Introduction  The San Quentin State Prison openedin 1854. San Quentin is also known as the “Big House.” This facility got itsname from its location. San Quentin is a facility that is near the city of SanRafael in Marin County. It is one of the oldest prisons in the state ofCalifornia and it is also one of the toughest. San Quentin sits on twenty acresof land.

Construction of the oldest facility began in 1852 with the use ofprison labor and it was finally finished in 1854.             The San Quentin State Prisoncurrently houses over 4,000 criminals. This is considerably more than itscapacity of 3,082. It has one of the largest populations of hard criminals. Theprison is one of the most feared and respected incarceration facilities on theWest Coast. Most of the criminals housed in San Quentin are on death row in thestate of California.             The earliest known inmates at SanQuentin slept on a prison ship at night and during the day they worked oncompleting the original prison buildings. One of the prison ships were called”Waban.

” The California legal system decided to create a more permanentstructure because of overcrowding and frequent escapes aboard the ship. Theprison was home to both male and female inmates until 1932. Women were movedoutside the walls in the 1920s and to different facilities in the 1930s. in thebeginning of the twenty- first century San Quentin was a high- security prisonfor approximately six thousand make inmates.

Among them more than five hundredprisoners were under the death sentence. There were notorious offenders wereconfined at San Quentin. Some of them included Sirhan Sirhan who assassinatedRobert F. Kennedy.

Charles Manson who was a serial killer. He manipulated ahippy cult also known as “the family” into brutally killing others on hisbehalf. Eldridge Cleaver began his career as a leader on the Black PantherParty. George Jackson who is one of the Soledad Brothers. He was shot to deathin an apparent escape attempt.             Many of the prisoners were employedat San Quentin typically for manufacturing. The prisoners operated industries.For many years they made burlap bags in the prison jute mill.

            San Quentin has a storied past andcontinues to operate today. The prison has an estimated worth of over $100million because of its prime location on Bay area real estate. It has its ownZIP code. The coastal site of the prison on the Marin Peninsula is attractiveto real estate developers. Statistics include in this paper is fromthe CDCR website  *In accordance withCalifornia Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) for the Fiscalyear 2012/2013:Opened: July 1852Acres: 432Design Capacity: 3088Total number of employees: 1832-Custodial Employees (Warden, Chief DeputyWarden, Associate Wardens, Captains, Lieutenants, Sergeants, Officers,Counsellors):1056-Auxiliary/Support Staff/Casuals: 356-Medical, Mental Health, and Dental (Physicians,Clinicians, Nurses and Support Staff): 420Annual Operating Budget: $164 Million  Facility Level Design Capacity Count I 15 11 II 1470 2180 RC 494 1108 Ad – Seg 373 235 Access to Care 52 42 Condemned (Death Row) 684 684 Total 3088 4260   Case Review SecurityThreat Group Security threat groups are defined as aformal or informal group of prison inmates.

This just means that securitythreat groups are prison gangs. The term security threat groups are used by lawenforcement. Security threat groups pose a threat to the safety of correctionofficers and to other inmates.

The people that are in these groups are highlystructured. Some of the ^gangs that are highly structured would include theAryan Brotherhood and the Texas Mafia. Security treat groups are different fromprison to prison. The gang members of these groups are to possess common characteristic,interests and goals distinguishing them from other prison gangs. These groupsare categorized by gang history, involvement in illegal activities, propensityfor violence and how it is structured.

There are some prison gangs that can controlthe outside environment while still in prison. AryanBrotherhood             The Aryan Brotherhood was a raciallysegregated prison gang. This gang is believed to have been formed in the SanQuentin State prison in California in 1964. There are Aryan Brotherhood gangsthat can be founded in most state prisons. This group became the first major whilesupremacist gang in the county. This groups decided to strike against theblacks that were forming their own prison called the Black Guerrilla Family. Themotto of the Aryan Brotherhood is “blood in, blood out.

” This motto simplymeans in order to get into this group you have to killed someone that is eitherin a rival gang or assaulting a corrections officer, but the head of the groupwill tell you who to kill. The Aryan Brotherhood would usually call this “makingyour bones.” The Aryan Brotherhood participates in drug trafficking,prostitution rings, gambling, and extortion inside the prisons.

The outsideAryan brotherhood would involve every kind of criminal enterprise possible. TheAryan Brotherhood is known for working with Latino and other gangs for themoney. They are known to read Hitler’s Kampfand they also read SunTzu’s The Art of War and Machiavelli’s The Prince. This groups had expanded to most of the state prisons in California by1975. There are about 20,000 members of the Aryan Brotherhood.             There were two menthat were convicted in the death of Robert Chappelle. The two men were Thomas Silversteinand Clayton Fountain. These men were believed to be a part of the AryanBrotherhood.

Silverstein and Fountain are believed to have enter into Chappelle’scell and they strangled him. They also killed one of Robert Chappelle’s friendsRaymond Smith. Smith was stabled 67 times. It was later said that Silversteinhad stated a plot to kill a prison guard officer. Two years later members ofthis group killed two correction officers at the United States Penitentiary, inMarion, Illinois. Silverstein was a part of the group that killed one of theprison guards.

Merle Cutts was stabbed about 40 times by Silverstein. Thomas usedan knife that was made and a handcuff key they was given to him while he was onthe way to take a shower, after he picked the lock that’s when he attacked andkilled Merle Cutts.  Hours later Fountainkilled the other prison guard whose name was Robert Hoffman. The tactics thatwas used to killed Merle Cutts was the same tactics that was used to killRobert Hoffman.

Clayton killed Hoffman because he did not want ThomasSilverstein to have a higher body count then he did. This group stopped focusing on killing people because of race and theystated focusing more on organized crime in the 1990s.             Prison gangs in SanQuentin is responsible for most of the violence and brutality that is going oninside the prison.                                  These are someknown tattoos of the Aryan Brotherhood. Comparison            San Quentin prison programs are alot different than the prison programs offered in the North Carolina CentralPrison.

The San Quentin programs include AdultBasic Education, Arts in Corrections, Building Maintenance, CalID, ComputerLiteracy, Electronics, General Education Development, Library Services, MachineShop, Physical Education, Plumbing, Voluntary Education. On the San Quentin website,it listed the following programs for the prisoners and what they can do withinthat field. PIA: Furnituremanufacturing, mattress manufacturing, Code 7370, CTE Construction Labor,Health Facility Maintenance. Vocational: Machine Shop, Plumbing, Computer Literacy, Electronics,Building Maintenance.Academic: Adult Basic Education, High School/GED, TransitionsPre-Release, Literacy Program, Distance Education for Associate and BachelorDegree Programs.Other: YouthDiversion, Religious, Arts in Corrections, Victim Awareness, Drug & AlcoholTreatment/Diversion, Bicycle repair, Marin Shakespeare, Prison UniversityProject, Youth Offender Program, Anger Management, Pen Pals, Yoga, Gardening,Environmental Conscientiousness; SQ News; SQ Radio and TV; Cultural Awareness,Veteran’s Programs, Reentry, Health Awareness.Family Liaison Service SpecialistCDCR provides through a contract with acommunity-based organization an on-site Case Manager as a family reunificationliaison for inmates and family members, to assist with an inmate’s pre-releasepreparation; and conduct Parenting and Creative Conflict Resolution classes forinmates.

Please call the Institution to contact the Family ReunificationLiaison.One the North Carolina Central Prison website, is listed the followingprograms available to the prisoners in that prison. The North Carolina Prison Programsincludes Work Assignments, WorkRelease, Education, Study Release, Vocational Rehabilitation Services, CommunityVolunteer Leave Program, Self-Improvement Programs, Parenting Programs, TransitionPlanning, Home Leave Program, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous(NA), Sex Offender Accountability and Responsibility (SOAR), and Substance Abuse Treatment Programs.  The following programs can be defined belowfrom the North Carolina Central Prison website. Work Assignments– Allinmates are expected to work during their stay in prison.

The Division ofPrisons has a variety of jobs at each prison to which inmates are assigned.Each prison depends on the inmates to operate the kitchen, to providehousekeeping and maintenance, provide labor to maintain state roads and to dothe many other tasks that support the prison and other governmental agencies. Each inmate who works receives time creditreductions from his or her sentence. They also receive an incentive wage in theamount of $.

40, $.70, or $1.00 per day, depending on the job they hold. Inmatesworking in Correction Enterprises prison industries can earn up to $3.00 a day.Work Release – Work release is aprogram that allows selected minimumcustody level III inmates the privilege of having a job in the communitywhile being in prison and to prepare them for their release from prison.Inmates on work release leave the prison during the day and return to theprison after their workday is over. Inmates on work release earn at leastminimum wage and from this wage they must pay a portion of the cost of being inprison.

Also, they must pay support for their dependents, pay restitution orfines, and pay taxes. Inmates on work release are usually approaching the endof their sentence. Work release is a privilege and not every inmate may obtainwork release prior to his or her release. An inmate on a work release cannot have any contact with familymembers at the work release job site. Education – There are manyopportunities in the Division of Prisons for inmates to improve theireducation.

Programs are offered for inmates to work toward receiving AdultBasic Education, their GED, and/or to learn a vocational skill in a widevariety of areas. Special programs are available to inmates with learningdisabilities or special needs. Day and evening education programs are offeredso inmates can combine work and education. Study Release – This program allows selected minimum custody level III inmatesthe privilege of furthering their education in a college setting within thecommunity. Inmates must also have participated in other activities in thecommunity to be eligible (i.

e., community leave passes). Prison facilitysuperintendents are the approving authority for inmates to participate in thisprogram. VocationalRehabilitation Services – This program, commonly known as VR, is available to eligibleinmates who have difficulty getting employment due to special needs they mayhave such as a disability. VR counselors work with the Division of Prisonsstaff to identify inmates who are eligible for VR services.

Services areprovided to help the inmate overcome difficulties that may prevent him or herfrom successful employment in the com- munity. Services include job training,special tools or devices that help a disabled person perform certain jobs. VRis provided to eligible inmates who are nearing the end of their sentence. CommunityVolunteer Leave Program – This program, also called “CV Passes”, allows selected minimum custody level II and levelIII inmates to go into the community with an approved volunteer sponsorfor up to six hours, no more than three times a week. Inmates who are a part ofthis program are approaching the end of their sentence and have demonstratedpositive behavior and responsibility. The Division of Prisons trains citizensto be com- munity volunteer sponsors. The purpose of this program is to allowinmates an opportunity to get re-acquainted with the community, attendreligious services, or to participate in other positive activities that willhelp in their transition into the community.

Family members cannot be a community volunteersponsor for their relative in prison. An inmate on a community volunteer leavepass cannot have any contactwith family members. Self-ImprovementPrograms –A major goal of the Division of Prisons is to encourage inmates to change thosebehaviors that contributed to their arrest and imprisonment. Self-improvementprograms such as Anger Management, Character Education, Think Smart, Life Skills,and Thinking for a Change are some of the programs inmates can attend to helpthem make better decisions, improve their self-worth, and learn effectiveproblem-solving skills. ParentingPrograms –The Division of Prisons recognizes the importance of family. A number ofclasses are offered that assist inmates in being better parents by helping themto recognize the needs of their children, and responsibilities to them. Thesepro- grams help inmates work to maintain and improve relationships with theirchildren and family during this difficult time and upon their release.

Some of the parenting programs offered areMotheread, Fatheread, STEP (Systematic Training for Effective Parenting), andPrison MATCH (Mothers and Their Children). Parenting programs are offered atselected prisons. The MATCH Program is only offered at the North CarolinaCorrectional Institution for Women in Raleigh. TransitionPlanning –Planning for an inmates release back into the community at the end of thesentence is very important to his or her success. Time spent in prison learningnew skills and developing good habits is necessary for a law-abiding futureupon release. These programs assist inmates in planning how to find employment,housing, transportation, continue in their addiction recovery, further theireducation, and how to seek out available resources in the community. Family andfriends can assist the inmate with this planning. Home LeaveProgram –This program is available to minimumcustody level III inmates who are near the end of their sentence.

Thepurpose of this program is to allow an inmate to begin re- establishingthemselves with their family and community. An approved responsible immediatefamily member serves as the home leave sponsor and must be with the inmate atall times. All activities planned for the family visit are pre-approved by theprison staff and restrictions are placed on the visits. The inmate and thefamily sponsor must follow all of the rules and instructions.

Only thoseinmates who have gained the highest level of trust are granted family visits. AlcoholicsAnonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) – These are part-time programs that occurin the prison facility once a week, normally in the evening hours. It is up tothe inmate whether or not to participate in AA or NA but he or she isencouraged to attend to help in their recovery. These programs are offered atmost prisons. Sex OffenderAccountability and Responsibility (SOAR) – This is a treatment program in the Division of Prisons for maleinmates who are sex offenders.

Inmates in this program learn appropriate andresponsible social and sexual behavior. Inmates must volunteer for thisprogram, admit to committing a sexual offense, and be willing and able toparticipate in a highly emotional group as part of the treatment experience. Recreation, Artsand Crafts –Inmates are given the opportunity to participate in recreational activities aswell as arts and crafts classes and contests. These activities areopportunities for improvement and are usually offered after work activities aredone. Substance Abuse Treatment Programs The primary responsibility of the Divisionof Alcoholism and Chemical Dependency Programs is to deliver treatment programsand services to inmates in realistically dealing with their substance abuse andto develop a support network to aid in avoiding sub- stance abuse in thefuture. There are four treatment programs offered at certain prison facilities.

The following is a brief description of those programs. DART (Drug andAlcohol Recovery Treatment) – This program offers continuing treatment, recovery, and aftercare services to inmates. It begins when an inmate is identified as having theneed for drug/alcohol treatment when he or she first comes into prison.

Inmatesare then referred to one of the several Division of Prisons residentialtreatment facilities across the state. Following the inmate’s stay at thefacility, they will return to regular population in a prison facility andparticipate in an 8 to 12 weeks aftercare program. During the offender’s timein prison, he or she may attend Alcoholics Anonymous and/or Narcotics Anonymousto continue in his or her recovery. Inmates who participate regularly and arewithin six weeks of their release from prison will be referred to a specialcommunity transition program called the “Winners Circle.” DART 24 is anothershort-term program that is available to inmates. SARGE (StrategicAlliance for Recovery and General Education) – This program is for chemically dependentyouth offenders in prison. SARGE offers nine months of residential treatmentand three months of aftercare following their release.

This program isavailable at Morrison Youth Institution and West- ern Youth Institution. DART-DWI – This is a specializedprogram that is located at Cherry Hospital in Goldsboro, NC for male probationers or parolees who have beenconvicted of Driving While Impaired (DWI). This program can be orderedby a judge as a condition of probation or by the Parole Commission as acondition of his parole. At DART-DWI, there is a 28-day 12-Step program for upto 100 probationers and parolees and a 90-day therapeutic community program forup to 200 probationers. Offenders in these pro- grams return to the supervisionof a probation/parole officer upon release. PrivateFacilities –There are several private residential facilities who contract with theDepartment of Correction to provide residential treatment to male and femaleinmates who are near their release. While an inmate is at one of thesefacilities, they can participate in community services, vocational training,and work release while receiving drug/ alcohol treatment.

TherapeuticCommunity Program – There are two substance abuse therapeutic programs being offeredfor female inmates. One is WRAP (Women’s Recovery from Addictions Program) atFountain Correctional Center for Women and LATCH (Last Alternative TherapeuticCommunity of Hope) at North Carolina Correctional Institution for Women. Recommendations andConclusionSome improvements that can be madeat the San Quentin State Prison would be to get the workers more training, sothey will be able to handle the security threat groups. The San Quentin StatePrison should get more programs that will grab the prisoner’s attention and getthem to want to get involved in the programs. The gangs that identify at theseprisons should be separated from the other gangs so there will be less threatsand the less prison fights. Keeping gangs separated is hard to because thegangs are not in the same state and the leaders of the gangs can call the shotsfrom anywhere.The prison is situated on a prime real estateoverlooking the San Francisco Bay. This prison sits on over 275 acres of land.

This facility is almost 150 years old. There are some people that would like tosee the prison retired and the land used for housing. There are also somepeople that wants to see the prison turned into a historic site and madeuntouchable by developers. In the future San Quentin might close. 

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