Due to globalization
and advancement in communication technology virtual team is very popular now a
day. Operating business at present is like doing job in the commercial planet where
the sun does not sets .As the world is getting global with the improvement in
technology, the global companies are enriching its productivity by flourishing
the computer technology and accepting the virtual teams. Virtual teams
contributes higher level of effectiveness and holds the variety of challenges
in diversified expections.With the computer technology, the productivity can
expand which is the major requirements of the global companies.
An emerging trend
going on to this business environment leads to the expansion of virtual teams
in international business especially to that kind of organization which grabs
opportunity far beyond the traditional boundaries. This dynamic and unique
features of the organization helps in effective use of information, global and
multiculturalism and accepting real and challenging opportunities. This kind of
unique features are to be achieved by forming virtual team and adoption of the
proper technology. (Pauleen, 2010)
and executives tries to grab the handful of opportunity only when they are able
to adapt the new forms of the virtual team
which could make an organizations to
prioritize more on flexibility and performing the best by team
for productivity in changing
environments where teamwork would have once been impossible. Virtual
teams are backed up through the advanced computer and telecommunications
technologies which supplies a potent response to the challenges attached in
this emerging era with those competition based organizations. With virtual
teams, organizations can build teams efficiency in the flat organization to
grab the advantage in the cross –functional interaction. (Townsed &
The adaption of
virtual teams is especially better in understanding and extending the
organizational structures and adopting experiments. As because of the virtual
teams expands it helps in structuring the organization which helps in adopting
computing and informatics technology. With this it can be understand that ideal
opportunities and experimentation are achievable due to the expanding virtual
teams in the organization. Furthermore, to have a rapid development and
diffusions virtual teams are widely used (Ann MAjchrzak, 2000)
The study of
Majchrzak, Massey and Montoya has found that concentration and focused
technology helps in not only building teams and working as a team but also it
helps in improving the team productivity and improve team intervention (Thomson, 2010). The existence of
virtual environment has the ability to mitigate or identify the certain
problems. Some research has reflected that individuals involving on virtual
teams are more effectively communicable and involved and participative which
are more evenly demonstrated than their Face To Face environments. With the
help of virtual teams and efficient use of computer mediated communication
information gathering and sharing will be effective to complete task.(Robert M. Fuller, 2016)
Virtual teams helps in
analysis and coding of critical and sophisticated data under the five trigger
model which consist external constraint, internal constraint, information and
communication technology, ICT knowledge and trust and relationship in
adequacies. This five triggers modules tries to solve as a diagnosing areal,
technological adaptation for better leader training and technology adaptation
and evaluation. Also it helps in better understanding in relation of technology
structure and need of team technology adaptation (Bostrom, 2010)
primary objective of this research project is to identify the role of computer
related communication experience on team effectiveness. More specifically, the
present researcher is concerned to:
To examine how the
understanding or experience in using computer aided communication medium
affects the effectiveness of team performance.
The influence of computer know-how
on team structure and team openness is analyzed to see the outcome on team
effectiveness. Furthermore this paper studies the relation between other
different variables like productivity, virtual team, computer aided
communication medium. The scope of this paper is only limited to the opinion
collected from the published articles. The data collection and interpretation
is not done as it is a exploratory research paper.
purpose of conducting review of literature was to get acquainted with required
theoretical and conceptual knowledge of the field of interest of the present study. As the main part of review of
literature, this section provides with a closer study of various theoretical
and conceptual aspects related to role of computer knowledge and virtual team
effectiveness in Australian global Companies
and technology advancement in the world economy has promoted the organization
to work beyond the physical boundaries. Emerging trend of virtualization has
brought with it opportunities and threats for the business organization. Managing
the international virtual work teams in an efficient manner is being one of the
biggest challenges for every organization (Gibson & Gibbs 2006).
among between the business associations has compelled organizations to figure
out better approaches to stay flexible in the commercial centre. Virtual
cooperation tries to give adaptability by minimizing the challenges. Virtual
organization has given an organization and its people to get connected together
despite of diverse geographical location having dissimilar time zones and
cultural background (Powell et al. 2004).
sufficient research has been conducted on virtual groups yet not a solitary
meaning from claiming virtual groups have arrived at an agreement (Curseu,
Schalk & Wessel 2008).Communicating and collaboration to achieve goal is
possible as because virtual teams lies in different places and have more than
two members (Martins et al. 2004). Due to usage of computer mediated communication
(CMC) like email and instant messaging (IM) has widely used and helps in
exchanging of information and access to the overall knowledge virtual teams has
been accelerated (Gibson & Cohen
2003. In order to see the effectiveness
of virtual team, team cohesion and openness can be observed.
Shared Mental Models
represent storing of information and knowledge on memory to achieve insights
which helps in making decision and prediction and finding solution. It
represents the common understanding between the individuals of a team, in
accordance to internal and external environment. (Maynard & Gilson 2014).
A common goal in
virtual team is to share the intellectual knowledge among people where each
people has shared mental model to understand and achieve a common goal.
Research has highlighted on two types of mental models, Task Shared Mental
Model and Team Shared Mental Model.
In task shared mental model all works are done and achieved with proper
understanding with isolating the communication among each others. While in a
team shared mental model tries to understand task, coordination and effective
communication matters. Both types of shared mental models are positively
associated with virtual team performance (Maynard & Gilson 2014).
Furthermore, the major elements to go thoroughly under shared mental models are
team Cohesion and team openness (Cannon & Edmondson 2001).
Team cohesion is
the degree where the individual members have a specific bond to make them
connected. A common goal and productivity can be achieved if there is team
cohesion. In order to be the team effectiveness, a sense of belongingness,
trust and bond is to be created (Knight et al., 2008). For virtual teams,
cohesion and participation relies to build function ability and achieve a
concentrated goal (Yoo & Alavi, 2001).
Bulach (2003), openness is the state where the individual share ideas,
understanding in front of others in order to increase the understanding to
cooperate behaviours. In order to
improve understanding and cooperation between the members in a team, sharing
ideas and knowledge’s place a significant role (Tjosvold 1998). As a result of openness, it brings trust and
finally is helpful in binding the optimum outcome (Robin 2007). If a person is
told to share ideas then they can present wide variety of ideas that can help
in building a particular understanding of things which helps in learning things
(Hobman, Bordia & Gallois 2003). Openness helps in creating willingness to
share ideas and knowledge which directs in forming conflicts. Furthermore it
helps in creating higher level of integration, sharing of knowledge which leads
in positively dedication and completion of the task.
Channel Expansion Theory
Fluent and non-disturbance
communication between the members of team is a key element in virtual team’s
effectiveness. An effective communication is the one where there is fluent flow
of communication with no any disturbance and an immediate feedback (Draft &
Lengel 1986). Channel Expansion Theory
explains how an effective communication is achieved in the virtual team among
the individual members. This theory uses the strong support and communication
media to communicate and gain more expertise in the field to share almost views
effectively (Carlson & George 2004). Their experience will assist them to
use the emotions, shortcuts, acronyms, abbreviations, and other conventions
that encourage and facilitate them to encode and decode the message of the
participants (Carlson& Zmud 1999).
All members could be able to share their knowledge and express ideal,
emotional and rational feeling s with the gestures and a computer aided
communication unless there is some absence in verbal language (Lowery et al.
Experience with Computer Mediated Communication
improvement in technology have make the communication method easy and made them
work in the simplier form. One of the most easy and common methods is that IM
helps to communicate with the team members. Though virtual team members requires more time to
complete the task but the thorough and open communication could
lead them to be more effective to achieve the required result. Proper usage of
IM will help to make the strong bonds with the members and enhance the
communication to solve the problem and get into the particular decision.(
Carlson et al. 2013).
Justification from prior assignment
literature review reflects that the virtualization of the business organization
and the computer aided communication has resulted the positive impact on the
team performance. Based on the scholarly article it seems that virtual team has
narrowed the distance created by geographical diversity and cultural
differences and enhanced collaboration and communication. Furthermore, some
author also argued that the productivity of the team is increased by using the computer mediated communication (CMC) like email and
instant messaging (IM). Effectiveness of virtual team is explained using two
variables: cohesion and openness. Shared mental model explains two different models:
one that deals with individual task and next that is related with team. Channel
expansion theory explains how effective communication is achieved in virtual
It is important
for an organization to know the level of the productivity and efficiency
improvement by using the computer mediated communication. This study thus aimed
to assess relationship between dependent variable (effectiveness of virtual
team) with independent variable (team cohesion and openness). The statement of
problem can be stated as follows:
Whether the team
cohesion and openness have relation on performance of virtual team.
shard mental model and team shared mental model have relation on virtual team
This exploratory research project
gives a light on the use of technology dominated communication strategy and its
impact on the team effectiveness and productivity. Most of the previous
research seems to focus on the virtual team and its effectiveness. The term
virtual team is vague as there are many forms of virtual team. The present research by the student tries to
focus on the different forms of virtual team and their relation to productivity.
The research is based on the qualitative aspects. For this research only the
secondary sources of information is used.
Research Question/ Hypothesis
consideration, the missing link, objectives and statement of the problem, the
present researcher has composed a set of research questions to accomplish the
proposed inquiry which are as follows:
What is the level of the virtual team formation effectiveness in productivity
of the employee?
What is the level of increase in efficiency by using computer aided technology
in the communication.
Based on above
developed research objectives and research question, following hypothesis has
been developed for the research.
There is a positive relationship between virtual team and productivity of
There is a positive relationship between Computer aided communication
technology and team effectiveness.
Research Design and Methodology
This research is
an exploratory research which seeks to find out the insight and understanding
from different published articles.
Nature and Source of Data
research, secondary source for collecting a data is considered. This research
work is based on the published articles in different sites.
The articles for this research project
are selected on the basis of topic selected based on convenience of the researcher.
Qualitative/Quantitive research design
This research report is based on the qualitative
research design. The conclusion is drawn on the basis of the findings of the
published articles. No any data analysis tool is used in this research report.
There are some limitations associated
with this study that need to be discussed.
The literature review
is done on the basis of the student access to the available resources like
college online library, Google scholar and other unpaid online article site.
Therefore it may not include all the studies made on this topic by different
Only the variable like
productivity, virtual team efficiency is studied on the basis of independent
variable i.e. virtual organization and virtual team. So, other variable like
intervening variable, moderate variable, control variable, is undermined in
table above shows the total time taken by the student from selection of topic
to the final discussion and conclusion.
Discussion and Conclusion
Ale Ebrahim, 2009, explains four distinct types of virtual team i.e. Teleworkers,
Remote team, Matrixes Teleworkers, Matrixes remote teams. Each of the team has
their own merits and demerits.
all the aspect of virtual team, the review of different articles shows that
there is positive relationship between virtual team and term efficiency. It further
reflects positive association between team cohesion, team openness and team
productivity. Finally, employees are regarded as important assets of an
organization. So, if organization can manage its employees by undertaking into
consideration family life of employees beyond the virtual team then business