farming is a form of agriculture that is based on the increased volumes of
inputs and outputs. While the use of land remains similar to non-intensive
farming, the amount of inputs of labor and capital increases substantially,
which is conducted to achieve the goal of a higher per-unit yield. While
intensive farming is associated with such positive outcomes as higher food
production, there are also multiple environmental and engineering challenges
that include surface and groundwater pollution, an increase of toxicity of the
food produced, and engineering issues related to the need to provide large
volumes of water to such farms.

of the most apparent outcomes of intensive farming practices is the
contribution to higher levels of toxins due to the broad use of chemicals and
fertilizers. The treatment of animals, crops, and land with pesticides,
herbicides, and other substances increases the concentration of compounds both
in environment and final food products (“BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Intensive
farming,” n.d.). At the same time, intensive farming practices have such
undesirable negative outcome as pollution of surface and groundwater due to the
use of chemicals. For instance, according to an environmental study of
intensive farming lands in Australia, concentrations of 18 heavy metals
exceeded standards, which might lead to eventual hard to fauna and flora, as
well as humans in the case of consumption (Mossop et al., 2013). Finally,
intensive farming may have adverse engineering outcomes due to the need to
provide large volumes of water, which is used as inputs in the practices. Its
delivery requires either development of efficient logistics or construction of
new water supply systems and routes. The outcomes of intensive farming are
visualized in Graph 1.

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project may be attractive to environmentalists, regular consumers, and those
interested in developing a civil engineering career since the engineering
outcomes presuppose the need for engineers offering solutions for the
challenges. The project could be sponsored by environmental authorities or
civil unions of consumers or retailers.

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