l E. Jeffrey H& Alan J. Hawkins, Maria F and Michelle W Conduct a study about family and extra day week possitve infiuevence of Perceived Job Flexibility on Work and Family Life Balance This study examines the influence of perceived flexibility in the timing and location of work on work-family balance. Data are from a 1996 International Business Machines (IBM) work and life issues survey in the United States (n = 6,451). Results indicate that perceived job flexibility is related to improved work-family balance after controlling for paid work hours, unpaid domestic labor hours, gender, marital status, and occupational level.
Perceived job flexibility appears to be beneficial both to individuals and to businesses. Given the same workload, individuals with perceived job flexibility have more favorable work-family balance. Likewise, employees with perceived job flexibility are able to work longer hours before workload negatively impacts their work-family balance. Implications of these findings are presented.
l Rosemary C and Clare L conduct a study on work life balance in europe Although work-life ‘balance’ is an EU policy priority, within Europe there are considerable variations in the nature and extent of supports that national governments have offered to dual-earner families. In general, the Nordic welfare states offer the highest level of supports, although other countries, such as France, have historically offered extensive childcare supports to working mothers. We examine national variations in reported levels of work-life conflict, drawing upon questions fielded in the 2002 Family module International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) surveys for Britain, France, Finland, Norway and Portugal. We find evidence of a ‘societal effect’ in the cases of Finland and Norway, in that significantly lower levels of work-life conflict are reported in these countries even after a range of factors have been controlled for. However, support for childcare in France does not appear to have had a similar impact. Further explorations of the data reveal that the domestic division of labour is relatively traditional in France, and that this is associated with higher levels of work-life conflict.
l Robert M. K&Min Min C Conduct a study of Effects on Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction: Teacher Gender, Years of Experience, and Job Stress The authors of this study sought to examine the relationships among teachers’ years of experience, teacher characteristics (gender and teaching level), three domains of self-efficacy (instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement), two types of job stress (workload and classroom stress), and job satisfaction with a sample of 1,430 practicing teachers using factor analysis, item response modeling, systems of equations, and a structural equation model. Teachers’ years of experience showed nonlinear relationships with all three self-efficacy factors, increasing from early career to mid-career and then falling afterwards. Female teachers had greater workload stress, greater classroom stress from student behaviors, and lower classroom management self-efficacy. Teachers with greater workload stress had greater classroom management self-efficacy, whereas teachers with greater classroom stress had lower self-efficacy and lower job satisfaction. Those teaching young children (in elementary grades and kindergarten) had higher levels of self-efficacy for classroom management and student engagement. Lastly, teachers with greater classroom management self-efficacy or greater instructional strategies self-efficacy had greater job satisfaction. l Wambui, Boinett Caroline Mwangi Lucy Cherotich, Tumwet conduct study on Effects of Work life Balance on Employees’ Performance in Institutions of Higher Learning.
Work-life balance is basically the positive relationship between work and other equally important activities in life which include family, leisure, personal development and community development issues. The relationship cannot be clearly defined and varies from person to person according to their life demands. Work life balance is intended to allow employees greater flexibility in their working patterns so that they can balance what they do at work with the responsibilities and interests they have outside work.l A Qualitative Study of the Sources and Impact of Stress Among Urban Teachers Work–life balance involves proper prioritizing between “work” (career and ambition) on the one hand and “life” (Health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development) on the other.
Related, though broader, terms include “lifestyle balance” and “life balance”. Work-life balance, in its broadest sense, is defined as a satisfactory level of involvement or’ fit’ between the multiple roles in a person’s life. Kossek & Ozeki (1998). Observing the day to day lives of many employees, two main issues to be addressed to achieve work life balance are time and stress. Managing these two variables is the secret of a perfect work life balance.
Thus formula of work life balance: Work life balance= Time management + Stress management. As derived by Gupta and Sharma (2013)