Knowledge Building And Corporate Memory Essay, Research Paper
How can we utilize electronic systems to help in the sharing of information organisation-wide, the usage of this to construct expertness and develop and keep corporate memory?
Table OF CONTENTS
Challenges related to GroupWare debut
KNOWLEDGE BUILDING AND GROUPWARE SYSTEMS
Computer Supported Concerted Plants:
? 1st definition of CSCW
? 2nd definition of CSCW
? Issues covered by CSCW.
OTHER TYPES OF GROUPWARE
? Message Systems
? Multiuser Editor
? Group Decision Support Systems and Electronic Meeting Rooms
? Computer conferencing
a ) Real Time Computer Conferencing
B ) Computer Teleconferencing
degree Celsius ) Desktop Conferencing
? Intelligent Agent
WHY IS CORPORATE MEMORY SO POOR?
TOOLS FOR CORPORATE Memory
DEVELOPMENT OF A KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM
? The aim of an Expert System
? Benefit of an Expert System
? Restrictions of Expert Systems
? Examples of Expert Systems
KNOWLEDGE BUILDING AND CORPORATE Memory:
How can we utilize electronic systems to help in the sharing of information organisation-wide, the usage of this to construct expertness and develop and keep corporate memory?
As the engineerings of computing machines and other signifiers of electronic communicating continue to meet, and it is more common for people to hold computing machines at workplace and at their places, our interaction with one another likewise has undergone a alteration, people will go on to interact in new and different ways.
Global competitory force per unit areas and continuos inventions are coercing many administration to rethink the mode in which they do concern and re-engineer themselves, by taking an involvement in Knowledge Management ie the direction and usage of their rational assets and corporate memory. They are looking at how to portion information and finally profit from it. While engineering is of import for development of such a system, it has been found that the cultural obstructions are the cardinal factor for such a system in going successful. For illustration, there can be a reluctance to take part if the act of sharing rational assets is seen as a agency of giving the users of the assets a competitory border over the subscriber or instead might be seen as freeloading. ( Hibbard Justin and Carillo Karen M, 1998 ) .
Harmonizing to Leonard-Barton ( pp 27-28 ) , knowledge edifice requires certain capablenesss from an administration. Those are:
( 1 ) people & # 8217 ; s accomplishments accomplishments and cognition embodied in the employees of the administration ;
( 2 ) cognition embedded in physical systems part of cognition and accomplishments, which is granted by proprietary and protected signifier. It could be patents or other types of intangible assets or it could be contained in package, hardware and accepted processs of the administration.
( 3 ) managerial systems that support and reenforce the growing of cognition trough carefully designed instruction and inducements and
( 4 ) values that serve to test and promote or deter the accretion of different sorts of cognition.
Now, that we have discussed the issue of the cognition in footings of the administration, allow us travel to the following portion of the inquiry. The inquiry we need to reply is how can electronic systems can be used in the sharing information-wide. Readings and researches in this country have shown that the term, which is introduced in the undermentioned paragraph, is the most appropriate for the subject.
Before traveling in front with the subject of our treatment lets look at the definition of GroupWare. Malone ( cited in Coleman and Shapiro, 1992 ) defines GroupWare as & # 8220 ; information engineering used to assist people work together more effectively. & # 8221 ; Winogard ( cited in Coleman and Shapiro, 1992 ) defines it as & # 8220 ; a province of mind. & # 8221 ; Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz who at foremost determined GroupWare as & # 8220 ; knowing group processes plus package to back up them & # 8221 ; ( Johnson-Lenzes, 1982 ) now determine it as & # 8220 ; computer-mediated civilization & # 8221 ; ( Johnson-Lenzes, 1992 ) . Grudin ( 1991 ) notes how different research workers define GroupWare in different ways, some including web file waiters, some including database package, some including electronic mail, and some including none of these. Although Dyson ( 1992 ) notes that & # 8220 ; & # 8216 ; GroupWare & # 8217 ; is about every bit utile term as & # 8217 ; singleware, & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ; she goes on to province ( p. 10 ) :
More than a manner of coding or edifice applications, GroupWare is a manner to specify, construction, and nexus applications, informations and the people who use them.
Ellis C. A. , Gibbs S. J. and Rein G. L. ( 1991 ) suggest a & # 8220 ; somewhat broader position, & # 8221 ; which suggests that GroupWare is a kind of the & # 8220 ; category of applications. & # 8221 ; These applications may or may non specifically support cooperation. Harmonizing to Ellis and others GroupWare is applied to little groups and administrations and arises from technological advancement in information and communicating engineering.
Challenges related to Groupware debut? . Introduction of any system should look into accommodating the engineering to the administration. The system should reflect specific demands and demands of the administration. Ellis C. A. , Gibbs S. J. and Rein G. L. ( 1991 ) recognize the trouble of planing and developing real-time GroupWare on a system degree. They explain the trouble of developing such a system by & # 8220 ; societal and organizational effects & # 8221 ; .
Developers of GroupWare face eight challenges as per Grudin. Five of the challenges relate to implementation instead so edifice of the package, which is of import to Knowledge Management surveies. These are:
? Disparity in Work Benefit. Where there are differences in part taking to differences in cost and benefit in utilizing the coaction tool. As such where the cost are excessively high and benefit remote the coaction is non likely to win.
? Critical Mass and the Prisoner & # 8217 ; s Dilemma jobs. Meaning coaction will non win until there is a critical mass of people utilizing the toll. Besides if people do non utilize the tool, so the tool will neglect.
? Sharing will work merely if there is sufficiently big pool of points to utilize. It will besides merely work if people don & # 8217 ; T merely use point but they contribute every bit good.
? Break of societal procedures. Sharing can travel against an administration civilization, if for illustration cognition is power
? The acceptance procedure. GroupWare requires careful execution to win. More consideration as to how the GroupWare will impact its users is required than for traditional systems.
As we have intended to demo, the term groupware, is a general definition of computing machine based human-human coaction. It has many signifiers and manner of usage in the cognition edifice procedure. This would be the topic for the farther treatment in the following chapter.
KNOWLEDGE BUILDING AND GROUPWARE SYSTEMS?
Computer Supported Cooperative Works? :
1st definition of CSCW? : Peoples working hand in glove, supported by engineering is normally called Computer Supported Cooperative Work ( CSCW ) . CSCW looks at how groups work and seeks to detect how engineering ( particularly computing machines ) can assist them work. Electronic mail is one of the earliest CSCW application and since so many application have appeared, covering support of meetings, determination support, group authoring, administration memory etc. ( Lyn Griffen, P 4, June 1998 )
2nd definition of CSCW? : One possible result of meeting electronic communicating and other systems is the electronic workspace & # 8211 ; an organisation-wide system that integrates information processing and communicating activities. The survey of such systems is portion of a new multi-disciplinary field: Computer Supported Cooperative Work ( CSCW ) . Pulling on the expertness and coaction of many specializers, including societal scientists and computing machine scientists, CSCW looks at how groups work and seeks to detect how engineering ( particularly computing machines ) can assist them work ( Ellis C. A. , Gibbs S. J. and Rein G. L. 1991 )
Commercial CSCW merchandises, such as The CoordinatorTM and other PC-based package, are frequently referred to as illustrations of GroupWare. This term is often used about synonymously with CSCW engineering.
Issues covered by CSCW? . The CSCW field addresses more than merely the proficient issues of planing and developing package to back up people working together. Some issues that are addressed are:
? Jointing concerted work Internet Explorer, back uping the interconnected and organizing secondary undertakings around cooperation.
? Sharing an information infinite
? accommodating the engineering to the administration and frailty versa
? information, which is non impersonal, and persons who use it are motivated by single involvement which can ensue in deceit.
Other Types of Groupware?
There are many ways in which people can interact with one another and pool resources together to deduce benefit from it. Some of these are:
? Message Systems? : The most common illustration of this is the e-mail. The proliferation of such systems has led to information overload phenomenon. Some recent Message System has intelligence added to the message bringing system, for illustration Information Lens ( Malone, T. , Grant, K. , Turbak, F. , Brobst, S. , and Cohen, M. 1987 ) lets users stipulate regulations that automatically file or re-route entrance messages based on content.
? Multiuser Editor? : Members of a group can utilize multiuser editors to jointly compose and redact a papers. Some of these editors handily separate text supplied by the writer from the remarks of assorted referees.
? Group Decision Support Systems and Electronic Meeting Rooms? : GDSS supply computer-based installations for the geographic expedition of unstructured jobs in a group puting. The end is to better the productiveness of determination devising meetings, either by rushing up the determination doing procedure or by bettering the quality of the resulting determinations ( Kraemer, K.L. , and King, J.L. , June 1988 )
? Computer conferencing? : The computing machine serves as a communications medium in a assortment of ways. In peculiar it has provided three new attacks & # 8211 ;
a ) Real Time Computer Conferencing: allows groups of users, who are either gathered in an electronic meeting room or physically dispersed to interact synchronously through their work-station or terminuss.
B ) Computer Tele-conferencing: Telecommunication supports for group interaction is referred to as Tele-conferencing.
degree Celsius ) Desktop Conferencing: Tele-conferencing does non allow participant portion text and artworks. Desktop Conferencing combines the advantages of Tele-conferencing and existent clip conferencing while extenuating their drawbacks. This method still uses the workstation as the conference interface, but it besides runs application shared by the participants.
? Intelligent Agent? : Not all participants in an electronic meeting are people. Intelligence agents are responsible for a specific set of undertakings and the user interface makes their actions resemble those of other users. The Intelligent Agent engagement means that a set of regulations become active, these regulations monitor session activity and consequence proposing alterations of content or signifier ( Gibbs, S.J LIZA: 1989 )
The chief aim of making and keeping a & # 8220 ; corporate memory & # 8221 ; is to replace the single memories that were lost in the mass market. Following illustration of a face-to-face concern presents the aspect clearly. The nineteenth century tradesman had a personal memory. He knew you and your household, and you shared a common heritage and history. But, of class, he could merely keep this information for a limited figure of clients. As his concern grew, his ability to maintain path of this information for all clients diminished. Presents, when administrations have to cover with 100s of 1000s of clients spread out in a world-wide graduated table, it is difficult to keep such an sum of cognition in one & # 8217 ; s caput. That cognition should be lodged into the & # 8220 ; corporate memory & # 8221 ; from all the single memories or other available beginnings. The inquiries to reply before making such a & # 8220 ; memory & # 8221 ; is to happen out what information do we desire to garner and keep about our clients, and how will that information be delivered and used by the administration. ( McGee J. V. , Prusak L. , 1993 )
WHY IS CORPORATE MEMORY SO POOR? ?
Harmonizing to our definition corporate memory means capturing more of the paperss and artefacts of the administration in a manner that they can be efficaciously recalled and reinterpreted. The growing of web computing machines for all stages of information work promises to supply the & # 8220 ; nervous system & # 8221 ; that would back up this increased gaining control and reuse.
Many informations, paperss and artefacts are entered ( recorded ) , but this is non what is losing from corporate memory, what is losing is the context ( Internet Explorer. the sense or principle ) that lay behind these paperss when they were created. In other words, administrations fail to capture any record of the procedure behind the artefacts. That is why the corporate memory is enduring from the losing links ( Appendix 1 ) .
This artifact-oriented paradigm is easy giving manner to a new process-oriented paradigm. Organi
sations are happening the artifact-oriented manner of capturing work to be excessively impoverished a theoretical account to back up the complexness of work in the information age. They are turning to a richer, more complete position, which embraces the messy and sometimes helter-skelter nature of procedure. No longer ignored are the premises, values, experience, conversations, and determinations, which lead to represent the context ad background of the artefact ( Appendix 2 ) .
TOOLS FOR CORPORATE MEMORY?
A engineering that will supply acceptable gaining control and callback cost for corporate memory is that which embraces hypertext, GroupWare ( or computer-supported concerted work ) and a rhetorical method. In add-on, we learnt that engineering is non adequate & # 8211 ; the administration itself must encompass the engineering acceptance procedure as portion of a larger displacement in the corporate civilization.
The first component of the computing machine engineering is hypertext, because the nature of process-oriented attack is basically non-linear. So, the representation for capturing and organizing it must besides be that rich. Furthermore, as clip goes by and organizational record grows more convoluted and complex, the limitless flexibleness of hypertext as a representational medium is indispensable for ongoing restructuring and summarization.
The 2nd component is GroupWare, which provides the medium for organizational duologues that occur via the computing machine, make a estimable study semi-structured paperss. The ability so exists to pull strings, administer or portion this information and intelligence throughout the administration or squad, efficaciously and continuously making a memory and larning tool.
The 3rd component of the engineering for capturing corporate memory is the usage of a rhetorical method, or colloquial theoretical account, or structuring the conversations happening with the engineering. The ground for this is double. A simple rhetorical method provides a construction for treatment of complex jobs, which can instantly better the quality of the duologue procedure. The Issue-Based Information System ( IBIS ) method ( Kunz & A ; Rittel 1970 ) provides this sort of procedure betterment. Second, such a theoretical account provides a footing for structuring the colloquial study, which is non merely chronological ( as in an electronic mail or bulletin board type system ) . This provides a content-based indexing construction within which the cumulative record of the organizational procedure is preserved and organised.
DEVELOPMENT OF A KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM?
When an administration has a complex determination to do or a job to work out it frequently turns to experts for advice. These experts have specific cognition and experience in the job countries. They are cognizant of alternate solutions, opportunities of success and costs that the administration may happen if the job is non solved. The more unstructured the state of affairs the more specialized and expensive is the advice. Expert System ( ES & # 8211 ; see Appendix 3 ) are an effort to mime human Experts ( Turban. , Mclean. , Wetherbe, p580-597, 1996 ) .
The aim of an Expert System? : The aim of an expert system is to reassign the expertness and cognition from an expert to a computing machine and so to other forces ( non-experts ) . This procedure involves four activities:
? Knowledge acquisition ( from experts or other beginnings )
? Knowledge representation ( in the computing machine ) is acquired cognition which is organised in one of several possible constellation and stored electronically in a cognition base
? Knowledge inferencing
? Knowledge transportation to the user
Benefit of an Expert System?
? Increased Output and Productivity
? Increased Quality: by supplying consistent advice and cut downing the mistake rate
? Capture of scarce Expertness: The scarceness of expert becomes apparent in state of affairss where there are non adequate experts for a undertaking, either the expert is retired or is required over a wide geographic location eg. a state necessitating an oculus physician, can name a patient by looking up on a plan which is regulation based and runs on a personal computer, which can be operated by a physician s helper or nurse.
? Operation in Hazardous Environment: ES allows operation in hot, humid or toxic environments
? Accessibility to Knowledge and Help Desks: Can do the cognition available to many people at the same clip.
? Provision of preparation
? Enhancement of Problem Solving Capabilities: ES enhances job resolution by leting the integrating of top expert s opinion into analysis. Problem resolution is besides enhanced by the integrating of expertness of several experts.
Restrictions of Expert Systems?
? Knowledge to be captured is non ever readily available.
? Expertness is difficult to pull out from worlds.
? The attack of each expert to a state of affairs may be different, yet right.
? It is difficult, even for a extremely skilled expert to abstract good situational appraisal when he is under clip force per unit area.
? Users have natural cognitive bounds, do they may non utilize the benefits of the system to the fullest extent.
? ES work good merely in narrow sphere.
? Aid in constructing an Einsteinium is often required from Knowledge Engineers who are rare and expensive & # 8211 ; a fact that would do ES building instead expensive.
? Lack of trust by user may be a barrier to ES usage.
? Knowledge transportation is capable to several perceptual and judgemental prejudices.
In decision of the treatment of ES and in order to do it more clear, some illustrations of application of adept systems is given:
Examples of Expert Systems?
Example 1: Russian Trade Adviser
Problem: The economic and politically alterations in what used to be the Soviet Union may supply an chance for many companies to merchandise with Eastern Europe. However there is small expertness in Western states on what is truly traveling on in Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union. So while there are chances, there are besides hazards. A watercourse of incomplete, often contradictory and even incorrect informations overcast the state of affairs. Business people want speedy and dependable advice, but it is seldom available.
Solution. Deliotte and Touche, a management-consulting house, developed an expert system. The major aim of the system is to supply advice on trade chances and licencing demand s for medium to high engineering merchandises. The system started as an consultative service to the company s advisers. Now it is marketed for a fee to possible bargainers. Besides the ES trades with export licensing demands and provides a autotype of an export license application ( displayed on the screen with direction about how to finish it ) . The system, which includes several cognition bases, is supported by hypertext that helps voyaging through the complex signifiers.
Use. The system is really user friendly: it is based on simple sets of bill of fare. The market is divided into 12 sectors, each matched with possible merchandises. The system assesses the chances for general categories of merchandises and for specific 1s. Then, possible purchasers are identified, every bit good as processs for doing contacts. Explanations are provided on petition. Several other types of valuable information are provided by the system. ( Beginning: Szuprowicz, 1991 )
Example 2: Dustpro & # 8211 ; Environmental Control in Mines?
Problem. The bulk of the 2000 active mines in the United States are medium or little sized. They can non afford a full-time dust control applied scientist, whose major occupation is to re-evaluate and reassign installations, each clip runing conditions alteration. However, if a dust control applied scientist is non readily available, the mine must be shut down until an adept arrives. Experts are expensive but so is downtime, so this can be dearly-won. Operating without appropriate testing and reading of consequences is a misdemeanor of federal ordinances.
Solution. DustPro is a little rule-based system developed by the US Bureau of Mines. It includes about 200 regulations and was developed with a Level 5 shell ( from Information Builders ) on a personal computer. It took approximately 500 hours to develop the system. The system is now in operation in more than 200 mines.
System Characteristics. DustPro advises in three countries: control of methane gas emanation, airing in uninterrupted operations, and dust control of the mine s machines. Datas on air quality is entered manually. The user interface is really friendly. The system is composed of 13 sub countries of expertness, and the mean audience clip is 10 to 15 proceedingss.
System Use. DustPro, through a series of inquiries, determines what type of mine is most affected by the dust. Then, the system can rede the operators what to make if jobs are suspected. The system ad its discrepancies are used at the US Bureau of Mines Pittsburg Research Centre to name jobs telephoned in by mine operators. This saves bureau staff clip and travel disbursal. Besides, the staff can react more rapidly and give more clip to research and development. The system is so successful that more than 10 states have requested permission to utilize it in their mines.
In this seminar paper it was intended to present footings as cognition edifice and corporate memory. Further the treatment goes on how the electronic systems are or could be used to help in sharing the cognition organisation-wide. In that context the term groupware is introduced to find electronic systems that assist in human-human coaction by utilizing the quickly turning systems of the computing machine age. The issue of corporate memory is discussed to be the most ambitious point of the seminar due to the power, which the cognition contains in it. Answer to the inquiry why is corporate memory so hapless? emphasises the complexness of administrations in the facets of cognition and its sharing. Consequently, the subject of the seminar leads to the tools for corporate memory. The attack for corporate memory by development of knowledge-based systems appears to be one of the most efficient solutions.
The subject of the seminar is still a topic to research and betterments. The nature of inquiries raised by it is complex by itself. Therefore, the combination of these is far more complicated. The chief inquiry, nevertheless, is to happen the balance in usage of electronic systems and human encephalons.
In the artifact-oriented position of work the artefacts ( such as diagrams, paperss, letters, studies etc. ) are the focal point of direction attending. Furthermore, tools and methods are entirely for the production and alteration of these artefacts. The procedure by which this work is done is regarded as secondary. ( Conklin E. J. [ 1992 ] in Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting human-human coaction Morgan Kaufmann California p.562 )
In the process-oriented paradigm there are still artefacts, but they are seen as being no more of import than interactions between people ( Conklin E. J. [ 1992 ] in Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting human-human coaction Morgan Kaufmann California p.563 ) .
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