1.1 Introduction

This chapter is divided into five subdivisions. The first subdivision provides the deep penetration into chief research job. The 2nd subdivision throws light on the aims of the survey. The 3rd one attempts to supply justification of the probe.

The 4th portion describes range of work. The 5th subdivision briefly explains the research methodological analysis in chronological order. The 6th subdivision is intended for study organisation severally.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

With the growing of urban traffic, the threat of wayside parking has significantly increased in assorted metropoliss of Pakistan.

Lahore, the capital metropolis of Punjab, is no longer an exclusion where kerbside parking is burgeoning daily along all busy roads such as Davis Road, Mall Road, Multan Road, Jail Road, Edgerton Road, Ravi Road, etc, and some other busy roads of the metropolis. This state of affairs has occurred chiefly due to improper direction of parking, hit-or-miss commercialisation of belongingss, deficit in off-street parking infinites, inefficient public conveyance policies, and increase in figure of in private owned vehicles.One of the major jobs originating as a consequence of increased motor vehicle rate is the improper accretion of kerbside parking without any direction. Such irregular accretion of kerbside parking causes traffic congestion which lengthens travel clip, additions runing cost, and produces high emanation degree. Although, there are besides some other factors lending to traffic congestion such as deficiency of appropriate land usage planning, invasions, outdated off-street parking criterions and absence of intelligent conveyance systems yet, awkward direction of kerbside parking strongly influences the flow of traffic. Alternatively of detering the agglomeration of kerbside parking, the strategies/policies developed by the concerned governments encourage concentration of kerbside parking to a greater extent.

At present, parking direction control is in the custodies of CDGL that is taking attention of the issue in the involvement to pull off and cut down the on-street parking by presenting parking contracts along the 32 approved roads ( See Annexure A for sanctioned roads ) of Lahore. Besides CDGL, TMAs are besides responsible for exerting direction control within their legal powers ( except 32 roads of CDGL ) . However, cardinal to the full issue is the sad point that governments contract out these parking infinites simply for the intent of bring forthing gross without sing the handiness of infinites and route capacity for smooth and normal traffic flow.Kerbside parking job in inquiry being a challenging activity, has become an issue due to different grounds. First because of some place proprietors who grease the thenar of concerned authorization functionaries in the involvement to cover 100 % secret plan infinite without giving due respect to necessary off-street parking infinites. As a consequence of this carelessness and corruptness, traffic comes and is accumulated along such route doing hinderance in the way of fluxing traffic watercourses.Second, there are different private infirmaries in Lahore where CDGL has designated kerbside parking musca volitanss that provide unequal route infinite for vehicle storage in response to high parking demands. Parking contractors of such infirmaries frequently use pathwaies to suit more vehicles in order to bring forth more gross from auto and bike Parkers.

The state of affairs causes traffic obstruction both for vehicular and prosaic traffic. ( Tasleem, 2005 ) .Third, there have been so many instances wherein contractors function as “ soaking Mafia ” as they charge more than the stipulated fee set by CDGL. For case, harmonizing to the footings and conditions given in the understanding, the contractors are bound to bear down Rs.

5 for a bikes and Rs.10 for a auto but frequently they charge dual the fee prescribed in the understanding ( Siddiqui, 2008 ) .To recapitulate the above treatment, proper kerbside parking direction has been a subject of complete ignorance by the concerned governments.

The route infinites are normally contracted out and operated for parking simply for the intent of maximising gross coevals. This selfish behaviour leads to misdirection of wayside parking which finally gives birth to a figure of serious transit be aftering issues such as traffic congestion, traffic holds, traffic clangs, and environmental pollution, etc. Therefore, at this clip, an in-depth research survey is required to be carried out to apologize the kerbside parking with precedence on increasing the route capacity for traffic flows.

1.3 Research Aims

The cardinal aim of the present research is to analyze the deformation due to the kerbside parking on smooth flow of vehicular traffic and to propose empirical recommendations in order to efficaciously pull off issue of kerbside parking. The specific aims are listed below:To map the location of bing kerbside parking musca volitanss of Gulberg Town ;To analyze the bing form of kerbside parking ;To mensurate the negative impacts of kerbside parking on smooth flow of vehicular traffic ;To reexamine the literature refering to kerbside parking direction techniques in order to larn lessons for Lahore ; andTo pull decisions and suggest realistic and economical recommendations to efficaciously pull off the issue of kerbside parking.


4 Rationale of the Study

It has been elaborated earlier under the job statement that direction of kerbside parking has emerged as a firing issue presents in assorted metropoliss of Pakistan. Among these metropoliss, Lahore is at the top of the list so far as the inauspicious effects of parking are concerned due to assorted grounds. Therefore, at this phase, a thorough and in-depth survey accompanied with great trade of dedication and enthusiasm is necessary to get by with parking quandary in a manner that will be economically feasible and socially acceptable to local citizens.It is of import to advert here that the topic of the research is strictly research-worthy that is selected harmonizing to the standard parametric quantities of a scientific probe. Point of involvement is that the research survey is besides advanced as no such survey has been undertaken so far to turn to kerbside parking issues. These factors besides contribute towards foregrounding the significance of the mentioned research and its utility in the field of urban planning.

The survey will assist in deciding the on-street /kerbside parking issues from the instance survey countries. Besides, its recommendations will function as a guideline for other engorged countries of the metropolis. Such direction solutions may ensue in relieving the traffic congestion, control of traffic holds, decrease of pollution and economy clip, fuel and operational cost.No uncertainty, this research will function as an “ anti-congestion tool ” for the planning sections CDGL, TMA and other policy shapers like TEPA that can follow the recommendations and proposals as appropriate guidelines in the formation of programs, policies and by-laws related to kerbside parking direction.

1.5 Scope of the Study

Lahore is a metropolitan metropolis spreading over an country of 1,772A kmA?A ( 684A sqA myocardial infarction )[ 1 ]. The administrative legal power of Lahore is divided into nine ( 9 ) towns viz. :Ravi Town ;Shalimar Town ;Wagha Town ;Aziz Bhatti Town ;Data Ganj Baksh Town ;Gulberg Town ;Samanabad Town ;Iqbal Town ; andNishtar Town.

It is non possible to cover the whole country of CDGL. Therefore, after holding a figure of deliberations with research supervisor and maintaining the nature of research job in position, instance survey attack has been adopted. So, Gulberg Town has been selected as instance survey country for the present research as auto ownership rate and parking coevals activity is entirely high in the town in comparing with other towns of Lahore.It is by and large believed that parking is a huge subject which covers a figure of facets like on-street, off-street parking, etc but the present survey focuses on kerbside parking of the Gulberg Town.

The focal point of the first research aim is on preparation/acquisition of different maps viz. City District Government Map and Gulberg Town Map. Its range is besides limited to function of bing parking musca volitanss falling in the legal power of Gulberg Town.The range of 2nd research nonsubjective comprises finding the bing form through critical analysis and holding a elaborate penetration into instance survey country. It segregates the parking stands for a elaborate survey. In peculiar, it includes roll uping information sing assorted facets like parking continuance, parking accretion. Geting information sing bing parking jobs alongwith their solutions besides comes under the range of nonsubjective 2.The range of the survey, under the 3rd research aim, is further extended to mensurating the impacts of kerbside parking on flow of traffic.

Such impacts include researching the traffic volume and traffic hold informations along the selected musca volitanss of Gulberg Town with and without kerbside parking so as to calculate the change/variation.Fourth research aim requires reappraisal of literature refering best kerbside parking direction patterns from developed states with a position to retroflex the best suited pattern in context of Lahore in general and for instance survey country in peculiar.By and large, kerbside parking is observed along service route and along the carriageway.

Since kerbside parking base located along a carriageway adversely influences the flow of traffic as compared to a base along a service lane. For this grounds, this survey chiefly focuses on kerbside parking base located along a carriageway.

1.6 Methodology of the Study

Research methodological analysis provides answer to the inquiry “ how research is likely to be conducted ” .

It involves choice of an appropriate method depending upon the nature of research. Here, the specific research methodological analysis has been selected in conformity with this principal. Best method has been employed against each research aim as an instrument for roll uping the suited information. Like the conventional societal research processs, the informations have been collected from assorted primary and secondary beginnings. Assorted primary beginnings include:Reconnaissance Survey – to hold general understanding about the countryField Inspection – to place the location of each approved parking baseParking Accumulation Survey -to compute the accretion of kerbside parkingParking Duration Survey- to cipher the continuance of parked vehiclesTraffic Volume Survey- to measure the fluctuation in traffic volume due to kerbside parkingTraffic Delay Survey- to measure the decrease in velocity to kerbside parkingInterview with drivers and concerned authorization functionaries – to acquire to cognize about the job in inquiry and their suggestionsBesides the above mentioned primary beginnings, assorted secondary beginnings in the form of books, research diaries, magazines, encyclopaedias, booklets, newspapers, and on-line beginnings etc have besides been consulted. The information procured both from primary and secondary beginnings has been so analyzed utilizing latest computing machine packages.

On the footing of the overall analysis, the decision and recommendations have been given with a position to pull off the kerbside parking job both in footings of quality and measure ( The inside informations are given in Chapter 2 viz. Research Methodology ) .

1.7 Report Organization

The thesis has been organized in five chapters. The overview of each chapter is given below:Chapter 1 embodies debut of research work consisting statement of the job, aims of the survey, justification, and range of the research. It besides encompasses general overview of methodological analysis adopted to carry on the research enterprise.Chapter 2 sheds visible radiation on the research methodological analysis.

It includes specific research design methods employed for roll uping informations from several primary and secondary informations beginnings. It justifies relevant parametric quantities used in the choice of instance survey country. The techniques adopted for informations analysis together with their reading are besides included in this chapter.Chapter 3 explores relevant literature reappraisal related to the subject of research. It starts with theoretical consideration of parking direction every bit good as kerbside parking direction. It so explains with the sufficient dictions assorted kerbside parking direction techniques categorized on the footing of parametric quantities such as geometry, pricing, timing, engineering, etc.Chapter 4 gives an in-depth analysis of research.

It begins with the debut of the instance analyze country and its relevant salient characteristics. It besides presents the consequences of studies like traffic count study, field review, traffic hold study, parking accretion study and parking continuance study for each selected parking base.Chapter 5 draws decisions of the survey derived from analysis presented in Chapter 4 and eventually puts forth recommendations for farther research.

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