Leadership and Management/Managership: “Leadership is the process wherein an individual member of a group or organization influences the interpretation of events, the choice of objectives and strategies, the organization of work activities, the motivation of people to achieve the objectives, the maintenance of cooperative relationships, the development of skills and confidence by members, and the enlistment of support and cooperation of people outside the organisation” Yukl, (2006).
Grint suggests management might focus on solving complex but essentially “tame problems in a linear fashion; applying what worked last time” whereas leadership is essentially about facing “wicked problems that are literally unmanageable” Grint (2005).
Management and leadership is not the same thing. The difference between the two is that managers tend to follow the company policies and guidelines. However, leadership is all about loyalty, all the team members will be more loyal to their leader than their managers. Team improvement, giving credits and leader accepting the blame when things go wrong.
Coaching and mentoring: “Coaching is on specific performance issues or goals. Coaches are subject matter experts, such as learning a new computer program or medical procedure. Most coaching is short term. In mentoring relationships, you’re usually talking about soft issues, people issues, cultural issues… A coach is a person to help you with specific issues or goals. A mentor is a person with whom you cultivate a relationship, based on a mutual exchange of information and perspective” Tyler (2004).
“Mentoring is a role that includes coaching but also embraces broader counselling and support, such as career counselling” Landsberg (1996).
“A mentor is a valuable tool for developing a personal investment in change and in commitment to it whilst supporting the individual through the fear, into the risk-taking and then finally on to acting” (Rhodes, Stokes and Hampton, 2004).
Mentoring is defined as ‘the process of forming and maintaining an intensive and lasting relationship between a senior person (the mentor) and a junior person (the protégé or protégé(e)’ Source: Kreitner et al. (2002).
Beavers and Rea (2016) propose that considering the numerous potential advantages attributed to coaching and mentoring, it is obvious that such a large number of organisations continue to introduce and expand them.
Regardless of whether the relationship is considered formal or casual, the objective of mentoring is to give vocation guidance and also both expert and individual advancement. We characterize a mentoring relationship as encouraging and supporting individuals to “deal with their own particular learning keeping in mind the end goal to expand their export potential, build up their abilities, enhance their performance, and turn into the individual they need to be.” An effective work environment mentoring relationship aids the improvement and future employability of youth; and, accordingly, makes an exceedingly talented and taught workforce.
There are two function types of mentoring and they are psychosocial functions and career functions. Psychosocial functions Role Modelling – Giving junior colleague a pattern of values & behaviour to emulate (most frequent psychosocial function). Acceptance and Confirmation – Providing mutual support and encouragement. Counselling – Helping a junior colleague work out/through personal and work-related problems, promoting gestalt and enhancing self-image. Friendship – engaging in mutually satisfying social interaction. Career functions Sponsorship – actively nominating a junior colleague for promotions and developmental or desirable positions. Exposure/Visibility – pairing junior manager with key seniors/execs who can provide opportunities. Coaching – Providing practical help to accomplish objectives and achieve recognition. Protection – Shielding junior manager or colleague from potentially harmful situations or ‘political’ seniors. Challenging Assignments – Helping a junior manager or colleague develop competencies via assignments and feedback.
Overall, coaching is a learning procedure and mentoring is a growing relationship.
Skill/ Will matrix:
High will – Guide – Delegate (aim of coaching)
Low – Direct – Excite
Low Skill High Skill
Skill will depend on experience, training, understanding, role perception. Will will depend on the desire to achieve, incentives security, confidence.
Direct (skill and will are both low), Guide (low skill, high will), Excite (high skill, low will), Delegate (skill and will are both high)
Example from case study:
Human Resource Development (HRD), Human and Social Capital: Human capital- Learning, training and relevant development of the workforce. There are three types of human capital they are; General human capital- human capital/ individuals that can be transferred to any job/role. Flexible/adaptable, communication, etc. (thus critical). Industry-specific human capital – human capital that can be transferred to an industry sector (engineers, doctors etc.). Organisation-specific human capital – human capital individuals with skills/knowledge only relevant to that organisation (not transferable).
Rees and French (2016) define Human Capital Management (HCM) as the collective knowledge, skills, abilities and capacity to develop and innovate through company employees.
Social capital- High trust relationships between employees and employers, social relationships (psychological contract). It could include social advantages, reputation, “connections”, mentoring, and other forms of support or influence that are associated with human relationships.
There are many organisations that focus more on learning, training and progress in order to ‘provide the knowledge, skills and behaviours required for sustainable success’ CIPD (2015).
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development (HRD) strategy exists to remedy the skills deficiencies vis-à-vis the business strategy Luoma (2000). HRD is a Resource- based view (RBV) of an organisation. Employee improvement is viewed as a source of competitive advantage.
Communication: “We live in the information age, where the ability to communicate is essential to success in most professions. This is particularly so for Learning and Development, which is almost wholly about communicating with our colleagues, learners, customers, networks and stakeholders” (Beevers and Rea, 2016).
Change management: De, “Organisational change can be categorised in three dimensions: pace, scope or content, and planned-emergent” (Senior and Swailes, 2016).
Re, Mason (2007) suggested that “it is worth nothing that while some changes are objective, even measurable, it is the ways that people interpret events that determine how an organisation responds”.
Re, “The business environment is a general concept which embraces the totality of external environment forces which may influence any aspect of organisation activity” (Brooks, 2011).
De, “Where changes desired may take some time to come to fruition and involve changes to attitudes and behaviour these are more in line with ‘organisational development’ which will not succeed without the involvement of all throughout” (ibid).
Change management is an orderly way to deal with managing change, both from the viewpoint of an organisation and on the individual level. Moreover, it has no less than three unique perspectives: adjusting to change, controlling change, and affecting change.
Managing organisational change requires more than re-engineering and rebuilding frameworks and procedures. It requires dealing with the human reactions that go with any hierarchical change (Darwin et al., 2002).
It must be recollected that organisations change is dependably realized by a group effort and the change procedure requires regular communication with every one of the individuals from the organisation. Leadership approach must be addressed to individuals with good communication and managing them well in the workforce. As a part of the procedure, workers ought to be urged to express their thoughts and worries with respect to the change.
Change management can be identified as people side of change where both the organisational change management process and the individual change management tool should be used to help them both get used to the change in the organisation.
Engagement and Psychological contract: The psychological contract “describes what is implicit in terms of reciprocity and exchange in the employment relationship” Rees and French (2016), it shows what each should hope to give and get in the relationship in the organisation. The contract refers to employees expectations towards their job/organisation.
De, “The psychological contract is conceptualised as a dynamic two-way exchange or perceived promises and obligations between employees and their employer” (Bratton and Gold, 2012).
The psychological contract is not the same as organisation responsibility or the sentiment of want, need or commitment to stay in an organisation. It additionally contrasts with work inclusion. The sentiment satisfaction of desires separates psychological contract from positive or negative evaluative judgments of the occupation, as in the occupation fulfilment develop, which is an outcome of satisfaction of psychological contract
If you break the contract then the individual will be taken to court and will be charged.
Two main ‘types’ of definition exist regarding the psychological contract by Marks (2001) are •Deriving from the work of Argyris (1960) and Schein (1978) – these refer to the perceptions of mutual obligations •Deriving from Rousseau (1995) – these refer to the ideal contract expectations of both. If mutual obligation break then there will be a breach of contract for both the parties.
The psychological contract consists of beliefs and perceptions about reciprocal obligations between an employee and her/his organisation. If the employer violates this, psychological sense-making processes may mean disengagement occurs… Morrison and Robinson, Academy of Management Review (1997).
Rousseau’s typology dimensions – Characteristics of types of P.C.s matrix:
Duration Transactional Transitional
Short-term e.g. retail checkout staff employed for seasonal work, theme park summer staff, etc e.g. employee experience in merger, acquisition, retrenchment, etc…
Long-term Balanced –e.g. high involvement team Relational –
e.g. family business members, or organisations with a ‘family’ type culture, etc…
Transactional psychological contracts have more power over temporary workers, while Relational or Balanced psychological contracts tend to have more influence on permanent staff, according to culture/context of the organisation. Empirical studies on the content of the psychological contract align with these expectations – temporary staff understand their psychological contract as narrower and more transactional (Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler, 2002); (Millward and Brewerton, 1999; Van Dyne and Ang, 1998) than permanent staff. In different permanent staff, they may more aware of their psychological contract as transactional rather than relational (Millward and Hopkins, 1998).
Engagement: To manage complexity in organisations, best Practice Approach is the best practise approach to managing people and their performance in organisations and also develop them for better performance (Delery and Doty, 1996). Practices such as: employment security, selectivity in hiring, • incentive pay, high wages, • empowerment, participation, internal promotion• training and development, etc. (linking to human capital)
Best Practice Approach can be very useful for fairness and consistency and Engagement.
Contingency Approach –This perspective is underpinned by a belief in a need to ensure a ‘fit’ between ‘people strategy’ choices and organisational strategy; internally between HR policies so that they reinforce rather than conflict with each other; externally so that HR choices support business strategy and factors that impact upon organisations i.e., growth, decline, innovation, reprovision, etc. Harvard Beer et al. 1984; or Fombrun 1984.
“One of the most persistent findings is the significance of the psychological contract for gaining commitment” (Brotton and Gold, 2012).
Managing performance: Re, “Effective performance management can result in increased employee engagement” (Mone, 2011).
De, “PMS represents an attempt by an organisation to show strategy integration of its HRM processes which can be linked to the direction of the organisation, providing the link between the organisation’s values, performance and competitiveness” (Boudreau and Ramstad, 2009).
Re, “The degree to which strategic aims and a PMS are integrated with open for discussion, creating a gap between the rhetoric and the reality for claims for the contribution or performance management to organisational effectiveness” (Stanton and Nankervis, 2011).
Performance should help organisations improve and develop individuals and teams performance.
Performance management is utilized as an apparatus to associate the goals of the organisation to an arrangement of work focuses for employees with ‘target setting and formal evaluation’ at the main of this procedure. The utilization of Performance Appraisal is moving from being a solitary strategy for the management of execution to turning into a more incorporated part of the general Performance Management framework.
In connection to CIPD (2010), Performance Management is defined as a ‘holistic process’ which incorporates all the different needs that are required so as to come to a profitable arrangement of individual’s management that focuses on ‘learning and improvement’. Performance Management gives groups and people the duty to take obligation for their own ‘ceaseless change of business forms and of their own particular aptitudes, conduct and commitments’. Managers would then be able to speak their perspective for the groups and people and interact with them on how they should be managed. Performance Management involves advancement in the setting of targets and through the estimation of this.
PMS is very important because it is a day to day “supportive” management; training; ongoing recognition etc.
Conduct: “Discipline rules and procedures are designed for promoting orderly employee relations as well as fairness and consistency in the treatment of individuals” (Klass, 2009).
Wellbeing: “Workplace wellness models typically focus on individual behaviour and the programmes and activities promoting individual behavioural change. Smoking, binge-drinking patterns, poor diet and lack of physical exercise have all been identified as lifestyle problems impacting on the health of the workforce “(Bratton and Gold, 2012).