INTRODUCTION Background of Study Mostof athletes use nutritional ergogenic aids in an attempt to improve both thequality and the quantity of training and to enhance their performance duringcompetition.
Indeed, under specific conditions many sporting ergogenic aidshave been shown to have positive effects on athletic performance, bodycomposition and strength and it is possible that ingestion of additionalnutrients may be necessary during high intensity exercise to allow for maximalexpression of endurance and strength gains.Creatine (Cr) is the most populardietary supplement in sports nutrition, because it determines the level ofmuscle phosphocreatine. Oral Cr supplementation can elevate human skeletalmuscle creatine by 10-30%. The ergogenic e?ectsof creatine (Cr) supplementation have been reported in various anaerobic andrepeated sprint exercises, as well as with resistance training throughincreases in strength and lean body mass.
The benefits of Cr ingestion havebeen primarily attributed to the consequent increase in total muscle phosphocreatine(PCr) content and a more rapid supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) thereforecontributes to activities reliant upon the Cr phosphate energy system. Most studies investigating the effectof Cr supplementation on exercise performance have used a loading scheme, byingesting a dose of 20-25 g/day for 4-5 days. This scheme, also known as “acuteCr loading”, regulates total muscle creatine and phosphocreatine to a pointconsidered necessary to improve exercise performance. Several studies to datehave revealed beneficial effects of both chronic (more than 4 weeks) and acute(2–7 days) of Cr supplementation on strength, power and speed in trainedathletes. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation inamounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improvestraining adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. A scientific studiesby Stone et al. (2003), McGuine et al.
(2002) and Zuniga et al. (2012) have foundthat creatine supplementation provide an ergogenic aid in activities involvingrepeated bouts of high intensity anaerobic performance. To close, the intentionof this study is to examine the effects of creatine supplements on aerobic andanaerobic performance. ProblemStatement Itis known that the muscle store of phosphocreatine (PCr) is decreased not onlyduring high intensity exercise but also during submaximal exercise. Thedecrease in muscle PCr during submaximal exercise is in proportion to the workrate.
The ergogenic e?ects ofcreatine (Cr) supplementation have been reported in various anaerobic andrepeated sprint exercises as well as with resistance training through increasesin strength and lean body mass. Accordingto Fukuda, Kendall, Cramer & Stout (2011), creatine (Cr) supplementationhad no statistically ergolytic influence on lab or field-based measures ofendurance performance, including VO2 max. On other hand, some other researchershave shown that Cr supplements increased anaerobic running capacity in men, butnot in women (Fukuda, Smith, Kendall, Dwyer, Kerksick, Beck, Cramer &Stout, 2010). As studied by Kaczmarek (2016), total work production duringsupramaximal intermittent exercise was higher after Cr supplementation by boutone and two respectively, but in bout three the total work done was about 2%lower. On the other hand, four day period of Cr supplementation produced asignificant improvement in anaerobic Wingate tests (AWTs) performance while theexecution of Cr with consumption of carbohydrate did not improve AWTsperformance (Theoduru, Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King &Cooke, 2017). However, studies on soccer players reported that short term Crsupplementation does not enhance prolonged soccer-specific exercise performance(Williams, Abt & Kilding, 2014). There are contradicting results of the effectsof Cr supplements on sports performance. To date, there are no clear results on the effects of Cr supplements onaerobic and anaerobic performance.
The question is which types of performancewill improve when consuming of Cr supplements. Therefore, the objective of thisstudy is to examine the effects of Cr supplements on aerobic and anaerobicperformance. Research Objective Thepurpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of consumingcreatine supplements on aerobic and anaerobic performance. ResearchHypothesis There is nosignificance differences in increasing anaerobic performances with creatinesupplements. Significanceof Study Thefindings of this study along with the current research in this area will givethe benefit to sport nutritionist and coach in increasing the performance ofathletes in endurance sports with the ergogenic aid which is consuming creatinesupplements. This research outcomes also will help sport nutritionist identifywhat the type of exercises that most suitable when athletes taking creatinesupplements to enhance their performances.
Beside, this research will alsocontributes the benefit to coach to increase performance of their athletes tothe maximum level in sprints or weighlifting events. Last but not least, this studywill also give knowledges to athletes and sport enthusiast in consuming thesuitable supplements that might be increase their performance in sports. Definition of Terms Creatine.
Creatine is a compound the body synthesizes andthen utilizes to store energy. The storage of energy occurs when phosphatemolecules are attached to creatine to create creatine phosphate.Creatine is a compound the body synthesizes andthen makes use to save energy.
The storage of energy occurs while phosphatemolecules are attached to creatine to create creatine phosphate. Aerobic.Aerobic is physical exercise of low to highintensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Itis refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise.To test this performance, 2.4 kilometres run can be use. Anaerobic.Anaerobic is exercise that short-lasting and high-intensityactivity, where the body is demand for oxygenexceeds the oxygen supply available. To test this performace, 100 metres sprintcan be use. LITERATURE REVIEW Introductionof Creatine Supplements Creatine hasbecome one of the mostly studied and scientifically validated nutritionalergogenic aids for athletes.
Biochemically, the energy supplied torephosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)during and following intense exercise is largely dependent on the amount ofphosphocreatine (PCr) stored in the muscle. As PCr stores become depletedduring intense exercise, energy availability reduce due to the inability toresynthesize ATP at the rate required to continue high-intensity exercise.Consequently, the ability to continue maximal effort exercise declines. Theavailability of PCr in the muscle may significantly influence the amount ofenergy generated during brief periods of high intensity exercise. Furthermore,it has been hypothesized that increasing muscle creatine content, via creatinesupplementation, may increase the availability of PCr allowing for anaccelerated rate of resynthesis of ATP during and following high-intensity,short-duration exercise. Theoretically, creatine supplementation duringtraining may lead to better training adaptations due to an improved quality andvolume of work performed.
Effectsof Creatine on Aerobic Performance Accordingto Fukuda, Kendall, Cramer, & Stout (2011), the results of studydemonstrated that Cr loading does not negatively e?ect runningperformance. It has been hypothesized that Cr supplementation may enhance PCravailability for the contribution toward ATP turnover during oxidativemetabolism, prolonging the rise in ADP concentrations. More so, both lab andfield based measures demonstrated similar results, allowing for the applicationof Cr supplementation to extend to running based athletic settings withoutconcern for a negative influence on performance. The e?ects on VO2max arestill inconclusive. While one study demonstrated a reduction in whole bodyVO2max during heavy and maximal conditions, a contrasting study reported asignificant increase in maximal oxygen consumption at 90% VO2max. Furthermore,additional studies have reported no e?ectof Cr loading on submaximal incremental, moderate or supramaximal exercise.Similarly, the present study demonstrated no detrimental e?ects of Cr loading oncontinuous incremental running to exhaustion.
It has been hypothesized that Crsupplementation may enhance PCr availability for the contribution toward ATP turnoverduring oxidative metabolism, prolonging the rise in ADP concentrations. Effectsof Creatine Supplements on Anaerobic Performance Theoduru,Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke (2017), statedthat Cr supplementation improved in AWTs performance while the execution of Crwith consumption of carbohydrate (CHO) did not. It is due to the combined Crand CHO was increased in blood lactate production and may lead to decreasedprovision of energy via anaerobic glycolysis.
So, they concluded that Crsupplements will improve in anaerobic performance. As studied by Kaczmarek(2016 ), total work production during supramaximal intermittent exercise washigher after Cr supplementation. It was probably caused by an increased abilityto resynthesize PCr during the recovery periods. The results support theconsumption of Cr prior to anaerobic performance. Creatine Combinations with Carbohydrates Accordingto Theoduru, Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke(2017), the findings of their study suggest that the ingestion of carbohydrateswhile performing an acute creating loading regimen does not result in anyadditional benefit for anaerobic performance compared to acute Cr loading alonein physically active participants.
The combined creatine and carbohydrateloading regimen prescribed in the present study has been shown to result in a60% greater increase of muscle total creatine content (TCr) compared to the oneproduced following Cr loading alone. DosingProtocols Applied in Creatine Supplementation Atypical creatine supplementation protocol consists of a loading phase of 20g/day creatine monohydrate (CM) or 0.3 g CM kg/d split into 4 daily intakes of5 g each, followed by a maintenance phase of 3-5 g CM per day or 0.03 g CM per dayfor the duration of the supplementation period.
Other supplementation protocolsare also used such as a daily single dose of around 3-6 g or between 0.03 to0.1 g/day. However this method takes longer between 21 to 28 days to produceergogenic effects. A study by Sale et al.
(2009), found that a moderateprotocol consisting of 20 g creatine monohydrate (CM) taken in 1 g doses(evenly ingested at 30 mins intervals) for 5 days resulted in reduced urinarycreatine and methylamine excretion, leading to an estimated increase in wholebody retention of creatine (+13%) when compared with a typical loadingsupplementation protocol of 4 x 5 g/d during 5 days (evenly ingested at 3 hourintervals). RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY Research Conceptual Framework Performance · Agility · Power Static Stretching Dynamic Stretching Independentvariables Dependent variables Research Design This study involves quantitative research usingexperimental design to compare the effects of creatine supplements on aerobicand anaerobic performance. Subjects will be consumed two different supplementswhich are Cr monohydrate and placebo (control group) on five consecutive days.Each subject will be given a re-sealable plastic bag that contained 20 packetsof Cr monohydrate supplements and placebo (5g of each packets). They will beconsumed 20g (4 packets) each day of the supplements. Subjects will be testedusing 2.4 km run test to measure the aerobic performance after consuming Crsupplements for five consecutive days. Subjects will be tested using 30 msprint test to measure the anaerobic performance after consuming Cr supplementsfor five consecutive days.
The independent variable for this research iscreatine supplements while aerobic and anaerobic performance are dependentvariables.Subjects Thirtyrecreationally active men and women who aged between 20 to 35 years old arevolunteer to participate in this study. All subjects, who healthy and had nohistory of major physical injury or disease, volunteer to participate in thisstudy.
Procedures A consent form will be given to eachsubject stated the subjects are attached with this research until it is done. Throughoutthe duration of the study, participants will be asked to refrain from anyphysical activity and nutritional supplements, for at least 24 hour prior totesting. A set of questionnaires on health screening (PAR-Q) willbe distributed to each subject.
Subjects areseparated into two groups; A, and B. Test for both groups will be held on twonon-consecutive days. Only the type supplements (Cr supplements and Placebo)used is different while the test used to measure the aerobic and anaerobicperformance still the same within both of groups.
SupplementationProtocol & Testing Program1. This study will be conducted inrandomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled design.2.
Subjects will be randomly assignedto a creatine group (Cr – 5 g of Cr monohydrate per packet; n = 15) or placebo(PL – 5 g of dextrose powder per packet; n = 15).3. To ensure that subjects ingestedtheir assigned supplement, subjects will be required to place the empty packetsback into the plastic bag and return them to the researcher at post testing tobe counted.4. Subjects will be verbally remindedeach day to consume their Cr supplements 4 times per day, within 3 to 4 hoursbetween doses in 5 consecutive days. Throughout the duration of the study,participants will be asked to refrain from any physical activity andnutritional supplements, for at least 24 hour prior to testing.
5. The subjects will be mixed the Crpowder in approximately 200 ml of water or fruit juice.6. After subjects consuming Crsupplements and placebo for 5 consecutive days, they will be tested using 2.4km run test to measure the aerobic performance.7. After 24 hours of recovery, thesubjects will made last visit and they will be tested using 30 m sprint test tomeasure the anaerobic performance.
8. The subjects will be performed 3trials of 30 m sprint test and 1 min rest interval between the trials. Thebetter time of three trials will be used for analysis. Treatment Program Different supplement protocolsduring five consecutive days Group A Group B Days Protocols 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Cr monohydrate P P P P P Placebo P P P P P Adapted from Fukuda,Kendall, Cramer, & Stout (2011) Data Analysis Statistical analysis of the effects Cr monohydrate supplements onaerobic and anaerobic performance will be analyzed with one-way repeatedmeasures ANOVA. Results will be presented as mean ± standard deviation. TheBonferroni adjustment will be carried out to confirm the significance ofdifferences. Statistical significance will be accepted at p ? 0.05 level of confidence.
All data in this study will be analyzedusing Statistical Package for the IBM SPSS 2017.