Muhammad Arslan

17-10841

The Wars of the World

The Wars of the
world is a sub section of chapter no 5 “International Conflict” of the book
“International relation by Joshua Goldstein”. According to the perceptive of ongoing
wars and the survival of the state International relations and the sub section
“wars of the world” are interconnected. The purpose of this sub section to
highlight the types, size of wars and the causes of international conflicts.

Wars
are very diverse, it arises from different situations and play different roles
in bargaining over conflicts. So many wars of recent decade have ended and
there are some parts of the world where wars are still going on. War is just a
word but the aftermath of the war is so terrifying. It not only affects the
economy (industrialization) but also affects the society and brings chaos in
the society. For example, in World War II Germany attacked British civilians,
while British and U.S. strategic bombing killed 600,000 German civilians and
hundreds of thousands of Japanese and changed the picture of society into a
horrific scene. In Guerilla type of war the country don’t directly confront
with the army of the rival country but indirectly confront the army by creating
rebels and by dividing the society into so many different groups to engage the
rival country’s army and government. This war is extremely painful for
civilians because they suffer most because of the unknown enemy and their
military force cannot firmly control a location and other such lawless
behavior.

According
to the author, there are 14 types of war that are in progress by the end of
January 2013. Hegemonic war is considered as the general war because of the
power of modern weaponry in the world. The last hegemonic war was World War II.
IN Total war, one state waged to conquer and occupy another state by reaching
to the capital city and force the surrender of the government. In this type of
war, the whole society of the enemy is considered as the main target. In World
War II, Germany attacked British civilians and US and British killed more the
60,000 civilians and hundreds of thousands of Japanese. In limited type of war,
military carry some short action to gain its short sort of objectives. It can
be counted as the limited war because of a single action. Israeli warplanes
bombed down a place in Syria because they thought Syrians were making progress
on nuclear weapons. Civil war refers to war within a state and the objective of
this war can be different like change the entire setup of the government or
split a region into new state. For this purpose you need a group of rebels for
sustaining an unending civil war. For example, In Chad, a rebel group composed
of rival clans to the president’s nearly overthrew the government in 2007. Guerrilla war is warfare without any
front lines, you play hide and seek play with your enemy and make your enemy
confuse by playing tricks and engaging their attention. The purpose of this war
is not to directly confront an enemy army but rather to harass and punish it as
well as to gradually lose the territory control from its hand and create
hindrance on those specific parts. Guerrilla wars are extremely painful for
civilians, who suffer most when no military force firmly controls location, Target
killings, sexual violence, and other such lawless behavior. In 2013, the
situation of Pakistan was so relatable to this because the enemy of Pakistan
was hidden so there was a chaos in the society. This type of war comes under
the tag of unconventional war.

There was a time
when people were more concerned about the outcomes of war but now people are
more concerned about the causes of war. In international studies, social
scientists want to know why countries fight and see things according to so many
prospective. For example, one could say that the assassination of Franz
Ferdinand in 1914 “caused” World War I and other one can say that shift of
balance of power among European states with the assassination being only a
catalyst caused World War I. In International relations, different level of
analysis is very important to calculate the multiple causes of war.  The individual
level of analysis theories about war are based on the rationality of
persons mind. While, the domestic level of analysis draws attention to the
features of state or societies that play its role more or less for the use of
violence in resolving conflicts. Theories at the interstate level explain wars in terms of power relations among
major actors like effects of democracy, government structure and trade.

Overall,
this book is very well written but in some chapter he changes the topic of
discussion very rapidly. In chapter 5 “The Wars of the world” firstly he
discuss the types of wars then quickly changes the topic into the horrific
death of soldiers and the state of mind of soldier like how they feel when they
see the body parts of their soldiers and experience lifelong psychological
traumatic stress as a result. There are some specific topics which are
difficult for student to interpret because of the language. In some topics he
loses the lead on his discussion by providing so many irrelevant details about
the topic and forgets to highlight the true essence of his discussion. An
international relations study is such a vast field in which so many schools of thoughts
exist but Joshua Goldstein specifically talks about his mindset. He discusses
very critical matters according to school of thoughts and completely ignores
the other school of thoughts by giving a statement like they are wrong
prospective. 

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