INTRODUCTION Background of Study            Most
of athletes use nutritional ergogenic aids in an attempt to improve both the
quality and the quantity of training and to enhance their performance during
competition. Indeed, under specific conditions many sporting ergogenic aids
have been shown to have positive effects on athletic performance, body
composition and strength and it is possible that ingestion of additional
nutrients may be necessary during high intensity exercise to allow for maximal
expression of endurance and strength gains.Creatine (Cr) is the most popular
dietary supplement in sports nutrition, because it determines the level of
muscle phosphocreatine. Oral Cr supplementation can elevate human skeletal
muscle creatine by 10-30%. The ergogenic e?ects
of creatine (Cr) supplementation have been reported in various anaerobic and
repeated sprint exercises, as well as with resistance training through
increases in strength and lean body mass. The benefits of Cr ingestion have
been primarily attributed to the consequent increase in total muscle phosphocreatine
(PCr) content and a more rapid supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) therefore
contributes to activities reliant upon the Cr phosphate energy system. Most studies investigating the effect
of Cr supplementation on exercise performance have used a loading scheme, by
ingesting a dose of 20-25 g/day for 4-5 days. This scheme, also known as “acute
Cr loading”, regulates total muscle creatine and phosphocreatine to a point
considered necessary to improve exercise performance. Several studies to date
have revealed beneficial effects of both chronic (more than 4 weeks) and acute
(2–7 days) of Cr supplementation on strength, power and speed in trained
athletes. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in
amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves
training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. A scientific studies
by Stone et al. (2003), McGuine et al. (2002) and Zuniga et al. (2012) have found
that creatine supplementation provide an ergogenic aid in activities involving
repeated bouts of high intensity anaerobic performance. To close, the intention
of this study is to examine the effects of creatine supplements on aerobic and
anaerobic performance.            Problem
Statement            It
is known that the muscle store of phosphocreatine (PCr) is decreased not only
during high intensity exercise but also during submaximal exercise. The
decrease in muscle PCr during submaximal exercise is in proportion to the work
rate. The ergogenic e?ects of
creatine (Cr) supplementation have been reported in various anaerobic and
repeated sprint exercises as well as with resistance training through increases
in strength and lean body mass.            According
to Fukuda, Kendall, Cramer & Stout (2011), creatine (Cr) supplementation
had no statistically ergolytic influence on lab or field-based measures of
endurance performance, including VO2 max. On other hand, some other researchers
have shown that Cr supplements increased anaerobic running capacity in men, but
not in women (Fukuda, Smith, Kendall, Dwyer, Kerksick, Beck, Cramer &
Stout, 2010). As studied by Kaczmarek (2016), total work production during
supramaximal intermittent exercise was higher after Cr supplementation by bout
one and two respectively, but in bout three the total work done was about 2%
lower. On the other hand, four day period of Cr supplementation produced a
significant improvement in anaerobic Wingate tests (AWTs) performance while the
execution of Cr with consumption of carbohydrate did not improve AWTs
performance (Theoduru, Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King &
Cooke, 2017). However, studies on soccer players reported that short term Cr
supplementation does not enhance prolonged soccer-specific exercise performance
(Williams, Abt & Kilding, 2014). There are contradicting results of the effects
of Cr supplements on sports performance. 
To date, there are no clear results on the effects of Cr supplements on
aerobic and anaerobic performance. The question is which types of performance
will improve when consuming of Cr supplements. Therefore, the objective of this
study is to examine the effects of Cr supplements on aerobic and anaerobic
performance.                Research Objective            The
purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of consuming
creatine supplements on aerobic and anaerobic performance. Research
Hypothesis            There is no
significance differences in increasing anaerobic performances with creatine
supplements.  Significance
of Study            The
findings of this study along with the current research in this area will give
the benefit to sport nutritionist and coach in increasing the performance of
athletes in endurance sports with the ergogenic aid which is consuming creatine
supplements. This research outcomes also will help sport nutritionist identify
what the type of exercises that most suitable when athletes taking creatine
supplements to enhance their performances. Beside, this research will also
contributes the benefit to coach to increase performance of their athletes to
the maximum level in sprints or weighlifting events. Last but not least, this study
will also give knowledges to athletes and sport enthusiast in consuming the
suitable supplements that might be increase their performance in sports.  Definition of Terms            Creatine.Creatine is a compound the body synthesizes and
then utilizes to store energy. The storage of energy occurs when phosphate
molecules are attached to creatine to create creatine phosphate.Creatine is a compound the body synthesizes and
then makes use to save energy. The storage of energy occurs while phosphate
molecules are attached to creatine to create creatine phosphate.             Aerobic.Aerobic is physical exercise of low to high
intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. It
is refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise.
To test this performance, 2.4 kilometres run can be use.            Anaerobic.Anaerobic is exercise that short-lasting and high-intensity
activity, where the body is demand for oxygen
exceeds the oxygen supply available. To test this performace, 100 metres sprint
can be use.      LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction
of Creatine Supplements            Creatine has
become one of the mostly studied and scientifically validated nutritional
ergogenic aids for athletes. Biochemically, the energy supplied to
rephosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
during and following intense exercise is largely dependent on the amount of
phosphocreatine (PCr) stored in the muscle. As PCr stores become depleted
during intense exercise, energy availability reduce due to the inability to
resynthesize ATP at the rate required to continue high-intensity exercise.
Consequently, the ability to continue maximal effort exercise declines. The
availability of PCr in the muscle may significantly influence the amount of
energy generated during brief periods of high intensity exercise. Furthermore,
it has been hypothesized that increasing muscle creatine content, via creatine
supplementation, may increase the availability of PCr allowing for an
accelerated rate of resynthesis of ATP during and following high-intensity,
short-duration exercise. Theoretically, creatine supplementation during
training may lead to better training adaptations due to an improved quality and
volume of work performed.Effects
of Creatine on Aerobic Performance            According
to Fukuda, Kendall, Cramer, & Stout (2011), the results of study
demonstrated that Cr loading does not negatively e?ect running
performance. It has been hypothesized that Cr supplementation may enhance PCr
availability for the contribution toward ATP turnover during oxidative
metabolism, prolonging the rise in ADP concentrations. More so, both lab and
field based measures demonstrated similar results, allowing for the application
of Cr supplementation to extend to running based athletic settings without
concern for a negative influence on performance. The e?ects on VO2max are
still inconclusive. While one study demonstrated a reduction in whole body
VO2max during heavy and maximal conditions, a contrasting study reported a
significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption at 90% VO2max. Furthermore,
additional studies have reported no e?ect
of Cr loading on submaximal incremental, moderate or supramaximal exercise.
Similarly, the present study demonstrated no detrimental e?ects of Cr loading on
continuous incremental running to exhaustion. It has been hypothesized that Cr
supplementation may enhance PCr availability for the contribution toward ATP turnover
during oxidative metabolism, prolonging the rise in ADP concentrations.  Effects
of Creatine Supplements on Anaerobic Performance            Theoduru,
Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke (2017), stated
that Cr supplementation improved in AWTs performance while the execution of Cr
with consumption of carbohydrate (CHO) did not. It is due to the combined Cr
and CHO was increased in blood lactate production and may lead to decreased
provision of energy via anaerobic glycolysis. So, they concluded that Cr
supplements will improve in anaerobic performance. As studied by Kaczmarek
(2016 ), total work production during supramaximal intermittent exercise was
higher after Cr supplementation. It was probably caused by an increased ability
to resynthesize PCr during the recovery periods. The results support the
consumption of Cr prior to anaerobic performance.  Creatine Combinations with Carbohydrates            According
to Theoduru, Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke
(2017), the findings of their study suggest that the ingestion of carbohydrates
while performing an acute creating loading regimen does not result in any
additional benefit for anaerobic performance compared to acute Cr loading alone
in physically active participants. The combined creatine and carbohydrate
loading regimen prescribed in the present study has been shown to result in a
60% greater increase of muscle total creatine content (TCr) compared to the one
produced following Cr loading alone.  Dosing
Protocols Applied in Creatine Supplementation            A
typical creatine supplementation protocol consists of a loading phase of 20
g/day creatine monohydrate (CM) or 0.3 g CM kg/d split into 4 daily intakes of
5 g each, followed by a maintenance phase of 3-5 g CM per day or 0.03 g CM per day
for the duration of the supplementation period. Other supplementation protocols
are also used such as a daily single dose of around 3-6 g or between 0.03 to
0.1 g/day. However this method takes longer between 21 to 28 days to produce
ergogenic effects. A study by Sale et al. (2009), found that a moderate
protocol consisting of 20 g creatine monohydrate (CM) taken in 1 g doses
(evenly ingested at 30 mins intervals) for 5 days resulted in reduced urinary
creatine and methylamine excretion, leading to an estimated increase in whole
body retention of creatine (+13%) when compared with a typical loading
supplementation protocol of 4 x 5 g/d during 5 days (evenly ingested at 3 hour
intervals). RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY Research Conceptual Framework

            Performance
·      Agility
·      Power

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Static
Stretching

Dynamic Stretching

    

          Independent
variables                                           Dependent variables Research Design             This study involves quantitative research using
experimental design to compare the effects of creatine supplements on aerobic
and anaerobic performance. Subjects will be consumed two different supplements
which are Cr monohydrate and placebo (control group) on five consecutive days.
Each subject will be given a re-sealable plastic bag that contained 20 packets
of Cr monohydrate supplements and placebo (5g of each packets). They will be
consumed 20g (4 packets) each day of the supplements. Subjects will be tested
using 2.4 km run test to measure the aerobic performance after consuming Cr
supplements for five consecutive days. Subjects will be tested using 30 m
sprint test to measure the anaerobic performance after consuming Cr supplements
for five consecutive days. The independent variable for this research is
creatine supplements while aerobic and anaerobic performance are dependent
variables.Subjects            Thirty
recreationally active men and women who aged between 20 to 35 years old are
volunteer to participate in this study. All subjects, who healthy and had no
history of major physical injury or disease, volunteer to participate in this
study. Procedures            A consent form will be given to each
subject stated the subjects are attached with this research until it is done. Throughout
the duration of the study, participants will be asked to refrain from any
physical activity and nutritional supplements, for at least 24 hour prior to
testing. A set of questionnaires on health screening (PAR-Q) will
be distributed to each subject. Subjects are
separated into two groups; A, and B. Test for both groups will be held on two
non-consecutive days. Only the type supplements (Cr supplements and Placebo)
used is different while the test used to measure the aerobic and anaerobic
performance still the same within both of groups.  Supplementation
Protocol & Testing Program1.         This study will be conducted in
randomized, double-blind, placebo-   
controlled design.2.
        Subjects will be randomly assigned
to a creatine group (Cr – 5 g of Cr monohydrate per packet; n = 15) or placebo
(PL – 5 g of dextrose powder per packet; n = 15).3.
        To ensure that subjects ingested
their assigned supplement, subjects will be required to place the empty packets
back into the plastic bag and return them to the researcher at post testing to
be counted.4.
        Subjects will be verbally reminded
each day to consume their Cr supplements 4 times per day, within 3 to 4 hours
between doses in 5 consecutive days. Throughout the duration of the study,
participants will be asked to refrain from any physical activity and
nutritional supplements, for at least 24 hour prior to testing.5.
        The subjects will be mixed the Cr
powder in approximately 200 ml of water or fruit  juice.6.
        After subjects consuming Cr
supplements and placebo for 5 consecutive days, they will be tested using 2.4
km run test to measure the aerobic performance.7.
        After 24 hours of recovery, the
subjects will made last visit and they will be tested using 30 m sprint test to
measure the anaerobic performance.8.
        The subjects will be performed 3
trials of 30 m sprint test and 1 min rest interval between the trials. The
better time of three trials will be used for analysis.          

 Treatment Program  Different supplement protocols
during five consecutive days 

Group A

Group B

                                           Days
Protocols

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

Cr monohydrate

P

P

P

P

P

Placebo

P

P

P

P

P

 Adapted from Fukuda,
Kendall, Cramer, & Stout (2011)   Data Analysis            Statistical analysis of the effects Cr monohydrate supplements on
aerobic and anaerobic performance will be analyzed with one-way repeated
measures ANOVA. Results will be presented as mean ± standard deviation. The
Bonferroni adjustment will be carried out to confirm the significance of
differences. Statistical significance will be accepted at p ? 0.05 level of confidence. All data in this study will be analyzed
using Statistical Package for the IBM SPSS 2017.

 

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