which was an affiliate of United Technologies ( UT ) played a cardinal function in incorporating the edifice installations with computing machine cyberspace work for the City Place edifice.
UTBS was non merely a client of the City Place. it besides took portion in put ining the air conditioning. lifts. and fire bar installations for the edifice. By linking the local country webs to digital private subdivision exchange ( DPBX ) device. communicating equipments. and information equipments of the edifice. UTBS improved the energy efficiency of the edifice and besides the overall safety of the edifice. In add-on. UTBS was the first to present the shared renter service ( STS ) system. which provided cheap communicating and office mechanization services to renters. Through the system. renters were able to entree high degree communicating and information services without holding to put in expensive communications and information equipments.
The available services included price reductions on long distance telephone calls. word processing. electronic informations transmittal. usage of personal computers. and data entree. To back up the STS system. UTBS purchased telephone lines from AT & A ; T in volumes at a lower cost. The construct of intelligent edifices evolved from the accumulated cognition in architecture. By presenting communications. information. and mechanization engineerings and equipments to the edifice. it will enable the edifice operation and edifice direction to be safer. more efficient. and more energy salvaging. As a consequence. the edifice will supply a convenient and comfy environment to the residents to populate and work.
2. 2 Emergence of Intelligent Buildings
To understand the societal background and technological developments that led to the outgrowth of intelligent edifices and to place the chances of future developments. this subdivision will place the grounds for the outgrowth of intelligent edifices by looking into the development of constructing engineering:
( 1 ) Rapid development of communications and computing machine engineerings: After the 1970’s. competitions in aerospace industry and demands for advanced engineering by the Moon Landing undertaking facilitated many engineering discoveries on the high-tech merchandises. The first and 2nd energy crises besides led to arouse the environmental consciousness and the construct of sustainable development. As a consequence. merchandises which antecedently were limited in sort but immense in volume became more diversified and lesser in volumes to run into the demands of energy efficiency. increased safety. and improved compatibility. As the engineering became more popular and commercialised. high-tech merchandises were no longer elusive.
For case. the memory capacity and calculating power of personal computers have increased drastically during decennaries of development. But the personal computer itself has become more compact and less expensive. This phenomenon does non merely use to the personal computer. it besides benefits about all industries. For the edifice industry. promotion in computing machine engineering is one of the major drive forces taking to the outgrowth of intelligent edifices. Consequently. the usage. direction. care. and environmental control of edifices have besides improved immensely.
( 2 ) Execution of the Telecommunications Law and policies: Unrestricted transmittal of information is the primary demand of the information community. The policy of telecommunications liberalisation is the cardinal factor for communications mechanization and networking. The United States and Japan revised their telecommunications Torahs and policies in 1982 and 1985. severally. For its portion. Taiwan allowed private operations of fixed web systems in 2000. The telecommunications liberalisation policy of Taiwan includes: denationalization of telecommunications and opening the integrated webs of telecommunications and personal computers. Consumers will be able to profit from cheap entree to communicating services. Data and information can be transmitted more fleetly and handily. It made the life more diverse and many new constructs of office infinite were generated. such as the paperless office and place office. ( 3 )
Competition of High End Office Buildings: Typically. office edifices are concentrated in metropolis centre for the convenience of concern operations. This has resulted in hyperbolic existent estate monetary values and office leasing rates. The usage of lifts as agencies of perpendicular transit in edifices has given rise to taller and more monolithic edifices. As edifice installations become more complicated. operation and direction of such installations require some intelligent systems that are extremely automated and integrated. At the same clip. builders add more installations to their high terminal edifices to derive better return on investing. By utilizing the high public presentation. low cost. and good developed engineerings. the intelligent edifice systems are extensively used in edifices. These advanced characteristics increase the net incomes of the edifices every bit good as the dependability and life supportability of edifice.
Based on the development of intelligent edifices indicated above. it can be foreseen that intelligent edifices will go the mainstream of edifices in the hereafter. But the developments of intelligent edifices may change from states to states due to the difference in cultural background and environment conditions. Therefore. the building of intelligent edifices should take into history the background. prevalent conditions. local civilization. and market demands of that peculiar parts. A planetary planning and prognosis on the development tendencies of intelligent edifices are needed.
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