Medical tourism- the construct of going far and broad for better medical intervention is non a fresh thought, merely the term. The globalisation of the wellness attention sector and the monolithic demand for low cost-high quality intervention in recent times has caught the attending of many developing states that have the equal resources and possible to run into these demands. The profitableness and the moneymaking nature of the medical touristry concern has now put this trade, high on the docket of both the Indian authorities and the private wellness attention suppliers.

Today, medical touristry has become a platitude pattern with a big figure of people around the universe since usual restraints like linguistic communication, finance, troubles in planetary travel and fright of the unknown are no longer moving as barriers to the tourers who seek medical intervention in foreign states. States like India, Singapore, Malaysia etc have developed schemes specifically with the purpose of undertaking such issues and rendering themselves as the ideal medical touristry finishs.

Although India is emerging as the ‘hot-spot ‘ medical touristry finishs within the Asia-Pacific and other parts of the universe, it seems to be confronting tough competition from other large participants of this industry who have projected an every bit good repute for themselves and are harvesting the benefits of this concern. Therefore, it is imperative for India to continuously reconsideration and reform its selling schemes to derive competitory advantage and increase its market portion in the wellness attention sector.

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It is an unchallenged fact that medical touristry is a quickly turning industry and making inroads into the Indian economic system. There are a big figure of interest holders in this industry in South East Asia including states like Singapore and Malaysia. There are assorted marketing schemes being used for propagating this industry. My enterprise would be to seek the spreads that exist and suggest remedial action.

Bing from the medical fraternity and holding had the chance to handle a figure of abroad patients, the construct of medical touristry has generated a great trade of involvement in me. I believe that there are some lacks in the selling schemes for wellness touristry in India that need to be looked into and improvised. The purpose of my research would be to suggest selling schemes that would hike the Indian Medical Tourism for the hereafter.

3. Preliminary reappraisal of literature

There are three subdivisions of the literature reappraisal: –

I ) Historical aspects- origin and development

two ) Medical touristry in India- the present scenario

three ) Probable concerns and booby traps of the Indian medical touristry industry.

3.1.1 Historical aspects- Origin and Development

The construct of building wellness composites around hot springs goes back to every bit old as the Sumerian civilisation ( circa 4000BC ) where wellness attention installations comprised of expansive elevated edifices with flowing pools. The hill folks of Switzerland of the country soon know as St. Moritz, during the Bronze Age ( circa 2000 BC ) recognized the benefits of bathing and imbibing in iron-rich mineral springs. The find of bronze imbibing cups used by them in thermic springs in Germany and France perchance signifies wellness pilgrim’s journeies within these civilizations.

As per written historical histories, bathing and mending composites were erected around curative springs in Mesopotamia, India, Greece and China. The construct of medical touristry emanated as trips to sacred baths and hot springs. However, it is the Greeks who have to be given the recognition for puting the foundations for medical touristry webs.

3.1.2 Greek medical touristry.

Asclepius was considered to be the God of medical specialty harmonizing to Greek mythology. In his award, Asclepian healing temples had been constructed throughout Greece by the fourth Century BC. These temples were established near the mineral springs which were considered to be the premier “ Healthful ” Locations. The system of medical touristry during this period was as follows: –

Patients and their attenders came to Asclepia temples seeking intervention for assorted complaints. At Epidaurus, the port temple, intervention included secondary school, palestra ( exercise country ) , bathing springs and a ‘dream ‘ temple. There was a cortege of priests, caretakers and stretcher bearers who attended to the patients before they were granted concluding assignment with the mighty priest. Patients made sacrificial offerings harmonizing to their status- the hapless left places ; Alexander the Great left his aegis.

3.1.3 Roman Medical Tourism

The trademark of ancient Roman medical touristry centered around hot H2O baths called Thermae. These centres of medical intervention were classy constitutions. Some of these centres comprised of art galleries conference halls, theaters and sometimes sport bowl. Because of the active trade with Asia, the Roman baths augmented medical touristry activities like Chinese medical specialty, Ayurvedic massage and assorted facets of Buddhist religious healing at some Roman Thermae.

3.1.4 Nipponese Medical Tourism-Onsen.

ONSEN means hot mineral springs in Nipponese. Medical touristry in Japan centered around these hot mineral springs which were enriched by environing volcanic dirt. It attracted a assortment of people including huntsmans, fishermen, husbandmans and warriors. It was believed that these mineral springs were effectual in relieving hurting, mending lesions and convalescence. A thousand old ages subsequently, this signifier of medical touristry in Japan is still an on-going phenomenon.

3.1.5 Indian Medical Tourism.

India has been the place land of alternate system of medical specialty for the past 5000 old ages. Aspects of medical touristry include yoga, eastern cultural, religious and medicative digest with speculation thrown in. India has been a Mecca for alternate medical specialty practicians. A new encouragement was given to wellness touristry in the 1960 ‘s with the “ New Age ” motion in the US. This New Age motion seeks “ Universal Truth ” and the attainment of the highest single human potency and is characterized by an single attack to religious patterns and doctrines and the rejection of spiritual philosophy and tenet. With this motion, India had one time once more go the most sought after finish for 1000s of western pilgrims. India ‘s deep committedness to wellness attention substructure and engineering furthered the mass inflow of medical tourers. India is now one of the universe ‘s oldest medical touristry finishs and has gained popularity over the old ages over other finishs.

3.1.6 European Medical Tourism.

European medical touristry came into being with the rediscovery of the Roman baths in the sixteenth century. With the rediscovery of the Roman baths, Baden Baden, Aachen and most notably Bath, became spa towns. By the 1720 ‘s the watering place towns came to be frequented by Aristocrats and gentlemen of leisure from other parts of Europe and even royal backing. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Gallic royal discoverer of the essay was the most notable medical tourer of this clip. He traversed the continent for 9 old ages for the remedy of his saddle sore vesica job. He is widely believed to be the male parent of luxury travel and has helped to compose one of the earliest documented watering place ushers for European tourers.

3.1.7 Health Tourism-New universe.

English and Dutch settlers in the 1600 ‘s, constructed log cabins near mineral springs in the freshly discovered Americas. By nineteenth century the American reformers made it a wont to go to remote Western springs that were rich in medicative belongingss.

Today, there are no physical, economical and cultural barriers that separate states from one another. Coupled with the flattening planetary economic system, easiness of international travel and indulgent trade policies has opened the views of medical touristry finishs around the Earth. This has made low-cost wellness attention handiness to patients who find it hard or impossible to entree such wellness attention installations in their ain states. Inflated wellness attention costs are driving the patients to medical touristry finishs like Thailand and India for sophisticated processs at a fraction of the monetary value. Long waiting periods for medical intervention is another factor that is doing patients seek intervention abroad. Besides, deficiency of comprehensive medical insurance has attracted 1000s of patients to seek intervention abroad.

Medical touristry today has become a planetary phenomenon with many states spread outing their offerings, including alone touristry chances for illustration South Africa is advancing medical campaign in a large manner.

3.2. Medical TOURISM IN INDIA – The present scenario

Medical Tourism India or Health Tourism India is a developing construct that has gained enormous popularity and is pulling people from all over the universe for their medical and relaxation demands. The interventions most normally include knee graft, decorative intervention, dental intervention and cardiac surgery. India is now a favourable medical touristry finish as its substructure and engineering are at par with USA, UK and Europe, enabling it to supply intervention centres and infirmaries that are best in the universe with universe category installations. These factors coupled with visits to some of the most beguiling and amazing topographic points of the universe have brought about the meeting of touristry with medicine giving rise to the construct of Medical Tourism.

India is advancing wellness touristry through picturing the “ hi-tech healing ” of its private health care sector. The Indian authorities is marketing the construct of going to India for cheaper and first medical installations to aliens, with the purpose of promoting the turning Indian medical touristry industry. The policy of the Indian authorities to unify medical expertness and touristry was announced during the 2003-04 budgets when the finance curate Jaswant Singh propounded India to go a “ Global Health Destination ” . Harmonizing to a survey conducted by Confederation of Indian Industry ( CII ) , the field is so moneymaking that it has the possible to go a $ 2.3 billion concern by 2012. Around 150,000 aliens visited India for intervention during 2004 and since so, this figure has increased by 15 % every twelvemonth.

In recent times, India has emerged as the “ Global Health Destination ” due to the undermentioned advantages:

1. Medical services are provided at about 30 % lower cost than the Western states and are the cheapest in South-east Asia.

2. India has a big population of physicians and paramedical staff who have good cognition of spoken English. Therefore linguistic communication is a major comfort factor that attracts so many foreign tourers to see for the intent of medical and wellness touristry doing it easier for abroad patients to associate good to Indian physicians.

3. Indian physicians expertise in assorted surgical processs including cardiac surgeries, liver grafts, orthopaedic surgeries and other medical interventions.

4. Indian infirmaries offer a broad array of high quality intervention processs consisting of joint replacings, cardiothoracic surgery, dental attention, decorative interventions and more.

3.3. Probable concerns and booby traps of Indian medical touristry industry

Reappraisal of literature suggests the undermentioned concerns that need attending if one has to augment and hike the medical touristry sector.

Concerns of the consumers

Some of the consumers feel that India is unhygienic, contaminated and bureaucratic. There is no appropriate accreditation system for the infirmaries. Concerns about medical insurance which is developing, unequal and has few planetary participants. abroad companies refuse reimbursements. There are besides concerns about terrorist act, communal agitation and bad connectivity between metropoliss and towns. While some of these concerns are echt, most of them are mere perceptual experiences.

Concerns of the boosters

From the boosters point of position, the concerns that have emerged revolve around deficiency of ordinances refering moralss and systemic support, deficiency of substructure lacks like electricity, power supply and H2O, unequal land reforms, revenue enhancement anomalousnesss, funding restraints, execution blank and bureaucratic constrictions.


India seems to be an emerging medical touristry finish offering great chances in footings of making new occupations and bring forthing beginnings of gross for the Indian economic system. It is hence imperative that the drift gained so far should non be jeopardized and steps should be adopted to better the present state of affairs by developing and implementing new schemes.

Research inquiries

1. What is the present province of Indian medical touristry? – bespeaking appraisal of the present state of affairs.

2. What are the drawbacks or felt hindrances of the medical touristry trade sector? – bespeaking an analytical structuring of the informations.

3. What are the ways to better medical touristry in India through better selling schemes? – an appraisal of the blank in the bing selling schemes.

4. Is the authorities making plenty to back up the medical touristry industry? – an appraisal of the governmental propensity towards the industry.

Research aims

1. To develop matter-of-fact selling schemes for wellness attention establishments involved in medical touristry in India.

2. To measure the impact of the authorities action on the present selling schemes for foreign patients.

3. To do a selling program theoretical account for the Health touristry industry in India

5. Research Plan

Research position

My research attack is based upon the words of the celebrated anthropologist Clifford Geertz “ adult male is an animate being suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun. I take civilization to be these webs, and the analysis of it is non to be an experimental scientific discipline in hunt of jurisprudence but an interpretative one hostel hunt of significance ” ( Jewell, S.2010 ) . It hence forms an interpretivist attack. Since the medical touristry industry is a concern and direction position, any research into this field would fall into the gamut of rationalist and interpretivist attacks. My research is basically a qualitative 1 since my informations aggregation is chiefly secondary in nature. Furthermore, my research is theory organizing where in I shall be utilizing the inductive attack to analyse the information. My research besides involves the appraisal of factors of concern that are related to the wellness touristry industry of India. It would be my attempt to sift out the relevant factors and analyse them from the point of position of developing selling schemes.

Research design

The attack that best replies my research inquiries fits into the modified cross sectional design. Here, the research design revolves around the aggregation of informations that is happening of course over a designated period. My research design besides involves chiefly quantitative informations and some qualitative informations excessively. My research is based upon observation and papers analysis. The cross sectional design besides gives information on facets of who, what, how many, where, and the how and why.

Data aggregation methods

I shall be roll uping my informations through analysis of secondary informations. I besides intend to subject questionnaires to the stakeholders and the major participants of the medical touristry in India with the purpose of seeking relevant informations that would assist me in replying my research inquiries and carry through my research aims.

Secondary informations: the secondary informations would be collected through the followers ;

Written materials- assorted web sites, web sites of home pages of cardinal participants, magazines and diaries, books and publications. I would besides be looking for authorities publications, Torahs and Acts of the Apostless related to this topic.

Non-written materials- media, telecasting etc.

Most of the informations from outside the single organisation will give information about the medical touristry industry. While, informations that is collected from the organisational web sites would give information on how things are done within the organisation and their modus operandi.

two. Questionnaires: I will be directing the questionnaires to all the major participants in the Indian medical touristry industry. The questionnaires will be used to obtain informations for quantitative analysis in order to measure the operation of assorted medical touristry installations in India. The thought of utilizing questionnaires is that a big measure of informations can be made available covering a broad scope of database for quantitative analysis. A good sum of objectiveness can be incorporated and the consequences would be of valid and dependable nature.

Analysis of informations

Having collected all the qualitative and quantitative informations, I would subject it to allow analysis and use relevant statistical trials of significance to guarantee that the consequences are valid, dependable and give a sensible degree of generalisabilty. I aim to infer the relevant selling schemes being used and to measure their impact on the industry. I shall be showing the analyzed information in the signifier pie diagrams, saloon charts and other signifiers of statistical presentations.


Validity and dependability

Since my informations is chiefly secondary in nature it is presumed that planetary participants in the me dical touristry industry would non seting false informations to propagate their concern ventures. From this point of position my informations would be valid every bit good as dependable. As my information is being collected from cyberspace, web sites of assorted interest holders, magazines etc. I am confident that interest holders at this degree of planetary fight would non be seting up false informations or information for promotional activities that could endanger their repute. However, the restrictions of cogency and dependability I foresee to come across would be from the questionnaires I would be directing to the interest holders. The disadvantage I feel I would confront utilizing the questionnaires is that some people may non react, may take a long clip for returning back and the response rate can non be predicted. However despite these restrictions, I expect to be able to bring forth valid information and information for quantitative analysis. I shall be directing these questionnaires to the concerned stakeholders through their home pages and their web sites and attempt and arouse every bit much response as possible from them.


My research design is based upon the survey of an industry and does non encroach upon a instance survey research. All factors being studied can be considered as outgrowths of a individual industry. For e.g. the statute law facets would be covering the full industry and non a individual establishment or a infirmary. Second, my purpose is to give wide based generalized guide lines on the recommendations for bettering medical touristry in India. My effort hence would be to roll up and analyse informations from where generalisabilty can be achieved.


I will stay by the Coventry University BES ethical guidelines. I will carry on my research candidly and present all the informations accurately. I will acquire the low hazard blessing signifier signed by my supervisor to acquire his blessing before I begin my research.

I shall take all safeguard to guarantee and esteem the rights and unity of topics if any.

I shall handle all the informations confidentially and would guarantee that it would non be used for any other intent other than that intended.

Since my informations aggregation is chiefly secondary in nature, my research work is considered to be a low hazard from the ethical point of position. I shall maintain all the natural information on moralss and the informations collected for audit intents.


I will rephrase ; mention and mention the beginnings used by me, to admit the work of others and avoid any kind of plagiarism.

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