shall be our token; love be yours and love be mine”


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Christina Georgina Rossetti(1830-1894), she was an
English poet who wrote a variety of romantic, devotional and children’s poems
.Christina Rossetti published her first two poems (‘Death’s Chill Between’ and
‘Heart’s Chill Between’), which appeared in the Athenaeum, in 1848. In 1850,
under the pseudonym Ellen Alleyne, she contributed seven poems to the
Pre-Raphaelite journal The Germ, which had been founded by her brother William
Michael and his friends. Rossetti is best known for her ballads and her mystic
religious lyrics. Her poetry is marked by symbolism and intense feeling.
Rossetti’s best-known work, Goblin Market and Other Poems, was published in
1862. The collection established Rossetti as a significant voice in Victorian
poetry. The Prince’s Progress and Other Poems, appeared in 1866 followed by
Sing-Song, a collection of verse for children, in 1872. Christina Rossetti is
increasingly being reconsidered a major Victorian poet. She has been compared
to Emily Dickinson but the similarity is more in the choice of spiritual topics
than in poetic approach, Rossetti’s poetry being one of intense feelings, her
technique refined within the forms established in her time.

The nineteenth Century poets tend to specific their feelings regarding love and loss by exploitation pictures from
nature. The literary work ‘Birthday’ written by Christina Rossetti portrays the thought of real love. She
uses plenty of nature
symbolism, and natural mental
imagery suggests the intimacy and intensity of affection. Christina Rossetti is most likely describing the love
from her own expertise with the person she once worshipped, referred to as John Brett. Within the initial line she describes her
‘heart is like a singing
bird’ that rests within him, and since of that line the tone
becomes rather more happy.
The singing bird conjointly attracts
a mate. The ‘thickness fruit’ indicates a way of fertility. She describes herself because the tree that carries him
in her heart. There are pictures of doves, which may be symbols of
peace, wedding and
love that brings up the tone plenty within the verse form as these are all positive images. She says ‘peacock with a hundred eyes,’ a peacock could be a proud animal with
beauty, therefore it will show a signal of her love as beauty,
and conjointly of
attracting mates (with their feathers). ‘Work it in gold and silver grapes’
is related to prosperity
and sexual imagination. Once she says ‘my heart is a gladder than all these, because my love is come to me,’ means that she is clearly pleased for her love, she believes she is in real love. A halcyon could be a bird that breeds during a nest that floats bemused, it charms the wind and therefore the wave to calm,
and it’s lovely shell swimming on an ideal joyous ocean. She mentions this within the line, and ‘My heart
is like a rainbow
shell that paddles in a halcyon sea. There is also use
of expressiveness and
use of beautiful material, this is proven in the line,
‘Raise me a days of
silk and down. She is feeling happy, and joyous.’

It is a brand new life, with during a new love
that she is describing. It’s not a standard Birthday. It’s a birthday for
her new love. However, this is often just one interpretation,
there are alternative interpretations for instance non secular terms will indicate somebody being born once more to Christ.
Some readers tend to assume that the literary work ‘Birthday’ written by Christina Rossetti, may be a celebration of her ‘love’ for Christ
by victimization similes that compare to non-living things. Rossetti uses
natural symbolism to explain non secular feeling,
the love of her life is for Good
Shepherd. This reflects a read on it time that within the presence
of nature man thought-about himself nearer to God. ‘Peacocks’, ‘Fleur de lys’, ‘doves’
‘purple’, are all a district of an altar. Throughout the
Victorian amount the big majority of individuals were terribly non secular and other people assumed
that if they revered and cared for nature then they’d be a lot of connected to God. Folks of the time
use non secular words and concepts in
their work. This literary work may be a distinction to her alternative poems
that Rossetti wrote within the past because it applies
to happier times in contrast to her alternative poems that ar principally concerning disappointment and death. She mentions ‘nest’, that are pictures of recent life and

“Dream-Love” appears within the Prince’s
Progress and other Poems immediately before
“Twice” a verse form that
presents the dialectic of worldly want and
renunciation in two pairs
of specular stanzas. “Dream-Love”
describes in mythic terms the circumstances of an imaginary, perfect male lover. He is good, however, solely as a result of he’s completely unworldly and
withdrawn, existing in an erotic dream world. He’s absolutely absorbed into Pater’s “kingdom of
reverie” wherever “earthly
love” has become “a profound somnambulism” and wherever love is “defined by
the absence of the beloved”

Like several of Rossetti’s love poems that target the will to continue passion,
despite its arousal in a very pitiably transient life and a changeable world, “Dream-Love” is organized
seasonally, starting in
“May-time” and terminal as fall signals the approach of
“poppied death.” however the
poem’s thematic direction is subtly rendered by changes within the which
means we are led to derive from its most significant symbol,
the dove. This symbol frames
the verse form. The dialectical
relationship between changeable reality
and an unchanged dream
world is resolved during this image
common to each. On one
level a true dove
housed within the natural
fane wherever Young
Love sleeps, and, on another, an
emblem of the perfect love
that occupies his dreams, the dove, through the poems delicate modulations,
finally involves counsel the existence of a continual love out of stock during this life. Thus, Rossetti exploits the normal meanings of the
symbolic dove, initial in
its associations with Greek deity and titillating, “dull
sublunary” love, and second in
its reference to the hypostasis and stylish religious love. The first text of the verse form makes clear its
symbolic texture and tenor:

‘Young Love ties sleeping

 In May-time of
the year,

Among the lilies,

 Lapped in the
tender light:

White lambs come grazing,

 White doves
come building there; and round about him

The May-bushes are white.’

Significantly, Young Love disregards the important world
even throughout nature’s ancient time of affection, beauty, and innocent rebirth. Designed into the lily and lamb
symbols here, however, are intimations
of death and betrayal. Still, these yield, within the stanza’s sixth line, to the doves’ ambiguously “building
there” within the burgeoning natural world; they’re virtually building nests for breeding and
symbolically building a perfect of affection in
Young Love’s dreams. Throughout the verse form the flora and fauna is of equivocal worth. In stanza two its moss pillows the
dreamer’s head, however it conjointly provides a place for his
obtrusively absent lover’s. Its winds and waters, just like the twilight,
finger languorously, however the dreamer is oblivious to them. The
broad leaves of its trees recommend fulfilment of natural potential, however they
“cast shadow / upon the heavy eyes.” excellent because the real, flora and fauna seems to be here, it contains the seeds of
its own destruction, as would love, by extension, within the world. Ideal, dream love is superior:

‘But who shall tell the dream?

A perfect sunlight

 On rustling
forest tips;

Or perfect moonlight

 Upon a rippling

Or perfect silence,

 Or song of
cherished lips.’


Indeed, “in waking / the sights are not so
fair,” and the “song and silence” of the dream “Are not
like these below.” Young Love enjoys “perfect sleep”:

‘He sees the beauty

 Sun hath not
looked upon,

And tastes the fountain


His perfect music

 Doth hush unto
his rest,

And thro’ the pauses

 The perfect
silence calms:

Oh poor the voices

 Of earth from
cast to west,

And poor earth’s stillness

 Between her
stately palms.’

Thus, sleeping through the months of nature’s passion and
fulfilment, Young Love apparently enjoys a parallel experience, however in pure, Platonic or beatific type. Eventually, “Coot shadows deepen / across the sleeping
face” as he drowses “Away to poppied death,” and nature’s winter
comes on. At the end of this staged vision we are needed to “close the curtains / Of
branched evergreen,” an applicable symbol for this
uncondemn Keatsian dreamer, whose enchantment with the best has allowed
him with success to
withdraw from the important world of nature and also the essentially transient
love that may accompany
participation in it. “Change,” we are told,
“cannot touch” either the evergreen or the dreamer “With fading fingers sere.” though nature can sustain her
cycles, she’s going to stay “unseen” by the Dream Lover who is currently, we assume, for good converse to the
realm of the best. “A dove, maybe” can “return to
nestle” on the Lover’s natural deathbed, a place where life during a dream of affection was
indistinguishable from “poppied death.”

In “A Bride
Song,” as in “Dream-Love,” Rossetti embeds her
indirect descriptions of fulfilling ideal love in idyllic natural surroundings,
and yet again the
movement of the literary composition is inward, each topographically
and psychologically. Within the poems initial three stanzas the speaker ostensibly journeys
“thro’ the vales to my love,” as
per the refrain that
begins every stanza. The “happy small nest of home / green from basement
to roof” that he envisions in
stanza one is deep inside the vales and
distant from the additional exterior threats that nature conjointly homes. The house is:

‘Safe from the spider that weaves

Her warp and her woof

In some outermost leaves. ‘

Yet the natural landscape the bridegroom traverses in
pursuit of his bride is otherwise idealized:

‘Thro? The vales to my love!

Where the turf is so soft to the feet

And the thyme makes it sweet,

And the stately foxglove

Hangs silent its exquisite bells;

And where water wells

The greenness grows greener,

And bulrushes stand

Round a lily to screen her.’

Like nature, the “lily” bride is an ideal of beauty
and purity whose symbolic associations with mortality and sacrifice stay unevoked. Thus excellent is that the bridegrooms envisioned beloved
that within the poem’s
final stanza he renounces needing for idyllic
nature to deal with or
enhance her. She is ample for the bridegroom, and their love
would be independent, were she found:

‘Nevertheless, if this land,

 Like a garden
to smell and to sight,

Were turned to a desert of sand;

 Stripped bare
of delight,

All its best gone to worst,

 For my feet no

No water to comfort my thirst,

 And heaven like
a furnace above,

The desert would be

 As gushing of
water to me,

The wilderness be as a rose,

 If it led me to

O my love. ‘


As he
has, till now, enraptured physically toward the inside of the vales, the speaker currently moves psychologically
inward, abandoning the nature imaginatively
to reemphasize the best of
an independent love.
This movement off from reality,
even at its best, to a vision of it at its worst suggests not solely the speaker’s absolute
commitment to his idealized love, however conjointly his sense of desperation within the seek her, that remains unrealized at the end of the literary
work. The bride of the poem’s title is at the best a shadowy figure. She is as distant from the luxurious landscape he passes
over and as aloof from being
real as his vision of nature at its “worst.” just like the garden changed into a desert, the bride
is a completely conditional
creature, a perfect pursued however not complete. within the context of Rossetti’s different poems, we
tend to are inevitably reminded by “A Bride
Song” of The Prince’s Progress, during which the
perfect bride is lost to the dilatory prince, not as a
result of she is an unascertainable ideal, however as a result of the patrician arrives too late to save lots of her from death. The overall purpose of each poems, that depict an enquiry when probably ideal love, is, withal, an
equivalent as that of “Dream-Love.”
Such quests, despite however galvanized or exalting they will be, cannot ultimately
be consummated. They have to inevitably finish in disappointment unless
the direction and object of the
hunt are converse to a realm outside
of the important world
— to a dream or a vision, or to a
perfect hereafter. And even then, in Rossetti’s poems, fulfilment
is unsure. As an alternative, however, rabid impulses could notice fulfilment in art.

conclusion, it are often same that every author uses varied strategies and techniques so as to precise their
love. This includes exploitation expression and natural imagery to portray completely different feelings. It is noticed that one effective manner is by describing a precise theme while not really mentioning it. This method was shown by Christina Rossetti as death was a main
theme in her literary work.
However, the word ‘death’ wasn’t mentioned in the slightest degree. In outline she doesn’t believe that girls mustn’t be best-known or treated as slaves
or stunning objects, however as equal as everybody else ought to. Rossetti uses the
constraints of language as a tool to extend the facility of the reader’s
emotional expertise. During this poems we tend to explore relatively sanguine prospects for attaining a perfect, totally fulfilling love
relationship within the world. She has dead delineated love and idealized it to an excellent extent.






















Curran, S. (2015). “The Lyric Voice of Christina Rossetti”. Victorian Poetry: Vol 9, No.3.Jstor

McGann, J. (1983). “The Religious Poetry of Christina Rossetti”. Critical inquiry: Vol 10, No.1. Jstor


Battiscombe, G. (1965). “Christina
Rossetti”. London: Pub. for the British Council and the National Book
League by Longmans, Green.

Kent, D. (1987). “The Achievement of Christina
Rossetti”. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Rossetti, C. and Humphries, S.
(2008). “Poems and prose”. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.




Christina Rossetti




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