1. Disasters – natural or manmade are common throughout the Earth. Catastrophes continue to happen without warning and are perceived to be on an addition in their magnitude, complexness, frequence and economic impact. Hazards pose menaces to people and assume serious proportions in the under developed states with heavy population. During the 2nd half of the 20thcentury, more than 200 worst natural catastrophes occurred in the different parts of the universe and claimed lives of around 1.4 million people. Losingss due to natural catastrophes are 20 times greater ( as % of GDP ) in the development states than in industrialised one. Asia tops the list of casualties due to natural catastrophes.
2. There have been several natural, every bit good as, semisynthetic catastrophes. Records of natural catastrophes can be traced manner back to 430 B.C. when the Typhus epidemic was reported in Athens. Ten deadliest natural catastrophes recorded in the universe are dated back to 1556 when an temblor in Shaanxi state of China occurred on 23rd January, 1556 and 8,30,000 casualties were recorded.
3. Because of existent and possible effects of catastrophe, the construct of international catastrophe alleviation system is altering from mere alleviation to the victims after catastrophe to cover full gamut of issues involved from bar to rehabilitation. The major histrions in the International Relief System can be grouped into four general classs:
( a ) The Governments.
( B ) International Organisation.
( degree Celsius ) Voluntary Agencies.
( vitamin D ) Media.
Role of Government
4. The people of the catastrophe afflicted state manually provide the largest sum of alleviation aid. The authorities necessarily bears the premier duty for the disposal of relief operation. Normally the duty for put to deathing the assorted sectors of the alleviation programme is transferred to the appropriate ministry. However, the methods used by authoritiess to administrate catastrophe alleviation vary greatly from one authorities to another.
Role of International Agencies
5. At international degree, relief aid may be provided in the undermentioned mode: –
( a ) Bilateral inter-governmental parts. This is processed through diplomatic channels.
( B ) Voluntary Agencies such as Red Cross and part from charitable administration such as OXFAM.
( degree Celsius ) Aid through United Nations Disaster Relief Organisation ( UNDRO ) and other United Nations Organisation.
UN Role in Disaster Management
6. The UN General Assembly recognised the demand for Global action to cut down the happening of natural catastrophes and their impact and has declared 90 ‘s to be the decennary as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. ( IDNDR ) . The aims underlined in the UN declaration figure 44/236 are as follows: –
( a ) To better the early warning and assessment harm capablenesss as besides to better capacity to extenuate effects of such catastrophes.
( B ) Guidelines for application of scientific and technological cognition for this intent.
( degree Celsius ) Disseminate bing and new proficient information with respect to assessment, anticipation and extenuation of natural catastrophes.
7. For the above intent a Scientific and Technical Committee ( STC ) was established with the purpose of implementing programmes in this sphere amongst member states. Some of the outstanding facets of the charter of STC are: –
( a ) Designation of Disaster Prone Zones. To carry on scientific survey of such countries, collate informations and arrange for exchange of such informations to states necessitating them.
( B ) Vulnerability and Risk Assessment. To supply exposure and hazard information so as to supply estimated losingss happening from the natural catastrophe.
( degree Celsius ) Monitoring, Prediction and Warning. To set up an observation web to include meteoric, hydrological and seismological warning.
( vitamin D ) Relief Agencies. To be under the UN and on petition of the host state.
( vitamin E ) Awareness at Levels of Decision-Makers. Indicate the cost / benefits of predisaster intercessions as compared to post catastrophe alleviation steps for the information of Decision-Makers.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Long and Short Term Preventive Measures. Provide proficient advice on the planning and building of catastrophe cogent evidence constructions.
( g ) Early Intervention Measures. The co-ordination of inter organizational attempt to modify, alter, suppress or extenuate detrimental effects of catastrophes.
8. Methodology for Assistance. When the authorities of a disaster-stricken state makes a petition for alleviation aid from UNDRO, this demand is regarded as an entreaty to the UN system in general. If the demands for alleviation aid are made straight to UNICEF, WHO, or FAO, UNDRO is still consulted and advised of the action taken. UNDRO besides informs the bureaus involved, actions taken so far, that would modify or fulfill the petition made to the bureaus concerned. It co-ordinates each bureau ‘s response with other alleviation givers and informs the catastrophe afflicted authorities through UNDP field office. UNDP Resident Representative, co-ordinates alleviation activities at the field degree. To summarize, the UN catastrophe alleviation system is characterised by two types of the focal points- 1 at central office and another is the field.
The Role of Voluntary Agencies
9. Voluntary bureaus, because of their greater organizational flexibleness and inclinations to work more closely with “ grass roots ” degree, provide public assistance and alleviation services harmonizing to specific demands of the people. It acts as mediator between the people and the authorities. They play two major functions: –
( a ) Alerts the public and provides an single response to concern generated by the media.
( B ) Filling spreads in long-run development programmes or alternate alleviation distribution system.
10. Red Cross. Today the Red Cross is the rule non-governmental web for mobilising and administering international aid in times of catastrophe. It has three basic organizational elements: –
( a ) The International Committee of the Red Cross. Independent, Geneva based organic structure, chiefly concerned with victims of armed struggle.
( B ) The National Societies. Found at present in 125 states. They conduct programmes and activities directed towards the peculiar demands of their ain states. In some Muslim states, they operate as Red Crescent Society and in Iran as the Red Lion and Sun Society.
( degree Celsius ) The League of Red Cross Societies ( LORCS ) . LORCS is the federation if the 125 national societies with secretariat in Geneva. It acts as the international spokesman of the national societies, coordinates their alleviation activities.
The Role of the Media
11. The media plays an built-in and critical function in the direction of catastrophes. Use of satellite imagination facilitates rapid transmittal of information around the Earth, and this has put enormous power in the custodies of intelligence newsmans to act upon planetary public sentiment. Since catastrophes are a important beginning of intelligence and gaining control the attending of populations worldwide, the media provides enormous visibleness for disaster-related issues and, if used decently, can help the procedure of catastrophe direction in the undermentioned ways:
( a ) Increased lobbying.
( B ) Aid prioritization of catastrophe hazard issues.
( degree Celsius ) Facilitate creative activity of early warning systems.
( vitamin D ) Increase international contributions.
( vitamin E ) Improve coordination of hazard appraisal activities.
8. Booklet on Disaster Management in India by MHA.
1. Booklet on Disaster Management in India by MHA.
4. Disaster Management Act 2005.
6. Booklet on State degree Programmes for Strengthening Disaster Management in India
CURRENT CONCERNS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The tendency of happening, of catastrophes is increasing and will increase in future. Catastrophes like tsunamis and, temblors, which have been the most destructive, along with the inundations and drouths that arise, from utmost conditions conditions, are expected to acquire worse due to inauspicious impact of clime alteration. In the twenty-first century, the 2001 Bhuj, temblor ; the 2004 tsunami ; the 2005 temblor in Kashmir ; heavy rainfall in Mumbai in 2006 when about 1 thousand rain fell in a individual twenty-four hours ; the 2008 Bihar Kosi catastrophe ; the August, 2010 cloud explosion in Leh ; and, most late, the September 2011 Sikkim temblor have seen the armed forces, as first respondents.
2. , Hence, as India, urbanises, hazards are besides increasing. In amount, the hereafter will be more marked by assorted catastrophes. In India, the degree of readiness for catastrophe direction at the Centre and in the, provinces is highly uneven and requires considerable beef uping. The construct of managing catastrophes with appropriate programmes on catastrophe direction based on the cardinal elements of bar, extenuation, readiness, response, alleviation, and, recovery is of recent beginning. Significantly, with frequent happening of catastrophes, there is an increasing consensus amongst, the provinces for puting up an effectual catastrophe direction mechanism at the province degree.
3. However, although, the duty for organizing, catastrophe response and alleviation operation is that of the, Union Ministry of Home Affairs, it is the armed forces under the Ministry of Defence that are called out to help and pull off the state of affairs. By and large, the armed forces respond to, catastrophes as a portion of their authorization to help civil governments during catastrophes. Their engagement, nevertheless, was meant to work on the rule, of being the ‘last to come in and the first to go forth ‘ . Conversely, in most post-disaster operations, the armed, forces have been the first to come in and the last to go forth. Reassessing India ‘s Disaster Management Preparedness and, the Role of the Indian Armed Forces.
4. Prolonged deployment, of military logistics may have on out the equipment meant for the primary undertaking of contending wars. Since the armed forces, equipment has a specific lifetime, care is necessary and replacement takes clip. The long-run battle of armed forces in catastrophe direction besides hampers its war combat capableness. Over-reliance, on the armed forces has blunted the enterprise of civil governments. When countries vulnerable to natural catastrophe, are good known, the civil disposal at local, tehsil, territory, and, province degrees must set up integrated catastrophe programs.
5. The proviso of alleviation in the aftermath of natural catastrophes has mostly been left to the enterprises and policies of the State Governments. Development programmes, which go to run into the capablenesss of countries and population to run into natural catastrophes, have been left to the general exercising of planning. Therefore, steps to cut down the impact of natural catastrophes have non received the focal point ; they deserve peculiarly in position of the fact that 85 per centum of the state is prone to one signifier of catastrophe or the other. It is, necessary that some of the issues associating to natural catastrophe direction would hold to have specific attending at the national and sub-national degrees. Broadly in the context of IDNDR, it will be appropriate to foreground these concerns in natural catastrophe direction with the position to making an chance for interpreting them into specific action points. The current concerns loosely relate to: –
( a ) Catastrophe Relief Execution Capability. In the long term, specific human resource development programmes would hold to be continuously implemented to guarantee appropriate enterprises at different degrees of the alleviation machinery, the handiness of experient forces would rush up the alleviation attempt at any point of clip. Soon, the State Government machinery depends on current forces for most of the alleviation attempt, whether they have necessary accomplishments or non. It would, hence, be necessary to present the system of care of militias of experient forces in different domains such as logistics, wellness, deliverance and alleviation. The edifice up of such database embracing jeopardy, exposure and resource gift is the shouting demand of the hr. Such database would hold to be updated continuously at the local and province degree.
( B ) Readiness Aspects. The Government of India has asked States to explicate eventuality programs at the territory degrees for covering with different types of catastrophes. Such eventuality action programs could clearly define the duties of different administrations and bureaus and besides place the triping mechanism for assorted bureaus. The uninterrupted updating of the eventuality program in the context of earlier experience would hold to be ensured through one-year exercising. Reappraisal of the eventuality program for an country could be made more effectual by the association of forces who dealt earlier catastrophes in that country.
( degree Celsius ) Sustainability Aspect. Public consciousness and non-government engagement in catastrophe extenuation attempt is important for catastrophe readiness to run into natural catastrophes. Apart from the association of medical forces in the alleviation attempt, there are other groups of people, whose aid could besides be mobilised in a planned mode for covering with exigency operations in times of catastrophes. For illustration, the Amateur Radio Operators Association rendered signal service in supplying effectual communicating on a existent clip footing in the recent cyclone and temblors witnessed by the state. One of the major troubles encountered in guaranting effectivity of non-governmental action is the job of co-ordination and way. In the instance of sudden catastrophes during the initial stages, intercession by non-governmental organic structures has ever tended to double attempt or consequence in embezzlement of resources.
( vitamin D ) Development Thrusts. Significant resources are presently spent in relieving the impact of natural catastrophes and in the procedure of relief, community assets and substructure gets reinforced. The catastrophe extenuation attempt could better capablenesss of catastrophe prone country to avail of development chances. Many of the development programmes improve the resiliency of countries and population to vagaries of nature.
( vitamin E ) Multi Disciplinary Cell. At the province and national degrees, catastrophe direction comes to the Centre phase in times of crisis and as the sit improves there is no machinery to take attention of the demand of Perspective Planning and preparation of enterprises for long term catastrophe decrease. The catastrophe direction concerns do non calculate high in the precedence list in the planning organic structures of the state. There is a demand for multi disciplinary cell in the State degree to measure the happening of catastrophes and the alleviation attempt as besides continuously work on programmes to be under taken from clip to clip.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Other Concerns.
( J ) Unity of Control of Operations. Presently alleviation is managed by adhoc administrations and bureaus with small or no preparation in their several Fieldss. At present the system lends itself to little or no answerability on the portion of such administrations. Relief/ Disaster direction is a specialized occupation and should be organised consequently. Command and Control of full alleviation operation should be vested with one authorization.
( two ) Theatre Reserves of Resources. Time slowdown between happening of catastrophe and alleviation provided is intolerably long. Amongst the assorted causes for this are deficiency of work force, equipment and indispensable supplies. While manpower and equipment could be made available from a dedicated administration, the minimal indispensable measure of perishable supplies of nutrient and medical specialties must be held centrally as militias on the lines of “ War Wastage Reserves “ of the Armed forces for a peculiar period, which can be turned over sporadically to guarantee serviceableness.
( three ) Publicity. Lack of Publicity of the catastrophe consequences in deficiency of understanding and aid from neighboring provinces. States must get the better of the suppression of such exposures so as to affect the full nation/ state to extenuate such catastrophes.
( four ) Communications. Inadequate communications have ever posed a hinderance in timely hint of such impending catastrophes as besides in the rendition of timely aid to these countries. Spread out and intensive web of secure Satellite/ Microwave communicating Centres and helipads/ landing strips are imperative to supply timely aid.
6. Recent Enterprises. The 11th five twelvemonth program papers of Government of India gave drift to mainstreaming catastrophe hazard decrease as one of the precedence programmes in the development planning procedure and catastrophe direction. As mentioned in the study of the working group on Disaster Management for the 11th program and besides in the assorted enterprises towards this attempt, the manner forward can be divided in the undermentioned major countries –
Policy guidelines at the macro degree that would inform and steer the readying and execution of catastrophe direction and development programs across sectors.
Building in a civilization of readiness and extenuation.
Operational guidelines of incorporating catastrophe direction patterns into development, and specific developmental strategies for bar and extenuation of catastrophes.
Having robust early warning systems coupled with effectual response programs at territory, province and national degrees.
Building capacity of all stakeholders, Involving the community, NGOs, CSOs and the media at all phases of DM,
Recommendation for Effective Disaster Management
7. The National Policy on Disaster Management ( NPDM ) should be of capacity development. A strategic attack to capacity development can be addressed efficaciously merely with the active and enthusiastic engagement of the stakeholders. This procedure will consist of consciousness coevals, instruction, preparation, research and development ( R & A ; D ) etc. It should set in topographic point an appropriate institutional model, direction systems and allotment of resources for efficient bar and handling of catastrophes. The attack to capacity development should include: –
Harmonizing precedence to preparation for developing community based DM systems for their specific demands in position of the regional diversenesss and multi-hazard exposures.
Conceptualization of community based DM systems at the national degree through a advisory procedure affecting the States and other stakeholders with the province and local degree governments in charge of execution.
Designation of knowledge-based establishments with proved public presentation.
Promotion of International and Regional cooperation.
Adoption of traditional and planetary best patterns and engineerings.
Puting accent on table-top exercisings, simulations, mock drills and development of accomplishments to prove the programs.
Capacity analysis of different catastrophe respondent groups at State, District, and local degrees.
8. Developing a Centralized Database. In coaction with the Central Statistical Organization ( CSO ) an integrated Centralized Disaster database requires to be developed. Data aggregation on standardized format should be the duty of the concerned province authorities. Such database would ease research workers and determination shapers to set about scope of analyses to better understand the linkages between catastrophe direction and other sectors that would assist in taking up informed hazard decrease activities every bit good as to understand the impact of catastrophes on economic system.
9. Early Warning Systems. Early Warning Systems and Communication and Connectivity up to the Last Mile Early warning systems vary for the different types of catastrophes. Due to recent unprecedented desolation unleashed by tsunami, frequently early warning gets linked with tsunami merely, dissembling the importance of early warning against other signifiers of catastrophes. Hazard- specific efficient ‘early warning systems ‘ is the demand of the hr and it has to be put in topographic point for good, so that utile information flows throughout the twelvemonth and is easy understood by the local community. This needs to be coupled with the National Emergency Communication Plan to guarantee existent clip airing of early warnings and information to the ‘at hazard ‘ community and the local governments.
10. Emergency Operations Centres ( EOCs ) . EOCs in the state could play a critical function in organizing exigency activities every bit good as in supplying information to assorted stakeholders. Effective operation of these EOCs during exigencies continues to be a major challenge. “ State of the art ” EOCs at province and territory degrees with entree to satellite based imaginations need to be planned and established.
11. Use of GIS Technology. GIS engineering can supply the user with accurate information on the exact location of an exigency state of affairs. This would turn out utile as less clip is spent seeking to find where the problem countries are. Ideally, GIS engineering can assist to supply speedy response to an affected country one time issues ( such as paths to the country ) are known. In the instance of a chlorine detonation for illustration, GIS can bespeak the insecure country every bit good as point deliverance workers to resources that are closest to the affected countries. GIS can be used as a floor usher for exigency response to indicate out emptying paths, assembly points and other emptying affairs.
12. Emergency Management Systems ( EMS ) . Emergency direction systems are technological AIDSs that facilitate the effectual direction of catastrophes. EMS engineering can help in several countries that are critical to effectual catastrophe direction, such as:
Drafting and proving of emptying and general catastrophe programs ( Evacuation Plans ) .
Constitution of shelters every bit good as informing the populace of shelter locations, points that should be taken to the shelter and general “ shelter behavior ” .
Training forces in effectual shelter direction, basic first assistance and other “ response ” accomplishments ( Manpower ) .
Establish a national warehouse and guarantee that it is stocked with points for national endurance in the immediate wake of the catastrophe, before the reaching of abroad aid ( Materials ) .
Setting-up dependable communicating systems, such as, the traditional bipartisan CB-type wirelesss ( Communication ) .
Puting transit programs in topographic point, which should include air transit to ease air-lifts and deliverances, bringing of nutrient supplies to badly affected countries cut-off from vehicular traffic and comprehensive harm appraisal activity ( Transportation ) .
13. Capacity Development. A realistic National Capacity Development Programme, commensurate with the strength and extent of the jeopardy in India demands to be evolved and implemented, maintaining in position the available resources. This programme of resource sweetening should embrace all establishments, organisations and persons that have a function in any portion of the catastrophe direction rhythm.
14. Capacity Gaps in Disaster Management. To extenuate the impact of catastrophes, there is a demand to work jointly through multidimensional channels uniting the attempts, resources and expertness of the authorities, non- governmental administrations and civil societies. Pull offing such incidents holistically is a extremely specialised and skilled occupation which can non be approached in
an ad hoc mode.
15. Target group. In the field of capacity development, precedence should be given to preparation of DM functionaries, officials, trainers and elected representatives and community representatives. Due importance requires to be given to DM preparation and orientation of professionals like physicians, applied scientists and designers apart from those engaged in response and alleviation. DM preparation farther
requires to be included in course of study of educational establishments at all degrees of schooling and should include practical instructions as good.
16. Training of Panchayati Raj Institutions ( PRIs ) . Capacity Building of PRIs is highly of import as they are the local governments at the grassroot degrees.
17. Awareness Campaigns. Launched a figure of public consciousness runs through electronic and print media to concentrate on constructing an appropriate environment for DM and making a high degree of impact on the mark audience.
18. Incident Response System ( IRS ) . The incident response system is a standardized method of pull offing catastrophes, which will be flexible and adaptable to accommodate any graduated table of natural every bit good as manmade emergency/incidents.
19. Catastrophes, manmade or natural are on addition. There is besides increased consciousness of this job and of the demand for a coordinated attack to the catastrophe direction at national/international degree. India, a state draw a bead oning to play major function in international spheres can non afford to set up hapless public presentation in handling of catastrophes. Notwithstanding this, for public assistance of its ain people, India needs to give precedence for catastrophe direction in its planning and policies. The points that merit attending can be summarised as under: –
( a ) Need for a individual co-ordinator / Director at each degree with equal resources and governments to command all alleviation bureaus. Thus the demand to make administration for this intent as recommended.
( B ) Integration and co-ordination of maps of assorted organisation/Government sections involved in this procedure.
( degree Celsius ) Warning systems must be integrated and updated. Necessitate for making information web in hereafter.
( vitamin D ) Continuous surveies, rating, reappraisal of catastrophe direction procedure by NDO.
( vitamin E ) Need to educate community to play its portion in catastrophe direction.
20. The Indian armed forces ne’er fail to react in a prompt mode, but without proper informations on assorted local resources, accomplishments, indispensable services and equipment. Hence, there is a desperate demand of the armed forces to be trained in the field of catastrophe direction to cover with catastrophes of assorted types. Reassessing India ‘s Disaster Management Preparedness and the Role of the Indian Armed Forces could augment the capableness of the armed forces to react to such unconventional menaces.
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1. Booklet on Disaster Management in India by MHA.
4. Disaster Management Act 2005.
6. Booklet on State degree Programmes for Strengthening Disaster Management in India