.NetFramework is a platform created by Microsoft to develop applications.  .

Net framework provides IntegratedDevelopment Environment (IDE) where Window application, Web applications, Webservices and mobile applications can be developed. .Net framework possesses tiered, modular, and hierarchal architecture.

The .NET Framework ispartitioned into modules or layers each of which has its own distinctresponsibility and functions. NET languages are the top tier and the mostabstracted level.

The common language runtime is the bottom tier, the leastabstracted, and closest to the native environment. These are the overall draftarchitectures of .Net Framework. The detail construction style of .netframework architecture is described below..NetFramework Architectures.NetFramework architecture is composed of specific layers which have specific tasksto perform.

The layers of .Net framework architectures are listed below.Ø  LanguageLayerØ  CommonLanguage SpecificationØ  UserInterface Layer (ASP.Net, Window Forms)Ø  DataAccess Layer (ADO.Net, XML Web Services)Ø  BaseClass LibraryØ  CommonLanguage Runtime (CLR)Ø  OperatingSystemThefollowing figure presents the layers of .Net Framework’s architecture.

Language LayerTheupmost layer is the language layer of .Net framework architecture. Manyprogramming languages can be used to develop applications in .Net Framework..Net Framework supports 61 programming languages and some are Visual Basic, C#,C++, Python, COBOL, Jscript, Eiffel, Java, Haskell, Pascal, ML, Ada, APL, C,C++, Perl, Small Talk, Oberon, Scheme, Mercury, Oz, RPG and others.

Therefore,.Net Framework is claimed to have language operability.Net framework containsobject-oriented programming languages like C#, C++ and Visual Basic. These languagesare compiled to the Common language Specification and can work together in thesame application.

So, .net framework can also said to be languageindependence.  It also supports languageintegration which offer functions of object-oriented languages like inheritanceof classes, catch exceptions and polymorphism across different languages. To beable to do so, .net components must follow a specification called CTS (CommonType Specification).Common Language Specification (CLS)CommonLanguage Specification is a set of language features supported by CommonLanguage Runtime (CLR) of the .

Net framework. CLS was designed to supportlanguage constructs commonly used by developers and to produce verifiable code,which allows all CLS-compliant languages to ensure the type safety of code. CLSincludes features common to many object-oriented programming languages. Itforms a subset of the functionality of common type system (CTS) and has morerules than defined in CTS.CLSrepresents the guidelines to the compiler of a language, which targets the .NETFramework. CLS acts as a tool for integrating different languages into oneumbrella in a seamless manner by executing language instructions to compilecode from different languages with the specified CLS basic rules.

How does CLS support in codecompilation?C#developers can inherit from classes defined in VB.NET or other .NET compatiblelanguages because of CLS in Common Language Runtime (CLR) provide a series ofbasic rules that are required for language integration.

The CLS determines theminimum requirements for being a .NET language. Compilers that conform to theCLS create objects that can interoperate with one another. The entire FrameworkClass Library (FCL) can be used by any language that conforms to the CLS.User Interface Layer .NetFramework can generally offer technologies or platforms for user interfaces.

Applications can be developed in .net Framework using three differenttechnologies: Web Services, Web Forms, and Windows Forms.ASP.NetASP.Netis a software development platform.ASP.Net can let developers create dynamic,data driven and interactive web pages over internet. It providesa programming model, a comprehensive software infrastructure and variousservices required to build up robust web applications for PC, as well as mobiledevices.

It consists of a large number of controls suchas text boxes, buttons, and labels for assembling, configuring, andmanipulating code to create HTML pages. ASP.NET is a technology, which works onthe .Net framework that contains all web-related functionalities.

How ASP.Net work in code compilation?AnASP.NET web application is made of pages. When a user requests an ASP.NET page,the Internet Information Server (IIS) delegates the processing of the page tothe ASP.

NET runtime system. The ASP.NET runtimetransforms the .aspx page into an instance of a class which inherits from thebase class page of the .Net framework. Therefore, each ASP.NET page is anobject and all its components i.

e., the server-side controls are also objects. Web services include a number of classes thatsupport the development of lightweight distributed components which will workeven in the face of firewalls and NAT software. Because web services employstandard HTTP and SOAP as underlying communications protocols, these componentssupport Plug and Play across cyberspace.Web FormsDeveloperscan use ASP.NET, XML Web services, and ADO.

NET to easily create feature-richWeb applications in .Net Framework.Window FormsWindowForms application is a program that is written to run under the Microsoft Windows operating system.  All 32-bit Windows applications run in the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows. .Netframework supports multiple window form controls. For example, textboxes, ToolStrip Text Box and Rich Text Box are provided for Text edition function. ForText displaying function, label and status bar are provided.

  Combo box, check box and other controls arealso included for selection. So, .Net Framework provides many window formcontrols for different functions.

Data Access Layer.NetFramework provides the following technologies to provide data access.Ø  ADO.

NETØ  XMLServicesADO.NetADO.NETis a database technology of .NET Framework used to connect application systemand database server. ADO stands for ActiveX Data Object.

It consists of a setof classes used to handle data access.  TheADO.NET classes are easy to use and understand as they are object-oriented innature.  ADO.Net includes DataSet class(System. Data) and that class includes methods like Clear(), Create(),CreateDataReader(), etc and events like Initialized, Diposed and MergeFailed.How ADO.Net work?Whendata is accessed, ADO.

NET makes a copy of the data using XML. ADO.NET onlyholds the connection open long enough to either pull down the data or to makeany requested updates. This makes ADO.

NET efficient to use for Web applications. It’s also decentfor desktop applications. It allows to users manipulate data using XML as theprimary means.XMLWeb ServicesAnXML Web service is simply a unit of programming functionality that is exposedto client applications via the Internet. At its simplest, an XML Web service isany programming component or object that makes information available via standardInternet protocols such as HTTP. They can be also said as the new methods fordistributing web application functionality. It uses standard protocols likeHTTP and SOAP to provide services and functionalities to web applications.

TheXML Web Services return data to the calling application in the form of XMLdocuments.WCFWindowsCommunication Framework is Microsoft’s framework to make inter-processcommunication easier. It let users do communication through various means,plain old asmx web services, Remoting, MS Message Queuing, and a couple more. It is basically used to create a distributed andinteroperable Application. WCF Applications came into the picture in .Net 3.0Framework. This is a framework, which is used for creating Service orientedApplications.

Users can send the data asynchronously from one end point toanother with the help of WCF.WPFWPF stands forWindows Presentation Foundation. It is Microsoft’s latest approach to a GUIframework that is used with the .NET framework.

It is used to create userinterfaces for Windows operating system. The user interfaces are also known asWindows client applications or Windows applications. Now, with the launch ofWindows 10, Windows apps means more than WPF based applications. It isgenerally the engine that is responsible for creating, displaying, andmanipulating user-interfaces, documents, images, movies, and media in Windows 7and later Windows operating systems. Physically, WPF is a set of libraries thathave all functionality you need to build, run, execute, and manage Windowsclient applications.

 Base Class Library (BCL)The.NET Framework class library is a library of classes, interfaces, and valuetypes that provide access to system functionality. It is the foundation onwhich .NET Framework applications, components, and controls are built. The baseclass library is divided into namespaces to locate the specified functionalityeasier. Within the namespaces, classes that perform certain functionalityrelated to name space exist. There are many name spaces and classes in BCL withdifferent functions.  Some are as follow.

System Systemnamespace contains fundamental classes and base classes that definecommonly-used value and reference data types, events and event handlers,interfaces, attributes, and processing exceptions.Forexample: System. out. print(); System. DataTheSystem. Data namespaces contain classes for accessing and managing data fromdiverse sources. The top-level namespace and a number of the child namespacestogether form the ADO.

NET architecture and ADO.NET data providers.System. DrawingTheSystem.

Drawing parent namespace contains types that support basic GDI+graphics functionality.System. PrintingTheSystem. Printing namespaces contain types that support printing, that provideaccess to the properties of print system objects and enable rapid copying.System.

TimerTheSystem. Timers namespace provides the Timer component, which allows users toraise an event on a specified interval.Thereare many other namespaces with their own classes and functions. Only a littleis described here.Common Language Runtime (CLR)Itworks as a layer between Operating Systems and the applications written in .

Netlanguages that conforms to the Common Language Specification (CLS). The mainfunction of Common Language Runtime (CLR) is to convert the Managed Code intonative code and then execute the Program. The Managed Code compiled only whenit needed, that is it converts the appropriate instructions when each functionis called .The Common Language Runtime (CLR) ‘s just in time (JIT)compilation converts Intermediate Language (MSIL) to native code on demand atapplication run time.Operating SystemTheoperating systems, on which the .

NET Framework will run, can be divided in twogroups: one that will run the .NET Framework with ASP .NET and one that willrun it without. This can also be sesen as the distinction between operatingsystems that can be used as a server for .NET applications and operatingsystems that should be used as clients running .NET applications.

Note that allof the versions of Windows NT 4.0, even the Server edition, should be regardedas a client operating system for .NET applications.

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