I. Introduction

I have chosen the State of Maine Department of Corrections as the topic of my concluding class undertaking. The Maine Department of Corrections is responsible for the supervising of grownup and juvenile wrongdoers who have been sentenced by the tribunal system to a period of supervising either in an establishment or in the community. It is made up of two major divisions. Adult and Juvenile. with two classs within each division. installation and community. In the State of Maine. the Department of Corrections is portion of the Executive Branch of authorities. The disposal is made up of a Commissioner. who answers to the Governor. a Deputy Commissioner. and two Associate Commissioners. one for each division.

The focal point of my undertaking will be on the Adult Community division. I am presently a Probation and Parole Officer in this division and have been for the last 11 old ages. I have held the places of a sex wrongdoer specializer. tribunal officer. institutional probation officer and most late. I supervise a general caseload of about 100 grownups who have been convicted of offenses in the State of Maine or elsewhere and are populating in Central Maine. When I began my calling with the Department of Corrections. the disposal was made up of people who had worked for the Department for most of their callings. In 2010 a new Governor was elected. and the Commissioner who serves at the pleasance of the Governor was replaced by an person with no ties to the State of Maine.

Over the past eight or nine old ages at that place has been a displacement in the Department’s position of the proper process for supervising of grownup wrongdoers. There has been a batch of legislative engagement. due to budget concerns. to take down the cost of supervising of wrongdoers. The Department has adopted a policy which focuses less on enforcement and more on rehabilitation. These policy alterations have increased work load. without increased compensation for employees. As a affair of fact. there has been a freezing on any wage addition province broad for several old ages. There has besides been a deficiency of communicating between the disposal and the line workers in respects to outlooks and occupation demands. This has caused a big group of Probation Officers to go rather acrimonious and dissatisfied in their current places. Many have opted for early retirement. nevertheless. there are even more people that feel “stuck” in their current place due to their fiscal and educational state of affairss.

II. Problem Statement

How can employee occupation satisfaction be improved for Adult Probation Officers in the State of Maine?

Schermerhorn defines occupation satisfaction as “the grade to which an person feels positive or negative about a occupation. ” ( pg. 72 ) Schermerhorn besides identifies some constituents of occupation satisfaction. including but non limited to: “the work itself. quality of supervising. relationships with colleagues. publicity chances and wage. ” ( pg. 73 ) There is besides a correlativity between occupation satisfaction and occupation public presentation. ( pg. 76 )

Presently most of the Probation and Parole Officers who are now employed by the Department of Corrections have been employed for a lower limit of three old ages. They started with the section with the outlook of a certain occupation map which is more jurisprudence enforcement in nature which is what many had planned for their calling.

Recently there has been a displacement in supervisory schemes as good. It was frequently the pattern to talk with employees about their public presentation and come to an understanding with the employee to better if needed or to advocate about possible policy misdemeanors. This manner of supervising offered an employee an chance return duty in the determination procedure in their occupations and work towards their ain set of outlooks. Currently it is the pattern to officially look into and rectify any and all policy misdemeanors. This has taken off from the easy traveling management/employee relationship of the past and transformed it to one that can be rather standoffish at times.

Due to the current construction of the disposal of the section there are really few chances for publicity within the section. In the Adult Community Division there are three Regional Correctional Administrators who answer to the Associate Commissioner. There are besides two Regional Correctional Managers that study to each Regional Correctional Administrator. There is really small chance for publicity in the section as these places tend to be held by people with many old ages of senior status and are available on a ratio of 9:90. There are besides really few places which offer increased duty for probation officers.

Compensation for employees is based on a province broad budgeting procedure. Due to the current economic position of the State of Maine. there have been no additions in wage for several old ages. There is a system in topographic point to let employees to have a annual wage addition based on virtue for the first eight old ages of employment. nevertheless. that system has been put on clasp due to budget issues.

III. Literature Review

I have reviewed six scholarly beginnings for this undertaking. The beginnings look at different facets of occupation satisfaction and the factors which impact the overall satisfaction of employees. In my reappraisal I was able to turn up two beginnings that specifically discussed public sector employment. the remainder of my research is based in the private sector. nevertheless. I will correlate it with the populace sector. specifically the Maine Department of Corrections.

The first beginning is from Public Management Review. It is titled. “The Effects of Personnel Reform Systems on Georgia State Employees’ Attitudes: An empirical analysis from a principal-agent theoretical perspective” and was written by Park Sung Min. Sung Min studied the effects of managerial reform in the State of Georgia. The writer specifically focused on four forces reform effects and their impact on heightening occupation satisfaction and work motive. They are pecuniary inducement system which is a merit wage system. a public presentation monitoring system. a cognition inducement system which he described as a preparation and development system and a discretional system or at-will system.

Sung Min’s findings show that all of the systems have an consequence on the step of occupation satisfaction in the State of Georgia. Of the four. nevertheless. Sung Min’s research shows that the systems with the most impact on occupation satisfaction and public presentation are discretional controlling and public presentation monitoring systems. In respects to the pecuniary inducement system. Sung Min provinces: “public employees are non ever budget or self involvement maximizers as bureau theoreticians posit ; they besides tend to prosecute public service motive. ” ( pg. 427 )

The 2nd scholarly beginning is from the Journal of Business Communication. It is titled. “The nexus Between Leadership manner. Communicator Competence. And Employee Satisfaction” ( Madlock. Paul E. 2008 ) . In this article the influence of the supervisor’s competency in communicating and leading manner and their effects on employee occupation and communicating satisfaction are studied. The survey shows that a supervisor’s communicator competency is a stronger forecaster for occupation satisfaction and communicating satisfaction among employees than is leading manners. “A strong relationship was found between supervisor communicator competency and employee communicating satisfaction. whereas a moderate relationship was found between supervisor communicator competency and employee occupation satisfaction. ” ( pg. 69 ) Madlock defined communicator competency as “a signifier of interpersonal influence. in which an person is faced with the undertaking of carry throughing communicative maps and ends while keeping colloquial and interpersonal norms” ( pg. 62 ) .

The 3rd scholarly beginning is from the Journal of Applied Social Psychology. It is titled “Effects Of Internal and External Pay Comparisons On Work Attitudes. ” In this article ( Shore. Ted H. . Armen Tashchian. and Louis Jourdan. 2006 ) an employees satisfaction in footings of wage were studied. The writers studied the differences in the effects of when employees compare their rates of wage to those within ( internal ) and those outside ( external ) their work group and the differences between an single referent and a group referent. The writers studied the issues of wage satisfaction every bit good as perceived equity. They besides studied the effects on work motive. perceived organisational support. and turnover purpose. For the intents of my undertaking the undermentioned fact stood out: “The higher the individual’s compensation relation to an internal or external referent. the greater was the individual’s wage satisfaction. perceived organisational support. and work motive. and the lower was the purpose to alter occupations. ” ( Pg. 2590 )

The 4th scholarly beginning is from the Journal of Public Administration Research & A ; Theory. It is titled “Linking Management Reform With Employee Job Satisfaction: Evidence From Federal Agencies. ” In this article ( Kaifeng. Yang. and Anthony Kassekert. 2010 ) the writers studied the relationship between occupation satisfaction is related to pull offing for consequences. undertaking out. and civil service inspection and repair ( besides known as rubric 5 freedom ) . The writers concluded that undertaking out and Title 5 freedom are negatively related to occupation satisfaction. Pull offing for consequences is positively related to occupation satisfaction.

For the intents of my undertaking. I have chosen to concentrate on pull offing for consequences. In their article. the writers define pull offing for consequences as including “strategic planning. quality betterment. and a client service orientation along with the application of public presentation measuring systems. ” ( pg. 416 ) The writers identified two constructs which influence single attitudes and behaviours straight. “The first one is the sensed public presentation orientation. which measures perceptual experiences about performance-based answerability and public presentation inducements such as wage for public presentation. The 2nd managing for consequences component is the sensed advanced civilization. which emphasizes creativeness. hazard taking. flexibleness. and authorization in organizations” ( Pg. 417 ) . The writers province that their survey “suggests that pull offing for consequences. when suitably implemented. is likely to better employee satisfaction and. in bend. other positive workplace attitudes and behaviours. ” ( pg. 428 )

The 5th scholarly beginning is from the Journal Of Organizational Culture. Communications & A ; Conflict. It is by C. Justice Tillman. Feliccia A. Smith. and Wanda R. Tillman and is titled. “Work Locus of Control And The Multi-Dimensionality of Job Satisfaction. ” This article surveies the relationship of work venue of control to assorted dimensions of occupation satisfaction. ( pg. 108 ) The article states that grounds suggests that “employees worldwide possess a cardinal desire to exert control or influence over determinations made by their higher-ups. coworkers. or subordinates ; the relationship they have with them and the degree of duty they have in the organization” ( Tillman. et Al. pg 110 ) . This is the definition for work venue of control. In their survey. the writers presented and supported with there analyze the six following hypothesis: ( Tillman. et Al. 2010 )

H1: There will be a positive relationship between work venue of control and satisfaction with work on present occupation ( Tillman. et Al. pg 112 ) . Percept of one’s present occupation and its degree of meaningfulness to the employee will straight impact their satisfaction and motive in the workplace.

H2: There will be a positive relationship between work venue of control and satisfaction with present wage ( Tillman. et Al. pg 112 ) . This hypothesis looks at money as a incentive. If employees can exercise some control over compensation. i. e. Demand for money for tiring or less meaningful occupations. so that will increase degrees of occupation satisfaction.

H3: There will be positive relationship between work venue of control and satisfaction with chances for publicity ( Tillman. et Al. pg. 113 ) . Opportunity for upward mobility in an organisation can increase occupation satisfaction. “Opportunities for publicity included being promoted on the footing of ability. holding a good opportunity for publicity. and just publicity policies” ( pg. 112 ) .

H4: There will be a positive relationship between work venue of control and satisfaction with supervising ( Tillman. et Al. pg 113 ) . Simply put. “Employees that perceive their ability to act upon dealingss with supervisors are likely to see occupation satisfaction” ( pg. 113 ) .

H5: There will be a positive relationship between work venue of control and satisfaction with people at work ( Tillman. et Al. pg. 113 ) . This is characterized by positive interactions with equals. supervisors. and subsidiaries and is exemplified by collaborative workgroups. feelings of trust. common regard and teamwork ( Pg. 113 ) .

H6: There will be a positive relationship between work venue of control and satisfaction with the occupation in general ( Tillman. et Al. pg 114 ) . This is a combination of all five of the old hypothesis. in that if an employee feels control over all of the antecedently stated elements of occupation satisfaction. i. e. Work. wage. publicity. supervising. and people at work. than that will increase satisfaction with the occupation in general ( pg. 113 ) .

The 6th scholarly beginning is from Human Resource Development Quarterly. It is titled “The Relationship Between Workplace Learning And Job Satisfaction in U. S. Small to Midsize Businesses. ” This article was written by Robert W. Rowden in 2002. Rowden studied the effects of three types of acquisition. formal. informal and incidental. He defined formal acquisition as “training made up of distinct planned events used to teach people how to execute specific defined jobs” ( pg. 410 ) . Of informal and incidental acquisition he states “Although interconnected. informal and incidental acquisition are non needfully the same. Incidental larning occurs as an unintended byproduct of some other activity…” ( Pg. 410 ) . Rowden observed “that there is a positive. statistically important relationship among all steps of workplace acquisition and occupation satisfaction” ( Pg 421 ) .

IV. Analysis of Problem

In this subdivision I will discourse the root causes of the deficiency of occupation satisfaction at the Maine Department of Corrections utilizing leading and organisational behavioural constructs. The job of low occupation satisfaction is due to miss of communicating between direction and employees. a deficiency of work venue of control. and a deficiency of apprehension of the model for pull offing alteration.

In Leadership and Organizational behavior the construct of communicating is really of import. In the text Schermerhorn states “Communication creates the foundation for successful actions ; it opens tracts to a more collaborative workplace” ( Pg. 254 ) . The Maine Department of Corrections has for the last several old ages practiced a policy of top down communicating with small to no underside up communicating. “Downward communicating follows the concatenation of bid from top to bottom” ( Schermerhorn. Pg. 266 ) whereas. “upward communicating is the flow of messages from lower to higher organisational levels” ( ibid. ) . The Maine Department of Corrections has non fostered an environment in which upward communicating is accepted. There is a policy presently in topographic point which states that anterior to talking with either the Associate Commissioner or the Commissioner. an employee must acquire the blessing of either the Regional Correctional Administrator or the Regional Correctional Manager.

In their survey. Tillman. et Al. focused on work venue of control and satisfaction with supervising. They believed that employees perceived they had an ability to act upon their supervisors were likely to see occupation satisfaction ( pg 113 ) . Based on this determination it would merely do sense that the restricted communicating between employees and disposal at the Maine Department of Corrections would negatively impact occupation satisfaction of employees. ( I would besides oppugn the degree of occupation satisfaction among disposal. given the deficiency of upward communication. ) This is supported by Madlock when he states. “generally. as employees experience more positive communicating relationships. they besides experience more positive occupation results such as occupation satisfaction” ( pg. 65 ) .

Another Leadership and Organizational Behavior construct is motive. Schermerhorn defines motive as “forces within an single that account for the degree. way and continuity of attempt expended at work” ( pg. 110 ) . Shore et Al. hypothesized that “internal wage comparings will be related more strongly to comprehend organisational support and work motive than will external wage comparisons” ( pg. 2582 ) . Most employees of the State of Maine are paid utilizing a system of wage class degrees which have up to eight stairss for each wage class. Pay classs are assigned to each occupation categorization. Under normal fortunes employees are given a measure addition the first eight old ages of employment and so length of service wage after 15. 20. 25 old ages. etc. In recent old ages that system has been put on clasp and there have been no measure increases at all. due to province budgetary concerns. Now that this pattern has been stopped for a drawn-out period of clip. there are many employees who have received the same preparation and work experience as those who have been employed for a longer period of clip. but because they have less clip in the service of the State their wage is significantly less than their equals.

In the Department of Corrections. due to alterations in pattern. there has been an addition in work load for employees. As the Department of Corrections plants within the guidelines for all employees in the State of Maine in respects to pay. there has been no addition in compensation for the addition in work load. Harmonizing to Alderfer’s ERG theory the being demands of the employees are being met. Existence demands are defined as “desires for physiological and material well-being” ( Schermerhorn. pg. 112 ) . In their survey. Tillman et Al. looked as money as a incentive. Their survey proved their hypothesis that if employees have some sense of control over their wage. they are more likely to be satisfied with both their wage and their occupation. Due to the current system of wage in the State of Maine. employees have no venue of control over their wage. other than length of service.

Organizational alteration is another cardinal construct from Leadership and Organizational Behavior which effects occupation satisfaction in the Maine Department of Corrections. As with any organisation. a alteration in leading will convey about major alterations in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours patterns. In my term of office with the Department of Corrections. I have spent all but the last 14 months under the leading of one Commissioner. With the election of a new Governor in 2010. a new commissioner for the Department of Corrections was appointed. This new commissioner has instituted many alterations within the Department of Corrections which has caused rather a spot of agitation. Schermerhorn identifies this alteration as transformational alteration ( pg. 352 ) . The full feature of the bureau has changed. most notably there is a strong push to a regimented policy driven work environment. Schermerhorn besides gives the undermentioned slug points on holding a successful transformational alteration ( pg. 352 ) :

• Develop a sense of urgency
• Have a powerful guiding alliance.
• Have a compelling vision.
• Communicate the vision.
• Empower others to move.
• Celebrate short-run wins.
• Build on achievements.
• Institutionalize consequences.

Presently there has been small to no communicating of the vision within the Department of Corrections. There has besides. at this clip. been no authorization of others to take portion in the alteration. What has taken its topographic point is a batch of rumour and speculation. To return to the survey of Tillman. et Al. . this has taken away from employees’ work venue of control. as they are non able to hold any sensed sense of control in the alterations that are taking topographic point or any control over the occupation in general ( pg. 113 ) .

V. Solutions

Job satisfaction is an of import Organizational Behavior construct and harmonizing to Schermerhorn. directors should be held accountable for the occupation satisfaction of their employees ( pg. 14 ) . If occupation satisfaction among probation and parole officers in the Maine Department of Corrections does non better. it could hold negative reverberations to public safety. as it has the possible to do employees less motivated to execute their occupation maps to a higher criterion. I propose the followers as possible solutions to the issue of low occupation satisfaction.

The first would be to travel to a public presentation monitoring system similar to that used by the State of Georgia. as described by Sung Min ( pg. 411 ) . This system includes set uping public presentation criterions. communication criterions and outlooks. mensurating the existent public presentation of agents. comparing with criterions. measuring consequences and supplying feedback and taking disciplinary actions ( ibid. ) . To implement this solution. it would be necessary for the disposal to develop a standardised set of outlooks and to pass on those outlooks with employees. It would besides be necessary for the disposal to supply preparation to be certain that all employees are decently trained to run into those outlooks. The pros for this solution would be a unvarying occupation description. which would give employees a venue of control over their work as they would be given the chance to run into those outlooks. On the negative side. this could do a batch of alteration for employees in their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations. It would necessitate besides following Shermerhorn’s stages of planned alteration with particular attending paid to the unfreezing stage ( pg. 353 ) .

The 2nd solution to increase occupation satisfaction would be to offer more compensation for work performed. Although an addition in wage would make a batch to increase occupation satisfaction. at this clip it is non possible due to current budget restraints in the State of Maine. Therefore it is necessary to research other signifiers of compensation that may assist to better occupation satisfaction. One such signifier could be an chance to hold increased larning. Such a solution would necessitate the disposal to supply preparation within the section. Rowden concluded that occupation satisfaction “can be attributed in big portion to the handiness of larning chances on the job” ( pg. 423 ) . The positive facet to this solution would be the increased cognition of employees and the higher criterion of employees within the bureau. On the negative side. there is a cost associated with preparation. This could be mitigated nevertheless. through the usage of grants and the similar.

A 3rd possible solution to the issue of occupation satisfaction would be the addition in additive communicating within the Department of Corrections. Madlock’s survey shows a correlativity between supervisor communicator competency and employee occupation satisfaction ( pg. 69 ) . This would necessitate the disposal to travel off from formal channels of communicating and travel toward informal channels. It would besides necessitate a alteration in departmental policy which could be identified as a negative facet to this solution. As in a batch of bureaucratisms. there are many barriers to altering policy which tend to be quite clip devouring. On the positive side. nevertheless. it allows employees to experience empowered in their work environment to assist in the determination devising procedure. which as outlined by Tilman. et Al. helps to increase occupation satisfaction. ( 2010 )

This is besides my preferable solution. Within about all of my research. communicating was the one repeating subject that had the most impact on occupation satisfaction. For this solution to work it will be necessary to alter section policy as stated above. An unfastened door policy among employees and disposal is a manner to further communicating among employees and decision makers. It will be of import for employees to get down to pass on efficaciously with disposal in a manner that does non put incrimination or project a complaintive attitude. Administration will be required to listen to what is being said by the employees and utilize active listening techniques to demo that they have heard what the employees have said. It would be of import to describe back at a ulterior day of the month any alterations which have occurred as a consequence to the communicating procedure. I believe that with a strong underside up communicating system. there will be a strong top down communicating system. This allows all parties to hold some control over their work environment which has been shown to increase occupation satisfaction.

VI. Contemplation

This assignment offered me the chance to reflect upon the cognition I have received throughout this class by comparing it to a portion of my life that take portion in every twenty-four hours. I was able to see the effects of communicating. wage. leading manners. and many other constructs learned in the class in the context of my work environment. It has besides given me an chance to increase upon that cognition by leting me an chance to delve farther into them through my research. I plan to utilize this new found cognition in my twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life as I try to pass on better with my supervisors. I have found myself already inquiring for the ability to hold more underside up communicating every bit good as more response from disposal in respects to that communicating.


A. Kaifeng. Yang. and Anthony Kassekert. “Linking Management Reform With Employee Job Satisfaction: Evidence From Federal Agencies. ” Journal Of Public Administration Research & A ; Theory 20. 2 ( 2010 ) : 413-436. B. Madlock. Paul E. “The Link Between Leadership Style. Communicator Competence. And Employee Satisfaction. ” Journal of Business Communication 45. 1 ( 2008 ) : 61-78. C. Rowden. Robert W. “The Relationship Between Workplace Learning And Job Satisfaction in U. S. Small To Midsize Businesses. ” Human Resource Development Quarterly 13. 4 ( 2002 ) : 407-425. D. Schermerhorn. J. R. Jr. . Hunt. J. E. . & A ; Osborne. R. N. ( 2010 ) Organizational Behavior 11th Edition. Danvers. Ma: John Wiley & A ; Sons. E. Shore. Ted H. . Armen Tashchian and Louis Jourdan. “Effects of Internal and External Pay Comparisons On Work Attitudes. ” Journal Of Applied Social Psychology 36. 10 ( 2006 ) : 2578-2598. F. Sung Min. Park. “The Effects of Personnel Reform Sustems on Georgia State Employees’ Attitudes. ” Public Management Review 12. 3 ( 2010 ) : 403-437 G. Tillman. C. Justice. Feliccia A. Smith. and Wanda R. Tillman. “Work Locus of Control And The Multi-Dimensionality of Job Satisfaction. ” Journal Of Organizational Culture. Communications & A ; Conflict 14. 2 ( 2010 ) : 107-125.

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