IntroductionDue to globalizationand advancement in communication technology virtual team is very popular now aday. Operating business at present is like doing job in the commercial planet wherethe sun does not sets .As the world is getting global with the improvement intechnology, the global companies are enriching its productivity by flourishingthe computer technology and accepting the virtual teams.
Virtual teamscontributes higher level of effectiveness and holds the variety of challengesin diversified expections.With the computer technology, the productivity canexpand which is the major requirements of the global companies.An emerging trendgoing on to this business environment leads to the expansion of virtual teamsin international business especially to that kind of organization which grabsopportunity far beyond the traditional boundaries. This dynamic and uniquefeatures of the organization helps in effective use of information, global andmulticulturalism and accepting real and challenging opportunities. This kind ofunique features are to be achieved by forming virtual team and adoption of theproper technology. (Pauleen, 2010)Basically managementand executives tries to grab the handful of opportunity only when they are ableto adapt the new forms of the virtual teamwhich could make an organizations toprioritize more on flexibility and performing the best by team for productivity in changing environments where teamwork would have once been impossible.
Virtualteams are backed up through the advanced computer and telecommunicationstechnologies which supplies a potent response to the challenges attached inthis emerging era with those competition based organizations. With virtualteams, organizations can build teams efficiency in the flat organization tograb the advantage in the cross –functional interaction. (Townsed & Marie, 1995)The adaption ofvirtual teams is especially better in understanding and extending theorganizational structures and adopting experiments. As because of the virtualteams expands it helps in structuring the organization which helps in adoptingcomputing and informatics technology. With this it can be understand that idealopportunities and experimentation are achievable due to the expanding virtualteams in the organization. Furthermore, to have a rapid development anddiffusions virtual teams are widely used (Ann MAjchrzak, 2000)The study ofMajchrzak, Massey and Montoya has found that concentration and focusedtechnology helps in not only building teams and working as a team but also ithelps in improving the team productivity and improve team intervention (Thomson, 2010). The existence ofvirtual environment has the ability to mitigate or identify the certainproblems.
Some research has reflected that individuals involving on virtualteams are more effectively communicable and involved and participative whichare more evenly demonstrated than their Face To Face environments. With thehelp of virtual teams and efficient use of computer mediated communicationinformation gathering and sharing will be effective to complete task.(Robert M. Fuller, 2016)Virtual teams helps inanalysis and coding of critical and sophisticated data under the five triggermodel which consist external constraint, internal constraint, information andcommunication technology, ICT knowledge and trust and relationship inadequacies. This five triggers modules tries to solve as a diagnosing areal,technological adaptation for better leader training and technology adaptationand evaluation.
Also it helps in better understanding in relation of technologystructure and need of team technology adaptation (Bostrom, 2010)Project ObjectiveTheprimary objective of this research project is to identify the role of computerrelated communication experience on team effectiveness. More specifically, thepresent researcher is concerned to:· To examine how theunderstanding or experience in using computer aided communication mediumaffects the effectiveness of team performance. Project ScopeThe influence of computer know-howon team structure and team openness is analyzed to see the outcome on teameffectiveness. Furthermore this paper studies the relation between otherdifferent variables like productivity, virtual team, computer aidedcommunication medium. The scope of this paper is only limited to the opinioncollected from the published articles. The data collection and interpretationis not done as it is a exploratory research paper.Literature ReviewThe primarypurpose of conducting review of literature was to get acquainted with requiredtheoretical and conceptual knowledge of the field of interest of the present study.
As the main part of review ofliterature, this section provides with a closer study of various theoreticaland conceptual aspects related to role of computer knowledge and virtual teameffectiveness in Australian global Companies Globalizationand technology advancement in the world economy has promoted the organizationto work beyond the physical boundaries. Emerging trend of virtualization hasbrought with it opportunities and threats for the business organization. Managingthe international virtual work teams in an efficient manner is being one of thebiggest challenges for every organization (Gibson & Gibbs 2006). The rivalryamong between the business associations has compelled organizations to figureout better approaches to stay flexible in the commercial centre. Virtualcooperation tries to give adaptability by minimizing the challenges. Virtualorganization has given an organization and its people to get connected togetherdespite of diverse geographical location having dissimilar time zones andcultural background (Powell et al. 2004). Thoughsufficient research has been conducted on virtual groups yet not a solitarymeaning from claiming virtual groups have arrived at an agreement (Curseu,Schalk & Wessel 2008).
Communicating and collaboration to achieve goal ispossible as because virtual teams lies in different places and have more thantwo members (Martins et al. 2004). Due to usage of computer mediated communication(CMC) like email and instant messaging (IM) has widely used and helps inexchanging of information and access to the overall knowledge virtual teams hasbeen accelerated (Gibson & Cohen2003. In order to see the effectivenessof virtual team, team cohesion and openness can be observed. Shared Mental ModelsMental modelsrepresent storing of information and knowledge on memory to achieve insightswhich helps in making decision and prediction and finding solution. Itrepresents the common understanding between the individuals of a team, inaccordance to internal and external environment.
(Maynard & Gilson 2014).A common goal invirtual team is to share the intellectual knowledge among people where eachpeople has shared mental model to understand and achieve a common goal.Research has highlighted on two types of mental models, Task Shared MentalModel and Team Shared Mental Model.
In task shared mental model all works are done and achieved with properunderstanding with isolating the communication among each others. While in ateam shared mental model tries to understand task, coordination and effectivecommunication matters. Both types of shared mental models are positivelyassociated with virtual team performance (Maynard & Gilson 2014).Furthermore, the major elements to go thoroughly under shared mental models areteam Cohesion and team openness (Cannon & Edmondson 2001).
CohesionTeam cohesion isthe degree where the individual members have a specific bond to make themconnected. A common goal and productivity can be achieved if there is teamcohesion. In order to be the team effectiveness, a sense of belongingness,trust and bond is to be created (Knight et al., 2008). For virtual teams,cohesion and participation relies to build function ability and achieve aconcentrated goal (Yoo & Alavi, 2001).
OpennessAccording toBulach (2003), openness is the state where the individual share ideas,understanding in front of others in order to increase the understanding tocooperate behaviours. In order toimprove understanding and cooperation between the members in a team, sharingideas and knowledge’s place a significant role (Tjosvold 1998). As a result of openness, it brings trust andfinally is helpful in binding the optimum outcome (Robin 2007). If a person istold to share ideas then they can present wide variety of ideas that can helpin building a particular understanding of things which helps in learning things(Hobman, Bordia & Gallois 2003).
Openness helps in creating willingness toshare ideas and knowledge which directs in forming conflicts. Furthermore ithelps in creating higher level of integration, sharing of knowledge which leadsin positively dedication and completion of the task.Channel Expansion TheoryFluent and non-disturbancecommunication between the members of team is a key element in virtual team’seffectiveness. An effective communication is the one where there is fluent flowof communication with no any disturbance and an immediate feedback (Draft &Lengel 1986).
Channel Expansion Theoryexplains how an effective communication is achieved in the virtual team amongthe individual members. This theory uses the strong support and communicationmedia to communicate and gain more expertise in the field to share almost viewseffectively (Carlson & George 2004). Their experience will assist them touse the emotions, shortcuts, acronyms, abbreviations, and other conventionsthat encourage and facilitate them to encode and decode the message of theparticipants (Carlson& Zmud 1999). All members could be able to share their knowledge and express ideal,emotional and rational feeling s with the gestures and a computer aidedcommunication unless there is some absence in verbal language (Lowery et al.2006).Experience with Computer Mediated CommunicationAdvancement andimprovement in technology have make the communication method easy and made themwork in the simplier form. One of the most easy and common methods is that IMhelps to communicate with the team members. Though virtual team members requires more time tocomplete the task but the thorough and open communication couldlead them to be more effective to achieve the required result.
Proper usage ofIM will help to make the strong bonds with the members and enhance thecommunication to solve the problem and get into the particular decision.(Carlson et al. 2013). Justification from prior assignment The aboveliterature review reflects that the virtualization of the business organizationand the computer aided communication has resulted the positive impact on theteam performance. Based on the scholarly article it seems that virtual team hasnarrowed the distance created by geographical diversity and culturaldifferences and enhanced collaboration and communication. Furthermore, someauthor also argued that the productivity of the team is increased by using the computer mediated communication (CMC) like email andinstant messaging (IM). Effectiveness of virtual team is explained using twovariables: cohesion and openness.
Shared mental model explains two different models:one that deals with individual task and next that is related with team. Channelexpansion theory explains how effective communication is achieved in virtualteam.Literature ProblemIt is importantfor an organization to know the level of the productivity and efficiencyimprovement by using the computer mediated communication. This study thus aimedto assess relationship between dependent variable (effectiveness of virtualteam) with independent variable (team cohesion and openness). The statement ofproblem can be stated as follows:· Whether the teamcohesion and openness have relation on performance of virtual team.
· Whether taskshard mental model and team shared mental model have relation on virtual teamperformance.Gap opportunitiesThis exploratory research projectgives a light on the use of technology dominated communication strategy and itsimpact on the team effectiveness and productivity. Most of the previousresearch seems to focus on the virtual team and its effectiveness. The termvirtual team is vague as there are many forms of virtual team. The present research by the student tries tofocus on the different forms of virtual team and their relation to productivity.The research is based on the qualitative aspects.
For this research only thesecondary sources of information is used. Research Question/ HypothesisTaking intoconsideration, the missing link, objectives and statement of the problem, thepresent researcher has composed a set of research questions to accomplish theproposed inquiry which are as follows:RQ1:What is the level of the virtual team formation effectiveness in productivityof the employee? RQ2:What is the level of increase in efficiency by using computer aided technologyin the communication.Based on abovedeveloped research objectives and research question, following hypothesis hasbeen developed for the research.Hypothesis H1:There is a positive relationship between virtual team and productivity ofemployee.
Hypothesis H2:There is a positive relationship between Computer aided communicationtechnology and team effectiveness. Research Design and MethodologyThis research isan exploratory research which seeks to find out the insight and understandingfrom different published articles. Nature and Source of DataFor thisresearch, secondary source for collecting a data is considered. This researchwork is based on the published articles in different sites. Sample DecisionThe articles for this research projectare selected on the basis of topic selected based on convenience of the researcher.
Qualitative/Quantitive research design This research report is based on the qualitativeresearch design. The conclusion is drawn on the basis of the findings of thepublished articles. No any data analysis tool is used in this research report. Research LimitationThere are some limitations associatedwith this study that need to be discussed.· The literature reviewis done on the basis of the student access to the available resources likecollege online library, Google scholar and other unpaid online article site.Therefore it may not include all the studies made on this topic by differentscholar.· Only the variable likeproductivity, virtual team efficiency is studied on the basis of independentvariable i.
e. virtual organization and virtual team. So, other variable likeintervening variable, moderate variable, control variable, is undermined inthis research. Time Schedule(Research Plan) Thetable above shows the total time taken by the student from selection of topicto the final discussion and conclusion.
Task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Project topic selection Literature review Hypothesizing Research design Finding, discussion and conclusion Discussion and Conclusion NaderAle Ebrahim, 2009, explains four distinct types of virtual team i.e. Teleworkers,Remote team, Matrixes Teleworkers, Matrixes remote teams. Each of the team hastheir own merits and demerits. Aboveall the aspect of virtual team, the review of different articles shows thatthere is positive relationship between virtual team and term efficiency. It furtherreflects positive association between team cohesion, team openness and teamproductivity.
Finally, employees are regarded as important assets of anorganization. So, if organization can manage its employees by undertaking intoconsideration family life of employees beyond the virtual team then businesscan flourish.