Motivation could be defined as a psychological procedure where internal and external factors influence a individual to be continuously interested in prosecuting and accomplishing ends. It could be said that motive influences a individual ‘s behavior at work and finally how he performs during the occupation. There are assorted motivational theories followed by organisations to actuate their employees and some of these theories are discussed below.

Motivational Theories

Douglas McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor has developed two theoretical accounts which are known as Theory X and Theory Y. These two theories were formulated through scrutiny of theories on single behavior at work.

Douglas McGregor ‘s Theory X states that an mean human being dislikes work, prefers to be directed, avoids duty, has little or no aspiration, works for money and chiefly security.

Theory X has given rise to two direction attacks, which are the soft and difficult attack. Under the soft direction attack, directors seek harmoniousness with the employees under the feeling that employees would collaborate with them when necessary. Where, under the difficult direction attack an employee has to be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened till the expected consequence it achieved.

However, it should be noted that none of the extremes are suited as employees require more than pecuniary wagess, they require carry throughing their higher order demands. It is understood the chief ground for organisations to utilize this attack is to guarantee that employees behave in the expected mode.

Theory Y, unlike Theory X looks at an mean human being from a more optimistic angle. Theory Y states that an mean human being likes work, directs himself, accepts and seeks duty.

Theory Y would be more valid and is used by organisations as this would ensue in higher degrees of motive for employees through fiting organisational ends with personal ends. Further, this would take to employee authorization as creativeness and chance to exert enterprise is allowed.

Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Theory speaks of five groups of basic demands which normally motivate behaviors in many civilizations. These basic demands are Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem Needs and Self Actualization.

Figure ( Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs )

In Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, one time a demand has been satisfied, the desire to fulfill a higher demand rises. Hence, a individual would be motivated to execute better.

Organizations would utilize this theory to make up one’s mind on what type of motive demands to be given to its employees. Organizations use this theory by placing,

Behaviour of an person at a given minute depends on his strongest demand

Physiological demands have the highest strength and a bulk of employees would work to fulfill this degree merely

An unsated demand Acts of the Apostless as a motive factor

Once a demand is satisfied the desire to accomplish a higher order need rises

A satisfied demand would no longer move as a motive factor

ERG Theory

ERG Theory resembles Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. ERG Theory has three groups of demands. Where the first group would be Existence Needs ( i.e. physical and material wants ) , 2nd group would be Relatedness Needs ( i.e. desire for interpersonal relationships ) and 3rd group would be Growth Needs ( i.e. desire to be originative and productive ) . However, unlike Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, the ERG Theory provinces, if frustrated in seeking to fulfill Growth Needs, Relatedness Needs will reappear ( defeat arrested development procedure ) .

Organizations would utilize ERG theory to assist them place their employee ‘s dynamic demands and assist the organisations to understand why employees have such dynamic demands ( i.e. one time satisfaction patterned advance occurs the demands alteration and one time frustration arrested development occurs demands alteration one time once more ) .

Herzberg Two Factor Theory or Motivation Hygiene Theory

Herzberg after transporting out many studies concluded that to understand employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction work had to be divided into two classs.

Motivation Factors: Factors which are strong subscribers to occupation satisfaction.

Hygiene Factors: Factors which are non strong subscribers to occupation satisfaction but which must be present to run into an employee ‘s outlooks and prevent occupation dissatisfaction.

Hygiene Factors:

Job security

Relationss with others

Physical working conditions

Company policies


Quality of supervising

Motivation Factors:




Opportunities for personal growing

Promotion chances

Organizations use Herzberg ‘s Two Factor Theory foremost to place if their employee ‘s hygiene factors are met through which an appraisal could be made sing whether the employee is satisfied with the occupation or non. If non, the organisation can place which factors need to be adjusted so that this may relieve occupation dissatisfaction.

However, to actuate person to execute better or to increase satisfaction motive factors must be addressed by the organisation. Using this theory, an organisation would be able to place which signifier of motive would be necessary to actuate an employee as motive factors relate to the nature of the work itself and the manner the employee performs it. It should be farther noted that this theory has a double attack of extinguishing dissatisfiers and heightening satisfiers.

Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory

Harmonizing to Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory employees will work hard to accomplish wagess that they values and that they consider gettable. Further, Victor Vroom states that an employee will be motivated to exercise a high degree of attempt to obtain wages under three conditions.

The employee believes that his or her attempts will ensue in acceptable public presentation.

The employee believes that acceptable public presentation will take to the desired result or wages.

The employee values the wages.

( Karen Collins, 2007 cited in Flatworld Knowledge, n.d )

Figure ( Expectancy Theory Model )

( Karen Collins, 2007 cited in Flatworld Knowledge, n.d )

Organizations would utilize this theory as it would assist the organisation to understand and construe,

How employees decide to work

The consequence of planned wagess plans

The consequence of such planned wagess on the productiveness of employees

Sri Lanka is a state within which power civilization is dominantly seen non merely within society but besides within organisations. As a consequence of this civilization which has non changed much throughout the old ages, work force of an organisation would of course expect orders from the top and are non interested to take enterprise in most state of affairss even when given the opportunity. Hence, when sing motivational theories which are now widely practiced through the universe where a technique of actuating employees in a natural mode is used, it could be understood that such motivational theories if applied within organisations of the state may non ensue in the expected result. Based on this information it is possible to get at the decision that the most suited motivational theory to be used by organisations runing within Sri Lanka is McGregor ‘s XY Theory where Theory X premises have to be used.


Leadership Manners

Leadership could be defined as a relationship through which one individual influences the behavior or actions of other people.

There are assorted factors which should be considered when choosing a manner of leading. For illustration, nature of undertaking ( i.e. Urgency, Complexity ) , type of people being led ( i.e. Maturity, Technical Experience, Competence ) , etc. There are chiefly three types of leading.

The Authoritarian or Autocratic Manner: A leader exerting this manner would do determinations entirely without advice from their followings and would province what has to be done and how. Such a manner would be suited in an juncture when all the needed information to work out a job is available, there is a deficiency of clip and the employees are good motivated.

The Participative or Democratic Manner: A leader exerting this manner would affect employees in the determination devising procedure. The leading maps are shared with members of the group ensuing in greater interactions within the group. “ The group members have a greater say in determination devising, finding of policy, execution of systems and processs. ” ( Laurie J. Mullins 2007, p. 371 ) However, it should be noted that the leader maintains the concluding determination doing authorization.

A Laissez – Faire ( Genuine ) Style or Delegative Style: A leader exerting this manner would let the employees to do determinations after detecting how employees work on their ain. This is done when employees are able to analyse a state of affairs and make up one’s mind what has to be done and how. However, the leader would still be responsible for the determinations made.

Beyond these leading manners, it should be understood that leading behavior could either be directing or supportive.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Leadership Styles

Leadership Style



The Authoritarian or Autocratic Manner

More group productiveness while leader tickers

Decision doing procedure is faster as the leader makes the determination separately

The organisation may react to danger rapidly

The degree of dependance on the leader additions

The degree of ill will among employees may increase

Work force may dislike being ordered around ensuing in employee de-motivation

The Participative or Democratic Manner

A positive work environment could develop

Motivates creative believing

Reduces employee turnover as a consequence of less clash between the work force and the leaders

Slower determination devising

Arguments may originate

A Laissez – Faire ( Genuine ) Style or Delegative Style

Consequences in employee authorization

Promotes independent thought

Motivates creativeness

Employees can misapply the freedom given to them and execute ill

Figure ( Advantages and Disadvantages of Leadership Styles )

Leadership and Motivation Distinguished

An autocratic or bossy leading manner is followed when employees are dependent and resist alteration. The efficiency of such employees would be low. Through high degrees of supervising, bid and control which is exercised by such leaders would actuate employees chiefly in three signifiers. They are,

Peer Motivated: As employees would wish to be like others

Authority Motivated: As employees would follow policies

Menace and Fear Motivated: As employees would respond to coerce

When a participative or a democratic leading manner is followed there would be greater interaction within the group and therefore the personality and efficiency of employees depends on the leader ‘s accomplishments and the work environment which he has created. When following such a leading manner, employees would be motivated in three signifiers. They are,

Goal Motivated: As employees may acknowledge some chance

Reward Motivated: As employees would acknowledge some chance for some stuff wages

Recognition Motivated: As employees would acknowledge an chance for alteration in societal position

A Laissez – Faire or delegative manner is followed when employees take up leading, thrive on alteration or chance, are independent and are winners. Such employees would be really efficient compared to employees under other leading manners. Leaderships following this manner would hold limited supervising and would depute determination doing duty to employees. When following such a leading manner, employees would be motivated in two signifiers. They are,

Self Motivated and Team Motivated: As employees are allowed to pattern creativeness

When the above three types of leading and motive associated with them are analyzed, of course a participative or a democratic leading manner is best to follow because in a team-motivated environment, dependent employees will be inspired and will endeavor to be acceptable with independent believing colleagues.

However, as it was mentioned before, due to the civilization component of the state work force of an organisation would of course expect orders from the top and are non interested to take enterprise. Therefore, a leading manner where high degrees of supervising, bid and control is practiced would be more applicable for such an environment significance, the most suited leading manner to actuate employees within organisations would be the autocratic or bossy leading manner.

Effective Leaders ; A paramount to an Organization

It could be said that effectual leaders are the key for success of any organisation. There are many features an effectual leader should hold. Based on the information given below it is possible to understand that an effectual leader is strength to an organisation in many facets. Given below are five factors which make an effectual leader a paramount to an organisation,

An effectual leader would be able to act upon and animate people to carry through a end, or an aim of an organisation. It should be understood that leading is non about power and has no relationship with driving employees to carry through their undertakings and responsibilities out of fright. It should farther be understood that an effectual leader would assist to promote or actuate other employees to take up leading, organizing a successful and a powerful work force.

An effectual leader would be a airy individual intending consciousness of organisational ends, aims and vision. Merely if employees see that their leader is cognizant of the way which he must head they will follow him. This could be an advantage to an organisation as such a individual would be able to take the employees of the organisation in such a mode that they would accomplish organisational ends and aims.

An effectual leader would be a trusty individual. It should be understood that trust if a leader is trusty his employees would hold assurance in him even at tough times. Hence, it should be understood that if an organisation has such a leader who has good relationships, is trusty and follows ethical criterions that this would be a monolithic strength for the organisation as this could be considered the base for an effectual organisation. Further, this would assist the organisation to develop a good feeling through the community in which it operates.

An effectual leader would be able to pass on the organisational ends, nonsubjective, vision, cognition and proficient expertness to the organisations employees. This would assist the employees of the organisation to go effectual excessively as they would derive the needed cognition, accomplishments and an thought about organisational ends, aims and vision.

An effectual leader would be able to do “ successful ” determinations based on intuition. This could take an organisation to success every bit at times there may be a demand to do determinations rapidly which possibly of really high importance and value when clip for garnering information may be really limited.

Groups, Teams and Leadership

It is no secret that behind the success of Standard Chartered Bank, the staff of the bank has played a really of import function. Effective leading and good motivated staff has been the key for this first-class public presentation. To back up and better leading development within the bank, Standard Chartered Bank now has seven nucleus leading development plans along with feedback plans such as the 360 feedback tool. Standard Chartered Bank gives particular consideration non merely for leading but besides for facets such as employee dealingss, squad edifice, civilization and values, etc.

Nature of Groups and Team Roles

Nature of Groups

A group could be defined as a aggregation of people who interact with each other over clip in order to make ends. These groups can either be formal or informal, where both types of these groups are seen at Standard Chartered Bank. One note worthy characteristic of these groups at Standard Chartered Bank is that the groups consist of persons who come from assorted backgrounds, civilizations and have different accomplishments. However, Standard Chartered Bank has made certain that no struggle among bank staff occurs but alternatively understanding and development in multiple Fieldss occurs ; great illustration for this will be the employee exchange plan ( first clip in 2008, between India and China ) which the bank launched late. Through this attack, Standard Chartered Bank has been able to,

Align squads with concern vision and aims

Build staff battle and committedness

Create chances for unfastened and brave conversations

Clarify dependences

Accelerate high public presentation by leveraging strengths

Team Functions

A squad function is, “ a form of behavior, feature of the manner in which one squad member interacts with another whose public presentation serves to ease the advancement of the squad as a whole. ” ( Laurie J. Mullins 2007, p.332 )

As Belbin has stated, even though there are nine squad functions, it is rare to happen members who are strong in all nine squad functions. Standard Chartered Bank excessively has recognized this and in order to construct up squads who are skilled in multiple ways the bank follows occupation rotary motion plans and besides as it was mentioned above employee exchange plans. Through the employee exchange plan or instead the talent exchange plan the bank expects to hammer stronger working relationships and cultural apprehension between the two strategically of import markets

“ All our development is based on the doctrine of being a strengths-based administration. We encourage persons, directors and squads to place and concentrate on their typical endowments, and invariably dispute them to accomplish more with them. We recognise that single strengths are alone, and that each employee will present in a function in a different manner. ”

( Standard Chartered Bank, 2009 )

As it is quoted above, the bank encourages acknowledgment of single strengths through which the bank expects to accomplish greater strengths. Through the interaction of persons of such nature the bank expects to develop a extremely gifted work force through squad work. Even though an single member may non be extremely talented he will be motivated to accomplish and develop new strengths when he would be allowed to interact with people talented in multiple Fieldss. Therefore, it could be understood that squad roles play a critical portion in the development procedure of the bank.

Phases of Team Building

Given below are the phases of squad edifice or squad development,

Forming – formalities are preserved and members are treated as aliens ( polite but untrusting ) .

Ramping – members start to pass on their feelings but likely still view themselves as portion of their parent section instead than portion of the squad. They attack others insular attitudes while guarding their ain ( proving others ) .

Norming – people feel portion of the squad and realise that they can accomplish work if they accept other point of views ( valuing other types ) .

Performing – the squad works in an unfastened and swearing atmosphere where flexibleness is the key and hierarchy is of small importance ( flexibleness from trust ) .

( Carter McNamara, 1999 )

The above four phases of squad edifice or development are really apparent at Standard Chartered Bank. The initial two phases would be really clearly seen at the beginning when an employee would be freshly selected and/or when they switch subdivisions ( see the employee talent exchange plan for illustration ) . However, as clip base on ballss by ( a period of three months for the employee talent exchange plan ) employees would larn about each other, would value each other particularly their civilization and would be able to execute with flexibleness which would construct up from trust. An illustration for the last phases of the squad edifice procedure would be when top executives often fill in for one another, whether taking regional jubilations, stand foring Standard Chartered Bank at cardinal external events, or originating internal duologues with employees. They make their collaborative behavior seeable through extended travel and exposure of leaders from varied sites working together.

Beyond the above mentioned four squad development phases, there is one extra measure which is known as adjourning. This would intend disbanding of the group due to completion of a undertaking, members go forthing the organisation or traveling on to other undertakings.

Team Coherence

It is one of the chief duties of a leader to guarantee that the members of his work group cooperate so that the work group would be able to accomplish the expected consequences. It is clear that cooperation among members of work groups is likely to be greater in a cohesive group ensuing in good effects for the organisation. There are many factors which affect group coherence. These factors could be categorized under four major headers as shown in the diagram below.

Figure ( Factors Contributing to Group Cohesiveness & A ; Performance )

( Laurie J. Mullins 2007, p.307 )

Even though it is stated that there are disadvantages of cohesive groups such disadvantages have been minimized at Standard Chartered Bank through the alone civilization which has been bread. The disadvantages of cohesive groups have been overwritten by the advantages of cohesive groups at Standard Chartered Bank ensuing in an overall positive result. These groups have helped the bank through increased interaction between members of diverse civilizations and ethnicities, growing of accomplishments and cognition of members through common aid, lower turnover as the member feels that the organisation has become a portion of him, etc.

Motivational Tools and Techniques

Standard Chartered Bank follows a scope of methods to promote or actuate their employees. Motivation at Standard Chartered Bank takes topographic point through,

Learning and Development: Learning and Development procedure at Standard Chartered Bank starts one time an employee joins the bank and this will go on till the employee resigns the organisation. Standard Chartered Bank uses beforehand new engineering to do this procedure an interesting one and gives encouragement for members to take part. Examples for Learning and Development at Standard Chartered Bank: Right Start, Job rotary motion, Talent Exchange, Core Leadership Development, 360 feedbacks etc.

Employee Relationss: Standard Chartered Bank follows an attack where it would cover with employees on an single footing instead than a corporate footing. This attack focuses on direct communicating, pull offing organizational alteration and affecting and actuating employees.

Reward and Recognition: There are two elements to remuneration within Standard Chartered Bank ; an one-year wage and a public presentation based component. At Standard Chartered Bank public presentation would non intend merely “ accomplishing ends ” alternatively it means how employees demonstrate the bank ‘s alone civilization and values in their working lives. Employees would have single evaluations but those with lowest values of evaluations will non have any public presentation related bonus even if they have achieved their concluding marks.

Great Working Environment & A ; Other Facilities: Standard Chartered Bank has an environment which could be stated as one of the best environments to work at. The constructions have been constructed harmonizing to expected criterions and latest engineering has been used where possible. Further, the bank provides other installations, such as the twenty-four hours attention Centre where assorted signifiers of instruction would be given for the kids of the employees, liberating the employees from the load of worrying about their kids during working hours.

Impact of Technology on Team Building

It is clear that technological alterations have enabled Standard Chartered Bank to accomplish new highs in many Fieldss. When sing squad edifice, as it was mentioned above in the old subdivision, Standard Chartered Bank uses engineering right from the beginning of an employee ‘s calling. “ Right Start ” is the new initiation procedure which the bank uses for new employees. It is clear, that even this simple measure will assist the organisation to develop better squads within shorter clip periods ensuing in more effectual result. Hence, it is understood that engineering has a monolithic impact on squad edifice procedure.

“ Our initiation procedure for new employees was enhanced during the twelvemonth with the launch of a new online practical universe. The Right Start Learning Journey offers entree to critical information about our history, nucleus concerns and back uping maps, sustainability docket and much more in a merriment and synergistic manner. New employees can see the site, which was created by our Learning and Development Team, every bit frequently as they like while a treatment forum allows them to pass on with other new recruits. ”

( Standard Chartered Bank, 2009 )

It should farther be understood, that this same procedure of new employees acquiring to cognize other employees and constructing up successful squads would hold been a really slow procedure doing possible inefficiencies for the organisation in indirect ways.

Even though engineering has had its positive impact on the squad edifice procedure it could be said that there are drawbacks if inordinate engineering is used as it may diminish individual to individual interactions ensuing in lower consciousness or understanding sing one another. However, this state of affairs is non yet seen at Standard Chartered Bank as the bank arranges certain societal events where employees can acquire to cognize each other better, independent of their place at the bank.


Due to the strong cultural consequence prevailing within Sri Lanka, employees would of course necessitate high degrees of supervising, bid and control ensuing in the use of leading manners such as autocratic or bossy leading and utmost motivational theories such as McGregor ‘s XY Theory ( Theory X premises ) , neither of which could non be considered as the best pick. To get the better of this state of affairs, alterations to the civilization within the organisation could be done through an eventual procedure and in such a mode that employees would non experience threatened. Further, it could be understood that an effectual leader could convey about the coveted alteration even in such a civilization.

Behind every successful organisation there would ever be a extremely talented and committed work force as at Standard Chartered Bank. Based on the information which was stated in the organic structure of the study, it was possible to get at the decision that due to the alone civilization which has been brought up at Standard Chartered Bank where engineering and many other elements have played an of import function, every employee would hold an chance to either be an first-class squad participant or to be an first-class leader. To farther better, the bank can incorporate more squad based treatments and such activities where engineering could be used in a balanced mode.

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